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  • Bolgary (Russia)

    Bolgary, ancient city and capital of the medieval state of Bolgariya Volga-Kama. The ruins of medieval Bolgary are near the present village of Bolgary, Tatarstan republic, in western Russia. Archaeological excavations on the site of the city began in 1870. The earliest settlement on the site of

  • Bolgary Velikie (Russia)

    Bolgary, ancient city and capital of the medieval state of Bolgariya Volga-Kama. The ruins of medieval Bolgary are near the present village of Bolgary, Tatarstan republic, in western Russia. Archaeological excavations on the site of the city began in 1870. The earliest settlement on the site of

  • Bolgatanga (Ghana)

    Bolgatanga, town, northern Ghana, on the Great North Road. Much of the town is a dispersed settlement of mud-walled compounds, each surrounded by fields and spread over an area of about 160 square miles (410 square km). The cultivation of staple crops and stock raising are the chief occupations.

  • Bolger, James Brendan (prime minister of New Zealand)

    James Brendan Bolger, New Zealand farmer and politician who served as prime minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997. Bolger was born to newly arrived Irish Roman Catholic immigrants who had taken up dairy farming in Taranaki province. He left school at age 15 to help his parents on their farm.

  • Bolger, Ray (American actor)

    The Wizard of Oz: …Dorothy befriends a Scarecrow (Ray Bolger) in search of a brain, a Tin Man (Jack Haley) looking for a heart, and a Cowardly Lion (Bert Lahr) in need of some courage. They are tormented by the witch on their journey but manage to reach the Emerald City. Before the…

  • Bolidomonas (protist)

    protozoan: Annotated classification: Bolidomonas Naked unicellular flagellates. Outer chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum possesses a direct connection to the nuclear envelope; plastid DNA has a ring-type genophore. No eyespot or paraflagellar rod. Dictyochophyceae Solitary or colonial flagellates or amoebae; cells may be naked, produce organic scales, or otherwise possess silica

  • Bolilands (region, Sierra Leone)

    Sierra Leone: Relief: …seasonal swamps known as “Bolilands” (boli being a Temne word for those lands that are flooded in the rainy season and dry and hard in the dry season and on which only grass can grow). In the south the plains comprise rolling wooded country where isolated hills rise abruptly…

  • Bolin, Bert (Swedish meteorologist)

    Bert Richard Johannes Bolin, Swedish meteorologist (born May 15, 1925, Nyk?ping, Swed.—died Dec. 30, 2007, Stockholm, Swed.), was the founding chairman (1988–97) of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the corecipient (with former U.S. vice president Al Gore) of the 2007 Nobel Prize

  • Bolingbroke, Henry (fictional character in “Henry IV, Part 1” and “Henry IV, Part 2”)

    Henry IV, Part 1: As Part 1 begins, Henry IV, wearied from the strife that has accompanied his accession to the throne, is renewing his earlier vow to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He learns that Owen Glendower, the Welsh chieftain, has captured Edmund Mortimer, the earl of March, and that…

  • Bolingbroke, Henry (fictional character in “Richard II”)

    Richard II: …feuding noblemen, Thomas Mowbray and Henry Bolingbroke, seemingly because Mowbray has been implicated along with Richard himself in the murder of Richard’s uncle Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, while Bolingbroke, Richard’s first cousin, is a threat to the king because he is intent on avenging the death of Gloucester.…

  • Bolingbroke, Henry (king of England)

    Henry IV, king of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the house of Lancaster. He gained the crown by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles. However, he was unable to overcome the fiscal and

  • Bolingbroke, Henry Saint John, 1st Viscount, (British politician)

    Henry Saint John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, prominent Tory politician in the reign of Queen Anne of England and, later, a major political propagandist in opposition to the Whig Party led by Sir Robert Walpole. He was possibly educated at a Dissenting academy rather than at Eton and the University

  • Bolingbroke, Henry Saint John, 1st Viscount, Baron Saint John of Lydiard Tregoze (British politician)

    Henry Saint John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, prominent Tory politician in the reign of Queen Anne of England and, later, a major political propagandist in opposition to the Whig Party led by Sir Robert Walpole. He was possibly educated at a Dissenting academy rather than at Eton and the University

  • Boliniales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Boliniales Saprotrophic; ascocarp may be black and shiny; some with irregular stromata; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Camarops and Apiocamarops. Order Calosphaeriales Saprotrophic; ascospores small; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Calosphaeria, Togniniella

