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  • Bonifacio (France)

    Bonifacio, town, Corse-du-Sud département, Corse (Corsica) région, France, just west of Cap Pertusato, southernmost point of the island of Corsica, giving its name to the strait (7.5 miles [12 km] wide) separating Corsica from the northern tip of Sardinia. The town is perched on a narrow limestone

  • Bonifacio, Andres (Filipino political leader)

    Andres Bonifacio, Philippine patriot, founder and leader of the nationalist Katipunan society, who instigated the revolt of August 1896 against the Spanish. Bonifacio was born of poor parents in Manila and had little formal education, working as a messenger and warehouse keeper before becoming

  • Bonifacius (Roman general)

    North Africa: The Vandal conquest: One of them, Bonifacius, is said to have invited the Vandals, who at the time were occupying Andalusia, to his aid, but it is more likely that the Vandals were attracted to Africa by its wealth and needed no such formal excuse. Led by their king Gaiseric, the…

  • Bonifacius, or Essays to Do Good (work by Mather)

    Cotton Mather: His book, Bonifacius, or Essays to Do Good (1710), instructs others in humanitarian acts, some ideas being far ahead of his time: the schoolmaster to reward instead of punish his students, the physician to study the state of mind of his patient as a probable cause of…

  • Bonifatius, Saint (English missionary)

    Saint Boniface, ; feast day June 5), English missionary and reformer, often called the apostle of Germany for his role in the Christianization of that country. Boniface set the church in Germany on a firm course of undeviating piety and irreproachable conduct. In his letters and in the writings of

  • Bonin Islands (island, Pacific Ocean)

    Bonin Islands, some 30 volcanic islands and islets in the central Pacific Ocean, about 500 miles (800 km) southeast of Japan. They can be divided into three main groups: Chichijima (Beechey) Group: Ani and Chichi islands; Mukojima (Parry) Group: Muko Island; and Hahajima (Baily) Group: Haha Island.

  • Bonington, Richard Parkes (British painter)

    Richard Parkes Bonington, English Romantic painter known for his landscapes and historical scenes. His style attracted many imitators in both England and France, and he exercised an influence out of all proportion to his brief life. At Calais, France (c. 1817), Bonington learned the watercolour

  • bonitary ownership (Roman law)

    Roman law: The law of property and possession: …writers coined the expression “bonitary ownership.” Justinian abolished the theoretical distinction between civil and bonitary ownership.

  • bonito (fish)

    Bonito, (genus Sarda), tunalike schooling fish of the tuna and mackerel family, Scombridae (order Perciformes). Bonitos are swift, predacious fishes found worldwide. They have striped backs and silvery bellies and grow to a length of about 75 cm (30 inches). Like tunas, they are streamlined, with a

  • Bonivard, Fran?ois (Genevan patriot)

    Fran?ois Bonivard, Genevan patriot, the hero of Lord Byron’s poem “The Prisoner of Chillon.” Bonivard’s real character and history are very different from the legendary account that Byron popularized. After succeeding his uncle as head of the Cluniac priory of St. Victor, near Geneva, he began to

  • Bonizo of Sutri (Christian militant)

    St. Gregory VII: Early life: …younger contemporary and enthusiastic supporter, Bonizo of Sutri, has been shown to be completely untenable, as has the notion that the young Hildebrand became a monk in Rome at the monastery of St. Mary on the Aventine, where an uncle was supposedly abbot. This theory also rests on a single…

  • Bonjour tristesse (novel by Sagan)

    Bonjour tristesse, novel by Fran?oise Sagan, published in French in 1954. Bonjour tristesse (which means “Hello, Sadness”) is the story of a jealous, sophisticated 17-year-old girl who meddles in her father’s impending remarriage with tragic consequences. The book was written with “classical”

  • Bonjour Tristesse (film by Preminger [1958])

    Otto Preminger: Challenges to the Production Code: …Preminger and Seberg reteamed on Bonjour Tristesse (1958), an adaptation of Fran?oise Sagan’s best-selling novel about a teenage girl (Seberg) whose efforts to end the engagement of her playboy father (David Niven) lead to tragedy; Deborah Kerr appeared as the fiancée. The film, a better showcase for the charismatic Seberg,…

  • bonkei (Japanese art)

    moribana: …popular branches of moribana is bonkei, the art of creating miniature landscape gardens. See also Ohara.

