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  • bone carving (art)

    folk art: Other arts: Delicate bone carving is very widespread, appearing on such objects as implements, game pieces (such as chessmen), figures (notably crucifixes), and ornaments. An art peculiar to North America is the whalebone carving (scrimshaw) made by sailors while at sea.

  • bone char (charcoal)

    Bone black, a form of charcoal produced by heating bone in the presence of a limited amount of air. It is used in removing coloured impurities from liquids, especially solutions of raw sugar. Bone black contains only about 12 percent elemental carbon, the remainder being made up principally of

  • bone charcoal (charcoal)

    Bone black, a form of charcoal produced by heating bone in the presence of a limited amount of air. It is used in removing coloured impurities from liquids, especially solutions of raw sugar. Bone black contains only about 12 percent elemental carbon, the remainder being made up principally of

  • bone china (pottery)

    Bone china, hybrid hard-paste porcelain containing bone ash. The initial development of bone china is attributed to Josiah Spode the Second, who introduced it around 1800. His basic formula of six parts bone ash, four parts china stone, and three and a half parts china clay remains the standard

  • Bone Clocks, The (novel by Mitchell)

    David Mitchell: The Bone Clocks (2014) mirrors the six-part temporally disjunct structure of Cloud Atlas, this time chronicling episodes in the lives of a writer and her acquaintances and slowly teasing out a supernatural plot about immortal beings. Slade House (2015), a short novel that focuses on…

  • bone conduction (physiology)

    Bone conduction, the conduction of sound through the bones of the skull. Two types of bone conduction are recognized. In compressional bone conduction, high-pitched sounds cause the segments of the skull to vibrate individually. The vibrations, by compressing the bony case of the inner ear,

  • bone cyst (pathology)

    Bone cyst, benign bone tumour that is usually saclike and filled with fluid. Unicameral bone cysts affect the long bones, particularly the humerus and the femur, or heel bones in children and adolescents and are frequently detected as a result of a fracture. Treatment includes excision of the cyst

  • bone disease

    Bone disease, any of the diseases or injuries that affect human bones. Diseases and injuries of bones are major causes of abnormalities of the human skeletal system. Although physical injury, causing fracture, dominates over disease, fracture is but one of several common causes of bone disease, and

  • bone formation (physiology)

    Bone formation, process by which new bone is produced. Ossification begins about the third month of fetal life in humans and is completed by late adolescence. The process takes two general forms, one for compact bone, which makes up roughly 80 percent of the skeleton, and the other for cancellous

  • bone graft (medicine)
  • bone grease (lubricant)

    grease: Bone grease, hide grease, and garbage grease are named according to their origin. In some factories, food offal is used along with animal carcasses, butcher-shop scraps, and garbage from restaurants for recovery of fats.

  • bone lace (lacework)

    Bobbin lace, handmade lace important in fashion from the 16th to the early 20th century. Bobbin laces are made by using a “pricking,” a pattern drawn on parchment or card that is attached to a padded support, the pillow or cushion. An even number of threads (from 8 to more than 1,000) are looped

  • Bone Machine (album by Waits)

    Tom Waits: Waits’s 1992 release Bone Machine, typical of his increasingly experimental musical efforts in the 1990s, won a Grammy Award for best alternative music album. His 1999 album, Mule Variations, was also much praised and took the Grammy for best contemporary folk album.

  • bone marrow (anatomy)

    Bone marrow, soft, gelatinous tissue that fills the cavities of the bones. Bone marrow is either red or yellow, depending upon the preponderance of hematopoietic (red) or fatty (yellow) tissue. In humans the red bone marrow forms all of the blood cells with the exception of the lymphocytes, which

  • bone marrow aspiration (medical test)

    Bone marrow aspiration, direct removal of a small amount (about 1–5 millilitres) of bone marrow by suction through a hollow needle. The needle is usually inserted into the posterior iliac crest of the hip bone in adults and into the upper part of the tibia, the inner, larger bone of the lower leg,

  • bone marrow graft (medicine)

    Bone marrow transplant, the transfer of bone marrow from a healthy donor to a recipient whose own bone marrow is affected by disease. Bone marrow transplant may be used to treat aplastic anemia; sickle cell anemia; various malignant diseases of blood-forming tissues, including leukemia, lymphoma,

  • bone marrow transplant (medicine)

    Bone marrow transplant, the transfer of bone marrow from a healthy donor to a recipient whose own bone marrow is affected by disease. Bone marrow transplant may be used to treat aplastic anemia; sickle cell anemia; various malignant diseases of blood-forming tissues, including leukemia, lymphoma,

  • bone meal (food)

    feed: Other by-product feeds: Steamed bonemeal is particularly high in these important minerals. Dried skim milk, dried whey, and dried buttermilk are feed by-products from the dairy industry.