  • Bolinopsis infundibulum (invertebrate)

    Lobed comb jelly, any of several gelatinous, transparent marine invertebrates of the order Lobata (phylum Ctenophora). The animals are found in most oceans, especially in surface waters near the shore. Through the coordination of beating many rows of fused cilia, they are able to weakly propel

  • Bolinus brandaris (marine snail)

    murex: The dye murex (Murex brandaris) of the Mediterranean was once a source of royal Tyrian purple. Another member of this important genus is the 15-cm (6-inch) Venus comb (M. pecten), a white long-spined species of the Indo-Pacific region. Other members of the Muricidae include modestly ornamented…

  • bolita (gambling)

    lottery: Modern lottery operations: Bolita, a lottery similar to policy, is played in Puerto Rico and, in the United States, among Cuban and Puerto Rican groups. The drawing is of one numbered ball from a sack of balls numbered 1 to 100.

  • Bolitoglossa (amphibian genus)

    Caudata: Locomotion: Others, members of the genus Bolitoglossa, have extensively webbed forefeet and hindfeet with indistinct digits, allowing them to move across moist leaves and other smooth surfaces.

  • bolitoglossine (amphibian)

    Caudata: Distribution and abundance: One group of plethodontids, the bolitoglossines, occupies a wide variety of tropical habitats in the New World—from northern Mexico to southern Brazil and central Bolivia—and contains nearly half of all recognized species of salamanders, which is an indication that the plethodontids have been extremely successful in the tropical environment. Other…

  • Bolitotherus cornutus (insect)

    darkling beetle: The forked fungus beetle (Bolitotherus cornutus) is easily recognized by a pair of blunt hornlike projections on the head. The dark adult is 10 to 12 mm (0.4–0.5 inch) long and has wing covers that resemble pieces of bark. The larvae live in woody bracket fungi.

  • Bolívar (state, Venezuela)

    Bolívar, estado (state), southeastern Venezuela. It is bounded to the north by the Orinoco River and the Venezuelan states of Delta Amacuro, Monagas, Anzoátegui, and Guárico, to the south by Brazil and the Venezuelan territory of Amazonas, to the east by Guyana, and to the west by the Orinoco

  • bolívar (Venezuelan currency)

    Bolívar fuerte, (Spanish: ‘‘strong’’ bolívar) monetary unit of Venezuela. Each bolívar fuerte is divided into 100 céntimos (cents). The bolívar fuerte (the equivalent of 1,000 bolivares) was introduced in 2008 in an attempt to curb high inflation and simplify financial transactions. It replaced the

  • Bolívar (department, Colombia)

    Bolívar, departamento, northwestern Colombia, bounded northwest by the Caribbean Sea, west by the Río Cauca, and east by the Río Magdalena. Much of its area of 10,030 square miles (25,978 square km) consists of hot, humid, forested lowlands. The department produces livestock, sugarcane, tobacco,

  • bolivar (Venezuelan currency)

    Bolívar fuerte, (Spanish: ‘‘strong’’ bolívar) monetary unit of Venezuela. Each bolívar fuerte is divided into 100 céntimos (cents). The bolívar fuerte (the equivalent of 1,000 bolivares) was introduced in 2008 in an attempt to curb high inflation and simplify financial transactions. It replaced the

  • bolívar fuerte (Venezuelan currency)

    Bolívar fuerte, (Spanish: ‘‘strong’’ bolívar) monetary unit of Venezuela. Each bolívar fuerte is divided into 100 céntimos (cents). The bolívar fuerte (the equivalent of 1,000 bolivares) was introduced in 2008 in an attempt to curb high inflation and simplify financial transactions. It replaced the

  • Bolívar Peak (mountain, Venezuela)

    Bolívar Peak, mountain in Sierra Nevada National Park, northwestern Venezuela. Rising 16,332 feet (4,978 metres), it is the highest mountain in the Cordillera de Mérida (a northeastern spur of the Andes Mountains) and in

  • Bolívar, Cerro (hill, Bolívar, Venezuela)

    Cerro Bolívar, hill of iron ore in north-central Bolívar estado (state), southeastern Venezuela. Discovered in 1947, the hill is 34 mi (1.2 km) wide, 4 mi long and rises 1,650 ft (500 m) above the surrounding grasslands in the Guiana Highlands. With San Isidro, to the south, it was one of the most

  • Bolívar, Mount (hill, Bolívar, Venezuela)