  • Bonlieu, Convention of (European history)

    Henry I: …daughter, Joan, whom, by the Convention of Bonlieu (Nov. 30, 1273), he promised to one of the two sons of Edward I of England, Henry and Alfonso. This would have led to a union of his dominions with English Gascony, but it came to nothing. King Henry died in 1274;…

  • Bonn (Germany)

    Bonn, city, K?ln Regierungsbezirk (administrative district), North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), Germany. The city is located on the Rhine River, about 15 miles (24 km) south of Cologne. From 1949 to 1990 it was the provisional capital of West Germany, and it served as the seat of the German

  • Bonn Survey (star catalog)

    Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), star catalog showing the positions and apparent magnitudes of 324,188 northern stars. Compiled at Bonn under the direction of the German astronomer F.W.A. Argelander, it required 25 years’ work and was published in 1859–62. The accompanying charts, published in 1863,

  • Bonn, Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of (university, Bonn, Germany)

    Bonn: …former Electoral Palace (now the Rhenish Friedrich-Wilhelm University of Bonn [founded 1786]) and the Poppelsdorf Palace, with its botanical gardens, along with the city’s beautiful avenues and parks are reminders of the electoral and archiepiscopal capital. Recreational areas include the forests of Venusberg, Kreuzberg, Kottenforst, and Ennert on the southern…

  • Bonn-Nord Bridge (bridge, Bonn, Germany)

    bridge: German designs: The Bonn-Nord Bridge in Bonn, Germany (1966), was the first major cable-stayed bridge to use a large number of thinner cables instead of relatively few but heavier ones—the technical advantage being that, with more cables, a thinner deck might be used. Such multicable arrangements subsequently became…

  • Bonnard, Pierre (French artist)

    Pierre Bonnard, French painter and printmaker, member of the group of artists called the Nabis and afterward a leader of the Intimists; he is generally regarded as one of the greatest colourists of modern art. His characteristically intimate, sunlit domestic interiors and still lifes include The

  • Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival (arts festival, Manchester, Tennessee, United States)

    Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival, annual summer music and arts festival held in Manchester, Tennessee, U.S. The first Bonnaroo, organized by veteran music promoter Ashley Capps and held in 2002, attracted about 70,000 visitors. The festival took its name from the 1974 album Desitively Bonnaroo by

  • Bonnat, Léon (French painter)

    Léon Bonnat, notable French portrait painter and teacher of several well-known artists. Bonnat studied under Federico Madrazo in Madrid and, sponsored by the city of Bayonne, under Léon Cogniet in Paris. His earlier works are religious paintings in which his study of Spanish Baroque art is evident.

  • Bonnat, Léon-Joseph-Florentin (French painter)

    Léon Bonnat, notable French portrait painter and teacher of several well-known artists. Bonnat studied under Federico Madrazo in Madrid and, sponsored by the city of Bayonne, under Léon Cogniet in Paris. His earlier works are religious paintings in which his study of Spanish Baroque art is evident.