  • bone mineral density (medicine)

    Bone mineral density, estimate of bone mass. Bone is a rich mineral reservoir, composed mainly of calcium and phosphorous, which together impart hardness, rigidity, and compressive strength to bone. Bone is also dynamic in that it is constantly being broken down and rebuilt. A normal individual has

  • Bone on Bone (album by Cockburn)

    Bruce Cockburn: Honours: …Album of the Year for Bone on Bone (2017).

  • Bone People, The (work by Hulme)

    Keri Hulme: …known for her first novel, The Bone People (1983), which won the Booker Prize in 1985.

  • bone rank (Korean social system)

    Kolp’um, (Korean: “bone rank”), Korean hereditary status system used to rank members of the official class of the Unified Silla dynasty (668–935). The system originally began as a way of distinguishing the status and function of members of the Silla confederation, a union of the six major tribes of

  • bone remodeling (physiology)

    Bone remodeling, continuing process of synthesis and destruction that gives bone its mature structure and maintains normal calcium levels in the body. Destruction, or resorption, of bone by large cells called osteoclasts releases calcium into the bloodstream to meet the body’s metabolic needs and

  • bone spur (pathology)

    arthritis: Osteoarthritis: …affected joints, called osteophytes (bone spurs), are common.

  • bone turquoise (geology)

    Odontolite, fossil bone or tooth that consists of the phosphate mineral apatite (q.v.) coloured blue by vivianite. It resembles turquoise but may be distinguished

  • Bone, Betty (American priest)

    Betty Bone Schiess, American Episcopal priest who was at the forefront of the movement that led the church to permit the ordination of women. Betty Bone received a bachelor’s degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1945 and a master’s from Syracuse (New York) University in 1947. After marriage

  • bone, Ewing tumour of (pathology)

    Ewing tumour of bone, common malignant tumour of bone that occurs mainly in Caucasian males under the age of 20. This form of bone cancer appears most commonly in the shafts of long bones, such as the femur, tibia, or humerus, or in the ribs or flat bones of the pelvis, scapula, or skull. Related

  • bone, giant-cell tumour of (medicine)

    Osteoclastoma, bone tumour found predominantly at the end of long bones in the knee region, but also occurring in the wrist, arm, and pelvis. The large multinucleated cells (giant cells) found in these tumours resemble osteoclasts, for which the tumour is named. Usually seen in female adults

  • Bone, Henry (British painter)

    Henry Bone, English painter whose miniature portraits in enamel were among the most outstanding produced in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. By 1800 the beauty of his portrait pieces had attracted the notice of the Royal Academy, to which he was admitted in 1811. He executed many

  • bone, necrosis of (bone tissue death)

    Osteonecrosis, death of bone tissue that may result from infection, as in osteomyelitis, or deprivation of blood supply, as in fracture, dislocation, Caisson disease (decompression sickness), or radiation sickness. In all cases, blood circulation in the affected area ceases, bone cells die, and the

  • bone, Paget disease of (bone disease)

    Paget disease of bone, chronic disease of middle age, characterized by excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue. It is a localized disease that may be unifocal, affecting a single bone, or multifocal, affecting many bones or nearly the entire skeleton. For this reason, it is included among

  • Bone, Sir Muirhead (British artist)

    Sir Muirhead Bone, Scottish artist who is best known as an etcher and drypoint engraver of architectural subjects. Bone first studied architecture and then art at the Glasgow School of Art. Attracted to the picturesque aspect of buildings, he began to depict views of his native town of Glasgow,

  • bone-headed dinosaur (dinosaur infraorder)

    dinosaur: Pachycephalosauria: In important respects the pachycephalosaurs conformed to the basic ornithopod body plan, and there is some evidence that pachycephalosaurs actually evolved from (and are therefore members of) ornithopods, perhaps similar to hypsilophodontids. All of them appear to have been bipedal. They bore the typical…

  • bone-marrow failure, anemia of (pathology)

    Aplastic anemia, disease in which the bone marrow fails to produce an adequate number of blood cells. There may be a lack of all cell types—white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), and platelets—resulting in a form of the disease called pancytopenia, or there may be a lack of

  • Bonebrake, D. J. (American musician)

    X: …1948, Savanna, Illinois), and drummer D.J. Bonebrake (b. December 8, 1955, North Hollywood, California). Later members included Dave Alvin (b. November 11, 1955, Los Angeles, California) and Tony Gilkyson.