    Cerro Bolívar, hill of iron ore in north-central Bolívar estado (state), southeastern Venezuela. Discovered in 1947, the hill is 34 mi (1.2 km) wide, 4 mi long and rises 1,650 ft (500 m) above the surrounding grasslands in the Guiana Highlands. With San Isidro, to the south, it was one of the most

  • Bolívar, Pico (mountain, Venezuela)

    Bolívar Peak, mountain in Sierra Nevada National Park, northwestern Venezuela. Rising 16,332 feet (4,978 metres), it is the highest mountain in the Cordillera de Mérida (a northeastern spur of the Andes Mountains) and in

  • Bolívar, Simón (Venezuelan soldier and statesman)

    Simón Bolívar, Venezuelan soldier and statesman who led the revolutions against Spanish rule in the Viceroyalty of New Granada. He was president of Gran Colombia (1819–30) and dictator of Peru (1823–26). The son of a Venezuelan aristocrat of Spanish descent, Bolívar was born to wealth and position.

  • Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (international organization)

    Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), regional bloc, organized in 2004, that aims for social, political, and economic integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. ALBA, which means “dawn” in Spanish, was conceived by Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez and was created by Venezuela

  • Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (international organization)

    Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), regional bloc, organized in 2004, that aims for social, political, and economic integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. ALBA, which means “dawn” in Spanish, was conceived by Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez and was created by Venezuela

  • Bolivarian Alternative for Latin America and the Caribbean (international organization)

    Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), regional bloc, organized in 2004, that aims for social, political, and economic integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. ALBA, which means “dawn” in Spanish, was conceived by Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez and was created by Venezuela

  • Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (international organization)

    Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), regional bloc, organized in 2004, that aims for social, political, and economic integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. ALBA, which means “dawn” in Spanish, was conceived by Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez and was created by Venezuela

  • Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Venezuela, country located at the northern end of South America. It occupies a roughly triangular area that is larger than the combined areas of France and Germany. Venezuela is bounded by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia

  • Bolivarian Revolutionary Movement 200 (political party, Venezuela)

    Movement of the Fifth Republic (MVR), nationalist Venezuelan political party established to support the presidential candidacy of Hugo Chávez in 1998. MBR-200 was secretly established within the Venezuelan military in the 1980s by Chávez and his fellow military officers. The movement rejected

  • Bolivia

    Bolivia, country of west-central South America. Extending some 950 miles (1,500 km) north-south and 800 miles (1,300 km) east-west, Bolivia is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest and west by Chile, and to the northwest

  • Bolivia, flag of

    horizontally striped red-yellow-green national flag that incorporates the national coat of arms when it is flown by the government. It has a width-to-length ratio of 2 to 3.In colonial times Bolivia was the Audiencia of Charcas, an administrative division of the Viceroyalty of Peru. On August 17,

  • Bolivia, history of

    Bolivia: History: The following discussion focuses on events in Bolivia since the time of European conquest. For events in a regional context, see Latin America, history of, and, for in-depth treatment of events prior to the conquest, see pre-Columbian civilizations: Andean civilization.

  • Bolivia, Republic of

    Bolivia, country of west-central South America. Extending some 950 miles (1,500 km) north-south and 800 miles (1,300 km) east-west, Bolivia is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest and west by Chile, and to the northwest

  • Bolivia, República de

    Bolivia, country of west-central South America. Extending some 950 miles (1,500 km) north-south and 800 miles (1,300 km) east-west, Bolivia is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest and west by Chile, and to the northwest

  • Bolivian Chaco (region, Bolivia)

    Bolivia: Relief: …the extreme south is the Bolivian Chaco, which forms part of the Gran Chaco; it is a level area that varies strikingly with the seasons. During the rainy season it becomes a veritable swamp, but it is a hot semidesert during the remaining seven or eight months of the year.…

  • Bolivian Communist Party (political party, Bolivia)

    Bolivia: The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution: …1950 by the more radical Bolivian Communist Party; meanwhile, the more conservative parties proved unable to tame their rivals. After the MNR won a plurality victory in the presidential elections of 1951, the military intervened directly and formed a junta government. The MNR’s disaster under Villaroel led the party to…

  • Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (disease)

    arenavirus: hemorrhagic fever (Junin virus), Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (Machupo virus), Brazilian hemorrhagic fever (Sabiá virus), and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever (Guanarito virus).

  • Bolivian Mining Corporation (Bolivian company)

    Bolivia: Minerals: …the formerly state-owned mining corporation, Corporación Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL), to cut its production drastically and lay off more than two-thirds of its workforce.