  • bonefish (fish)

    Bonefish, (Albula vulpes), marine game fish of the family Albulidae (order Elopiformes). It inhabits shallow coastal and island waters in tropical seas and is admired by anglers for its speed and strength. Maximum length and weight are about 76 cm (30 inches) and 6.4 kg (14 pounds). The bonefish

  • Boneland (novel by Garner)

    Alan Garner: …final installment of the trilogy, Boneland, which details the adult Colin’s quest to find his sister. The books draw on such mythological motifs as the “sleeping king,” a legendary hero waiting to be awakened in a time of crisis, and the “wild hunt,” a group of ghastly riders condemned to…

  • Bonelli’s eagle (bird)

    eagle: Bonelli’s eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), of Mediterranean areas and parts of southern Asia, is about 60 cm (24 inches) long, is dark above and light below, has a broad tailband, and usually shows a white patch on the back.

  • Bonellia (worm)

    sex: Effects of environment: In the case of Bonellia, a unique kind of marine worm, all eggs develop into small larvae of a sexually indifferent kind. Those that settle freely on the sea floor grow into comparatively large females, each of which has a long, broad extension, the proboscis, at its front end.…

  • bonemeal (food)

    feed: Other by-product feeds: Steamed bonemeal is particularly high in these important minerals. Dried skim milk, dried whey, and dried buttermilk are feed by-products from the dairy industry.

  • Boner, Edmund (English bishop)

    Edmund Bonner, bishop of London who supported Henry VIII’s antipapal measures but rejected the imposition of Protestant doctrine and worship during the reigns of Edward VI and Elizabeth I. For centuries Bonner, on the basis of evidence from his contemporary, the Protestant martyrologist John Foxe,

  • Boner, Ulrich (Swiss writer)

    Ulrich Boner, Swiss writer and Dominican monk, whose collection of fables in verse was the first book to be printed in the German language (Bamberg, 1461). Boner, known to have been of a Bernese family, is mentioned in records between 1324 and 1349. He compiled and translated his collection of

  • Bonerus, Ulrich (Swiss writer)

    Ulrich Boner, Swiss writer and Dominican monk, whose collection of fables in verse was the first book to be printed in the German language (Bamberg, 1461). Boner, known to have been of a Bernese family, is mentioned in records between 1324 and 1349. He compiled and translated his collection of

  • Bones (American television program)

    Kathy Reichs: …led to a television show, Bones, which aired from 2005 to 2017. Reichs consulted with the show’s writers and was also a producer.

  • Bones, Mr. (theatrical character)

    minstrel show: …who played the tambourine, and Mr. Bones, who rattled the bones (a pair of clappers, named after the original material from which they were made)—at the ends. The interlocutor, in whiteface, usually wore formal attire; the others, in blackface, wore gaudy swallow-tailed coats and striped trousers. The program opened with…

  • boneset (plant)

    Boneset, (Eupatorium perfoliatum), North American plant in the aster family (Asteraceae). The plant is sometimes grown in rain gardens and attracts butterflies. Boneset tea is a folk remedy for fever, and traditionally the leaves were wrapped around broken bones to promote their healing. Boneset is

  • Bonesetter’s Daughter, The (novel by Tan)

    Amy Tan: …of mothers and daughters in The Bonesetter’s Daughter (2001), in which a woman cares for her mother, who is afflicted with Alzheimer disease. In Saving Fish from Drowning (2005), an idiosyncratic San Francisco art dealer narrates the story of a group of tourists traveling through China and Myanmar (Burma). The…

  • boneshaker (bicycle)

    Velocipede, version of the bicycle reinvented in the 1860s by the Michaux family of Paris. Its iron and wood construction and lack of springs earned it the nickname boneshaker. It was driven by pedaling cranks on the front axle. To increase the distance covered for each turn of the cranks, the

  • Bonestell, Chesley (American illustrator)

    Chesley Bonestell, American illustrator of spaceflight and astronomical subjects whose paintings, motion-picture special effects, and magazine illustrations captured the popular imagination in the decades before manned spaceflight began. Bonestell from his early youth was drawn to creating drawings

  • Bonet, Antonio (Argentine architect)

    Latin American architecture: Argentina: …Le Corbusier’s atelier in Paris, Antonio Bonet returned to Buenos Aires and formed the “Austral” group in 1938 with Jorge Ferrari Hardoy, Juan Kurchan, Horacio Vera Barros, Abel López Chas, and others. They were interested in reacting against the official architecture and design and in developing an Argentine experimental style…

  • Bonet, Juan Pablo (Spanish educator)

    Juan Pablo Bonet, Spanish cleric and educator who pioneered in the education of the deaf. Bonet helped develop one of the earliest and most successful methods for educating the deaf and improving their verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Bonet’s multidimensional approach, based on the work

  • Bonet, Lisa (American actress)

    The Cosby Show: …Le Beauf), teenagers Denise (Lisa Bonet) and Theo (Malcolm-Jamal Warner), preteen Vanessa (Tempestt Bledsoe), and young Rudy (Keshia Knight Pulliam). Grandparents Anna and Russell Huxtable (Clarice Taylor and Earle Hyman) frequently appeared, and the irresistible Olivia (Raven Symone, who later starred in the Disney Channel’s That’s So Raven, 2003–07)…

  • Bonet, Théophile (Swiss scholar)

    autopsy: History of autopsy: Théophile Bonet of Geneva (1620–89) collated from the literature the observations made in 3,000 autopsies. Many specific clinical and pathologic entities were then defined by various observers, thus opening the door to modern practice.

  • Bonete, Mount (mountain, Argentina)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Central Andes: The peaks of Mounts Bonete, Ojos del Salado, and Pissis surpass 20,000 feet.

  • Boney M (Caribbean music group)

    Europop: Boney M, a foursome from the Caribbean (via Britain and the Netherlands) brought together by German producer Frank Farian, sold 50 million records in 1976–78; the Swedish group Abba had 18 consecutive European Top Ten hits following their 1974 victory in the Eurovision Song Contest…

  • Bonfá, Luiz Floriano (Brazilian musician)

    Luiz Floriano Bonfá, Brazilian guitarist and songwriter (born Oct. 17, 1922, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.—died Jan. 12, 2001, Rio de Janeiro), was one of the originators of bossa nova, a musical style that blended samba and jazz. In the late 1940s and early ’50s, Bonfá played with a popular Brazilian b

  • Bonfilius, Saint (Italian friar)

    Seven Holy Founders: …Seven Holy Founders are Saints Bonfilius, Alexis Falconieri, John Bonagiunta, Benedict dell’Antella, Bartholomew Amidei, Gerard Sostegni, and Ricoverus Uguccione. Formally Ordo Fratrum Servorum Sanctae Mariae (“Order of Friar Servants of St. Mary”), the order is a Roman Catholic congregation of

  • Bonfils, Frederick Gilmer (American publisher)

    Frederick Gilmer Bonfils, publisher who made the Denver Post into a crusading newspaper of nationwide prominence in the United States. Bonfils entered the U.S. Military Academy in 1878 but resigned in 1881. With Harry H. Tammen (1856–1924), he purchased the Post in 1895. They dedicated the paper to

  • Bonfini, Antonio (Italian humanist)

    Antonio Bonfini, Italian humanist who was the court historian for Matthias I, the king of Hungary. Bonfini went to Buda for the first time in 1486, at the invitation of Matthias. At first he served as reader to Queen Beatrix. Later Matthias commissioned him to write Hungary’s history from the time

  • Bonfire Night (British observance)

    Guy Fawkes Day, British observance, celebrated on November 5, commemorating the failure of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. The Gunpowder Plot conspirators, led by Robert Catesby, were zealous Roman Catholics enraged at King James I for refusing to grant greater religious tolerance to Catholics. They

  • Bonfire of the Vanities, The (film by De Palma [1990])

    Brian De Palma: The 1980s and ’90s: …a big-budget adaptation (1990) of The Bonfire of the Vanities, Tom Wolfe’s best-selling novel of greed and corruption. However, the film was unable to effectively convey the novel’s satire, and the miscasting of Tom Hanks, Melanie Griffith, and—most notably—Bruce Willis added to its problems. In the end, The Bonfire of…