  • Bolivian National Revolution (Bolivian history)

    Bolivia: The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution: Civilian dissident groups finally began to organize themselves into powerful national opposition parties in the 1940s. The two most important of these were the middle-class and initially fascist-oriented Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario; MNR) and the Marxist and largely pro-Soviet Party…

  • Bolivian river dolphin (mammal)

    river dolphin: The Bolivian river dolphin (I. boliviensis), native to a few remote streams in the Bolivian Amazon, is slightly smaller than the Amazon river dolphin, and its skin is coloured grayish pink. The Teot?nio rapids between Bolivia and Brazil separate the two species, and DNA studies suggest…

  • boliyan (song)

    bhangra: …accompaniment of short songs called boliyan and, most significantly, to the beat of a dhol (double-headed drum). Struck with a heavy beater on one end and with a lighter stick on the other, the dhol imbued the music with a syncopated (accents on the weak beats), swinging rhythmic character that…

  • Bolkiah Mu?izzaddin Waddaulah, Haji Hassanal (sultan of Brunei)

    Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu?izzaddin Waddaulah, 29th sultan of Brunei. Hassanal Bolkiah was the eldest son of Sultan Sir Haji Omar Ali Saifuddin. He was educated privately and later attended the Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, England. In

  • Bolkonsky family (fictional characters)

    Bolkonsky family, principal characters of the novel War and Peace (1865–69) by Leo Tolstoy. The elderly dictatorial Prince Nikolay Bolkonsky is the father of Prince Andrey and Princess

  • Bolkonsky, Prince Andrey (fictional character)

    War and Peace: Summary: …a party, including Pierre Bezukhov, Andrey Bolkonsky, and the Kuragin and Rostov families. Much of the novel focuses on the interactions between the Bezukhovs, Bolkonskys, and the Rostovs. After their introduction, Andrey Bolkonsky and Nikolay Rostov go to the Austrian front under General Kutuzov, a fictional representation of Mikhail Kutuzov

  • boll (plant anatomy)

    cotton: Cultivationof the cotton plant: …small green triangular pods, called bolls, that mature after a period of 55–80 days. During this period the seeds and their attached hairs develop within the boll, which increases considerably in size. The seed hair, or cotton fibre, reaching a maximum length of about 6 cm (2.5 inches) in long-fibre…

  • boll weevil (insect)

    Boll weevil, (Anthonomus grandis), beetle of the insect family Curculionidae (order Coleoptera), a cotton pest in North America. Introduced to the United States from Mexico in the 1890s, the boll weevil was a severe agricultural pest for nearly 90 years, until the launch of an aggressive multiyear

  • Boll Weevil Monument (monument, Alabama, United States)

    Enterprise: The unusual Boll Weevil Monument (1919) is the only memorial in the world glorifying a pest and symbolizes diversification from cotton to peanuts (groundnuts) and other crops.

  • B?ll, Heinrich (German author)

    Heinrich B?ll, German writer, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972. B?ll’s ironic novels on the travails of German life during and after World War II capture the changing psychology of the German nation. The son of a cabinetmaker, B?ll graduated from high school in 1937. He was called

  • B?ll, Heinrich Theodor (German author)

    Heinrich B?ll, German writer, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972. B?ll’s ironic novels on the travails of German life during and after World War II capture the changing psychology of the German nation. The son of a cabinetmaker, B?ll graduated from high school in 1937. He was called

  • Bolland, Jean (Belgian Jesuit)

    Jean Bolland, Jesuit ecclesiastical historian known for his major role in the compilation of the Acta Sanctorum, a vast collection of lives of the Christian saints, and as the founder of the Bollandists, a small group of Jesuits who continued to edit and publish the collection. Apart from

  • Bollandists (Belgian Jesuit group)

    Bollandist, member of a small group of Belgian Jesuits who edit and publish the Acta Sanctorum, the great collection of biographies and legends of the saints, arranged according to their feast days. The idea was conceived by Heribert Rosweyde, a Jesuit who intended to publish, from early

  • Bollandus, Johannes (Belgian Jesuit)

    Jean Bolland, Jesuit ecclesiastical historian known for his major role in the compilation of the Acta Sanctorum, a vast collection of lives of the Christian saints, and as the founder of the Bollandists, a small group of Jesuits who continued to edit and publish the collection. Apart from