  • Bonfire of the Vanities, The (work by Wolfe)

    Tom Wolfe: His first two novels were The Bonfire of the Vanities (1987; film 1990), a sprawling novel about urban greed and corruption, and A Man in Full (1998), a colourful panoramic depiction of contemporary Atlanta. Wolfe’s Hooking Up (2000) is a collection of fiction and essays, all previously published except for…

  • Bong Range (mountains, Liberia)

    Bong Range, mountain chain, west central Liberia, West Africa, extending for about 25 miles (40 km) in a northeast–southwest direction at elevations averaging from 600 to 1,000 feet (180–300 m). Its highest point, however, is 2,116 feet. The range is the source of the Farmington River. Since the

  • Bongars, Jacques, Seigneur de Bauldry et de la Chesnaye (French historian)

    Jacques Bongars, seigneur de Bauldry et de La Chesnaye, French diplomat and classical scholar who compiled a history of the Crusades. A Huguenot, Bongars studied in Germany, Italy, and Constantinople. From 1586 Henry of Navarre (later King Henry IV of France) sent him on missions to obtain men and

  • Bongela, Z. S. (South African writer)

    African literature: Xhosa: In K.S. Bongela’s Alitshoni lingenandaba (1971; “The Sun Does Not Set Without News”), the reader is led to a revelation of the corruption that results when traditional ties are broken. Christianity and urban corruption are at the centre of Witness K. Tamsanqa’s Inzala kaMlungisi (1954; “The…

  • bongo (antelope)

    Bongo, (Tragelaphus eurycerus), the largest, most colourful, and most sociable of the African forest antelopes, belonging to the spiral-horned antelope tribe Tragelaphini (family Bovidae). It is also the third heaviest antelope, after the related giant eland and common eland. The bongo has short,

  • Bongo (people)

    Bongo, a people once extensive in the western area of present-day South Sudan, now found in small, scattered settlements south and east of Wau. They speak a Central Sudanic language of the Nilo-Saharan language family. Because they were separated by miles of bush, the various Bongo subgroups were

  • bongo drum (musical instrument)

    Bongo drums, pair of small single-headed Afro-Cuban drums. The two heads, which are respectively about 5 inches (13 cm) and about 7 inches (18 cm) across, are nailed or rod-tensioned to wooden, open-ended “shells” of the same height. Played with the hands and fingers, the drums are yoked together

  • Bongo Ondimba, El Hadj Omar (president of Gabon)

    Omar Bongo, (El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba; Albert-Bernard Bongo), Gabonese political leader (born Dec. 30, 1935, Lewai, French Equatorial Africa [now Bongoville, Gabon]—died June 8, 2009, Barcelona, Spain), was president of Gabon for nearly 42 years, having risen to power in 1967; at the time of his

  • Bongo, Albert-Bernard (president of Gabon)

    Omar Bongo, (El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba; Albert-Bernard Bongo), Gabonese political leader (born Dec. 30, 1935, Lewai, French Equatorial Africa [now Bongoville, Gabon]—died June 8, 2009, Barcelona, Spain), was president of Gabon for nearly 42 years, having risen to power in 1967; at the time of his

  • Bongo, Ali Ben (president of Gabon)

    Gabon: Gabon since independence: …including Bongo’s son, defense minister Ali Ben Bongo, who was selected to be the PDG’s candidate. After a slight delay in the release of the election results and amid allegations of fraud and voting irregularities, Bongo was declared the winner with slightly more than two-fifths of the vote. Because of…

  • Bongo, Omar (president of Gabon)

    Omar Bongo, (El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba; Albert-Bernard Bongo), Gabonese political leader (born Dec. 30, 1935, Lewai, French Equatorial Africa [now Bongoville, Gabon]—died June 8, 2009, Barcelona, Spain), was president of Gabon for nearly 42 years, having risen to power in 1967; at the time of his

  • Bongor (Chad)

    Bongor, town, southwestern Chad, located on the Logone River opposite Dana, Cameroon. It lies in Chad’s cotton-growing area, and in the 1970s there was some controlled irrigation near the town as part of an effort to develop the rice-growing potential of the Logone floodplain. During the dry

  • bongos (musical instrument)

    Bongo drums, pair of small single-headed Afro-Cuban drums. The two heads, which are respectively about 5 inches (13 cm) and about 7 inches (18 cm) across, are nailed or rod-tensioned to wooden, open-ended “shells” of the same height. Played with the hands and fingers, the drums are yoked together

  • Bongos Massif (region, Central Africa)

    Central African Republic: Relief, drainage, and soils: …in the northeast to the Bongos (Bongo) Massif, extending to an elevation of 4,360 feet (1,330 metres) at Mount Toussoro, and to the Tondou Massif in the east. In the west they rise toward the high granite range of the Karre Mountains, reaching nearly 4,625 feet (1,410 metres) at Mount…

  • Bonham Carter, Helena (British actress)

    Helena Bonham Carter, British actress whose dark aesthetic brought flair to roles ranging from period pieces to modern fantasy. Bonham Carter grew up in London. Her mother, Elena, was a psychotherapist, and her father, Raymond—grandson of H.H. Asquith, who served as prime minister from 1908 to

  • Bonham’s Case (British history)

    Bonham’s Case, (1610), legal case decided by Sir Edward Coke, chief justice of England’s Court of Common Pleas, in which he asserted the supremacy of the common law in England, noting that the prerogatives of Parliament were derived from and circumscribed by precedent. He declared that “when an act

  • Bonham, John (British musician)

    John Bonham, British rock musician and famed heavy-handed drummer of the Led Zeppelin rock band. Bonham joined Led Zeppelin when it was formed in 1968. His aggressive drumming provided the rhythmical base for the group’s music and contributed largely to the success of the band, which gained an

  • Bonham, John Henry (British musician)

    John Bonham, British rock musician and famed heavy-handed drummer of the Led Zeppelin rock band. Bonham joined Led Zeppelin when it was formed in 1968. His aggressive drumming provided the rhythmical base for the group’s music and contributed largely to the success of the band, which gained an

  • Bonheur d’occasion (work by Roy)

    Canadian literature: World War II and the postwar period, 1935–60: …Montreal in Bonheur d’occasion (1945; The Tin Flute), for which she received the Prix Fémina. She also wrote much autobiographical fiction set in rural Manitoba. Roger Lemelin’s Les Plouffe (1948; The Plouffe Family), a family chronicle set in the poorer quarters of Quebec city, spawned a popular television serial.

  • bonheur du jour (table)

    Bonheur du jour, small, dainty writing table, introduced in the 1760s, which became one of the most popular varieties of French 18th-century furniture. A block of storage compartments, set along the back of the top and often partly enclosed, incorporates a drawer, cupboards, and shelves and is

  • Bonheur, Le (film by Varda [1964])

    Agnès Varda: …Varda directed Le Bonheur (Happiness), an abstract picture of happiness and fidelity that was to be her most controversial film. Les Creatures (The Creatures) was released in 1966, and her most popular films of the next two decades were L’Une chante, l’autre pas (1977; One Sings, the Other Doesn’t)…

  • Bonheur, Marie-Rosalie (French painter)

    Rosa Bonheur, French painter and sculptor famed for the remarkable accuracy and detail of her pictures featuring animals. Toward the end of her career those qualities were accentuated by a lighter palette and the use of a highly polished surface finish. Bonheur was trained by her father, Raymond

  • Bonheur, Rosa (French painter)

    Rosa Bonheur, French painter and sculptor famed for the remarkable accuracy and detail of her pictures featuring animals. Toward the end of her career those qualities were accentuated by a lighter palette and the use of a highly polished surface finish. Bonheur was trained by her father, Raymond

  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich (German theologian)

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German Protestant theologian important for his support of ecumenism and his view of Christianity’s role in a secular world. His involvement in a plot to overthrow Adolf Hitler led to his imprisonment and execution. His Letters and Papers from Prison, published posthumously in

  • Bonhomme Richard and Serapis, engagement between (United States history)

    Engagement between Bonhomme Richard and Serapis, (Sept. 23, 1779), in the American Revolution, notable American naval victory, won off the east coast of England by Captain John Paul Jones. Challenged by a large combined French and Spanish fleet, the British Navy was too preoccupied to prevent

  • Boni, Thomas Yayi (president of Benin)