  • bollard (mooring post)

    canals and inland waterways: Lock equipment: Bollards (mooring posts) on the lockside are used for holding vessels steady by ropes against the turbulence during lock operation; mooring hooks set in recesses in the walls provide an alternative anchorage against surging. Floating bollards are provided in deep locks; retained in wall recesses,…

  • Bolle’s poplar (tree)
  • Bolling Advance Base (weather station, Antarctica)

    Richard E. Byrd: Antarctic expeditions: …at a weather station named Bolling Advance Base, buried beneath the ice shelf face 123 miles (196 km) south of Little America, enduring temperatures between ?58° and ?76° F (?50° and ?60° C) and sometimes much lower. He was finally rescued in a desperately sick condition, suffering from frostbite and…

  • Bolling, Edith (American first lady)

    Edith Wilson, American first lady (1915–21), the second wife of Woodrow Wilson, 28th president of the United States. When he was disabled by illness during his second term, she fulfilled many of his administrative duties. Edith Bolling traced her ancestry back to Pocahontas, and as an adult she

  • B?lling-Aller?d interstadial (climatology)

    Younger Dryas: This interval, the B?lling-Aller?d interstadial, saw the rapid retreat of the immense Pleistocene ice sheets. A second abrupt climatic warming event, approximately 11,600 years ago, marked the end of the Younger Dryas and the beginning of the Holocene Epoch (11,700 years ago to the present) and Earth’s modern…

  • Bollingen Prize (American literature prize)

    Bollingen Prize, award for achievement in American poetry, originally conferred by the Library of Congress with funds established in 1948 by the philanthropist Paul Mellon. An admirer of the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, Mellon named the prize after the Swiss town where Jung spent his summers. In 1949

  • Bollinger decisions (law cases)

    Bollinger decisions, pair of cases addressing the issue of affirmative action in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on June 23, 2003, that the undergraduate admissions policy of the University of Michigan violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

  • Bollman extractor (industrial machine)

    fat and oil processing: Extractors: …of the best, was the Bollman or Hansa-Mühle unit from Germany, in which solvent percolates through oilseed flakes contained in perforated baskets moving on an endless chain. After the extraction cycle is complete, the baskets of extracted flakes are dumped automatically and then refilled with fresh flakes to initiate another…

  • bollworm (insect)

    Bollworm, any larvae of various moths (order Lepidoptera), including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, family Gelechiidae) and some Helicoverpa species. While these larvae are mostly known for the damage they inflict on cotton bolls, a variety of plants are attacked by bollworms,

  • Bollywood (film industry, India)

    Bollywood, Hindi-language sector of the Indian moviemaking industry that began in Bombay (now Mumbai) in the 1930s and developed into an enormous film empire. After early Indian experiments in silent film, in 1934 Bombay Talkies, launched by Himansu Rai, spearheaded the growth of Indian cinema.

  • Bollywood Dreams (film [1995])

    Aamir Khan: …Their Own Style”); Rangeela (1995; Bollywood Dreams), in which he was cast as a street-smart orphan coping with his childhood sweetheart’s sudden rise as an actress; and Ishq (1997; “Love”). He also appeared in a number of acclaimed dramas, including Raja Hindustani (1996), for which he won a Filmfare Award…

  • bolo punch (boxing)

    Kid Gavilan: …was known for his “bolo punch,” a combination of a hook and an uppercut.

  • bologna (foodstuff)

    poultry processing: Deboning and grinding: …as frankfurters (hot dogs) and bologna. Poultry frankfurters and bologna are made using a process similar to that for beef and pork. The meat is combined with water or ice, salt, and seasonings and chopped to emulsify the materials. The mixture is stuffed into plastic casings and cooked in a…

  • Bologna (Italy)

    Bologna, city, capital of Emilia-Romagna region, in northern Italy, north of Florence, between the Reno and Savena rivers. It lies at the northern foot of the Apennines, on the ancient Via Aemilia, 180 ft (55 metres) above sea level. Originally the Etruscan Felsina, it was occupied by the Gallic

  • Bologna (province, Italy)
  • Bologna (Italian painter)

    Francesco Primaticcio, Italian Mannerist painter, architect, sculptor, and leader of the first school of Fontainebleau. Primaticcio was first trained as an artist in Bologna, under Innocenzo da Imola and later Bagnacavallo. He also studied with Giulio Romano and assisted him in his work on the

  • Bologna stone (mineral)

    Bologna stone, any of the dense, silvery white stones first found (1603) on Mount Paderno, near Bologna, by an Italian cobbler-alchemist, Vicenzo Cascariolo, who synthesized from them a luminescent material that glowed at night after being exposed by day to the Sun. Originally thought to be the

  • Bologna, Concordat of (France [1516])

    Gallicanism: …it was replaced by a concordat conceding the French king’s right to nominate bishops.