    Benin: Decolonization and independence: …elections held in March 2006, Thomas Boni Yayi, former chief executive of the West African Development Bank and relatively new to national politics, running as an independent candidate, emerged victorious after two rounds of voting. The new president focused on economic development as well as the elimination of government corruption.…

  • Boniface I of Montferrat (king of Thessalonica)

    Crusades: The Fourth Crusade and the Latin empire of Constantinople: …and the barons turned to Boniface of Montferrat, whose involvement as leader of the Crusade proved to be fateful. He had close family ties with both the Byzantine Empire and the Crusader states. His brother, Conrad of Montferrat, had received the crown of Jerusalem only to be killed by members…

  • Boniface I, Saint (pope)

    Saint Boniface I, ; feast day September 4), pope from 418 to 422, whose reign was markedly disrupted by the faction of the antipope Eulalius. Boniface was a priest, believed to have been ordained by Pope St. Damasus I and to have served Pope St. Innocent I at Constantinople. When Boniface was

  • Boniface II (pope)

    Boniface II, pope from 530 to 532. Of Gothic descent, he was the first Germanic pontiff. He was an archdeacon under Pope Felix IV, who designated him as his successor. Fearing Ostrogothic domination, however, the majority of the Roman clergy elected the deacon Dioscorus of Alexandria. Both popes

  • Boniface III (pope)

    Boniface III, pope from Feb. 19 to Nov. 12, 607. He was a deacon of the Roman Church when Pope St. Gregory I the Great sent him in 603 as a legate to Constantinople, where he obtained from the Byzantine emperor Phocas an edict recognizing the see of Rome as the head of all the churches. As pope he

  • Boniface IV, Saint (pope)

    Saint Boniface IV, ; feast day May 8), pope from 608 to 615. Possibly a student of Pope St. Gregory I the Great in Rome, he was a deacon of the Roman Church when elected pope. Receiving permission from Byzantine emperor Phocas, he converted the Roman Pantheon into the church of Sta. Maria Rotonda

  • Boniface IX (pope)

    Boniface IX, pope from 1389 to 1404; he was the second pontiff to rule in Rome during the Western Schism (1378–1417). Created cardinal deacon early in life and cardinal priest by Urban VI in 1385, he succeeded Urban, whose disputed election was the original cause of the rupture between Rome and

  • Boniface of Querfurt, Saint (Saxon bishop)

    Saint Bruno of Querfurt, ; feast day June 19), missionary to the Prussians, bishop, and martyr. A member of the family of the counts of Querfurt, Bruno was educated at the cathedral school at Magdeburg, Saxony, and at the age of 20 he was attached to the clerical household of the Holy Roman emperor

  • Boniface of Savoy (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Boniface Of Savoy, archbishop of Canterbury who, because he was a foreigner and because he attempted to remedy the financial disarray of his see, won the enmity of the English clergy. He succeeded in repaying a portion of the immense debt incurred by his predecessor, Edmund of Abingdon, and is also

  • Boniface V (pope)

    Boniface V, pope from 619 to 625. He succeeded St. Deusdedit after the papacy had been vacant for more than a year and was faced with the task of organizing an Italy war-torn by Eleutherius, exarch of Ravenna. In endeavouring to apply canon law to civil law, he established the right of asylum. He

  • Boniface VI (pope)

    Boniface VI, pope in April 896. He was a subdeacon when he was elected to succeed Formosus. Boniface either died of gout or was murdered by Stephen VI, who became the next pope. A central figure during a dark period in papal history (896–898) revolving around the death of Pope Formosus, Boniface

  • Boniface VII (antipope)

    Boniface VII, pope, or antipope, from June to July 974 and from August 984 to July 985; he owed his rule to the support of the Crescentii, a powerful and unscrupulous Roman family. A cardinal deacon, he ordered the murder of his predecessor, Benedict VI, and was installed by Crescentius I. Later,

  • Boniface VIII (pope)

    Boniface VIII, pope from 1294 to 1303, the extent of whose authority was vigorously challenged by the emergent powerful monarchs of western Europe, especially Philip IV of France. Among the lasting achievements of his pontificate were the publication of the third part of the Corpus juris canonici,

  • Boniface, Saint (English missionary)

    Saint Boniface, ; feast day June 5), English missionary and reformer, often called the apostle of Germany for his role in the Christianization of that country. Boniface set the church in Germany on a firm course of undeviating piety and irreproachable conduct. In his letters and in the writings of

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