  • Bologna, Giovanni da (Italian artist)

    Giambologna, preeminent Mannerist sculptor in Italy during the last quarter of the 16th century. First trained under Jacques Dubroeucq, a Flemish sculptor who worked in an Italianate style, Giambologna went to Rome about 1550, where his style was influenced by Hellenistic sculpture and the works of

  • Bologna, Pellegrino da (Italian painter)

    Pellegrino Tibaldi, Italian painter, sculptor, and architect who spread the style of Italian Mannerist painting in Spain during the late 16th century. Tibaldi grew up in Bologna in a family of Lombard stonemasons. He was trained as a painter under minor Emilian artists who imitated the style of

  • Bologna, Università di (university, Bologna, Italy)

    University of Bologna, the oldest university in Europe and one of the oldest and most famous universities in the world, founded in the Italian city of Bologna in the 11th century. It became in the 12th and 13th centuries the principal centre for studies in canon and civil law and attracted students

  • Bologna, University of (university, Bologna, Italy)

    University of Bologna, the oldest university in Europe and one of the oldest and most famous universities in the world, founded in the Italian city of Bologna in the 11th century. It became in the 12th and 13th centuries the principal centre for studies in canon and civil law and attracted students

  • Bolognese school (art)

    Bolognese school, in the most restricted sense, the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th- and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins, the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Although each was different in temperament and inclination, the

  • bolometer (measurement instrument)

    Bolometer, instrument for measuring radiation by means of the rise in temperature of a blackened metal strip in one of the arms of a resistance bridge. In the first bolometer, invented by the American scientist Samuel P. Langley in 1880, a Wheatstone bridge was used along with a galvanometer that

  • bolometric magnitude (astronomy)

    star: Bolometric magnitudes: The measured total of all radiation at all wavelengths from a star is called a bolometric magnitude. The corrections required to reduce visual magnitudes to bolometric magnitudes are large for very cool stars and for very hot ones, but they are relatively small…

  • Bolon Tzacab (Mayan deity)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Classic Maya religion: …as Bolon Tzacab (first called God K by archaeologists), a deity with a baroquely branching nose who is thought to have functioned as a god of royal descent; he is often held as a kind of sceptre in rulers’ hands.

  • Bolond Istók (work by Arany)

    János Arany: …a fragment, another epic poem, Bolond Istók (1850; “Stephen the Fool”), a strange mixture of humour and bitterness, is valuable for Arany’s rare moments of self-revelation. Arany started work on a Hun trilogy, connected with Hungarian prehistory, but finished only the first part of it, Buda halála (1864; The Death…

  • Bolontiku (Mayan deities)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Cosmology: …the heavens; nine gods, the Bolontiku, ruled the subterranean worlds. These concepts are closely akin to those of the Postclassic Aztec, but archaeological evidence, such as the nine deities sculptured on the walls of a 7th-century crypt at Palenque, shows that they were part of the Classic Maya cosmology.

  • Boloria (butterfly genus)

    fritillary: …are members of the genus Boloria. Many fritillary larvae are nocturnal and feed on violet leaves.

  • Bolos of Mende (Egyptian alchemist)

    alchemy: Hellenistic alchemy: …but identified by scholars with Bolos of Mende, a Hellenized Egyptian who lived in the Nile Delta about 200 bc. He is represented by a treatise called Physica et mystica (“Natural and Mystical Things”), a kind of recipe book for dyeing and colouring but principally for the making of gold…

  • Bolotsky, Daniel (American sociologist)

    Daniel Bell, American sociologist and journalist who used sociological theory to reconcile what he believed were the inherent contradictions of capitalist societies. Bell was educated at City College of New York, where he received a B.S. (1939), and was employed as a journalist for more than 20

  • Bolovens Plateau (plateau, Laos)

    Bolovens Plateau, fertile, gently rolling upland, southern Laos. The plateau lies east of Pakxé between the Mekong River and the western foothills of the southern Annamese Cordillera (Cha?ne Annamitique). Basically a large, basaltic lava extrusion, about 3,500 feet (1,100 m) in elevation, the

  • BOLSA

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