  • Bonnburg (Germany)

    Bonn, city, K?ln Regierungsbezirk (administrative district), North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), Germany. The city is located on the Rhine River, about 15 miles (24 km) south of Cologne. From 1949 to 1990 it was the provisional capital of West Germany, and it served as the seat of the German

  • Bonne Aventure (island, Canada)

    Bonaventure Island, island in Gaspésie–?les-de-la-Madeleine region, eastern Quebec province, Canada. The island lies in the Gulf of St. Lawrence off Percé at the end of the Gaspé Peninsula. Although only 2.5 miles (4 km) long, its rocky cliffs provide sanctuary for thousands of nesting gannets

  • Bonne chanson, La (work by Verlaine)

    Paul Verlaine: Life.: …written during their engagement (La Bonne Chanson), he fervently sees her as his long hoped-for saviour from erring ways. When insurrectionists seized power and set up the Paris Commune, Verlaine served as press officer under their council. His fear of resultant reprisals from the Third Republic was one factor…

  • Bonnefoy, Yves (French author)

    Yves Bonnefoy, perhaps the most important French poet of the latter half of the 20th century. Bonnefoy was also a respected critic, scholar, and translator. Bonnefoy’s father was a railroad employee, his mother a teacher. After studying mathematics at the University of Poitiers, the young poet

  • Bonner Durchmusterung (star catalog)

    Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), star catalog showing the positions and apparent magnitudes of 324,188 northern stars. Compiled at Bonn under the direction of the German astronomer F.W.A. Argelander, it required 25 years’ work and was published in 1859–62. The accompanying charts, published in 1863,

  • Bonner, Edmund (English bishop)

    Edmund Bonner, bishop of London who supported Henry VIII’s antipapal measures but rejected the imposition of Protestant doctrine and worship during the reigns of Edward VI and Elizabeth I. For centuries Bonner, on the basis of evidence from his contemporary, the Protestant martyrologist John Foxe,

  • Bonner, Leroy (American singer and musician)

    Leroy Bonner, (“Sugarfoot”), American singer and guitarist (born March 14, 1943, Hamilton, Ohio—died Jan. 26, 2013, Trotwood, Ohio), became the frontman for funk and pop band the Ohio Players, which had a sleek yet raucous sound that appealed to fans of soul, rock, and disco and which scored hits

  • Bonner, Neville Thomas (Australian politician)

    Neville Thomas Bonner, Australian politician who was the first Aboriginal to win election to the country’s parliament, where he served in the Senate from 1971 until 1983, espousing Aboriginal land rights and opposing assimilationist policies advocated by a conservative government (b. March 28,

  • Bonner, Yelena Georgiyevna (Soviet physician and human rights activist)

    Yelena Georgiyevna Bonner, Soviet physician and human rights activist (born Feb. 15, 1923, Merv, Turkistan, U.S.S.R. [now Mary, Turkm.]—died June 18, 2011, Boston, Mass.), was a revered figure in the struggle against human rights abuses in the Soviet Union as a cofounder (1976) of the Moscow

  • Bonners Ferry (Idaho, United States)

    Bonners Ferry, city, seat (1915) of Boundary county, northern Idaho, U.S. Located 27 miles (43 km) south of the Canadian border on the Kootenai River, the city developed around a trading post and ferry established in the early 1870s by pioneer Edwin Bonner. A Great Northern Railway line connected

  • Bonnes, Les (work by Genet)

    Jean Genet: Les Bonnes (1947; The Maids), however, begins to explore the complex problems of identity that were soon to preoccupy other avant-garde dramatists such as Samuel Beckett and Eugène Ionesco. With this play Genet was established as an outstanding figure in the Theatre of the Absurd.

  • bonnet bellflower (plant)

    Campanulaceae: Codonopsis, bonnet bellflower, from Central and East Asia, is a genus of 30 to 40 mostly weak-stemmed, sprawling perennials, with long-stalked, usually blue (though sometimes white or yellowish) pendent bell-shaped flowers. C. clematidea, sprawling to about 60 cm (2 feet), has pale-blue, bonnet-shaped corollas with a…

  • Bonnet Carre Spillway (floodway, Louisiana, United States)

    Bonnet Carre Spillway, emergency floodway in St. Charles parish, southeastern Louisiana, U.S. Located about 30 miles (50 km) upstream from New Orleans, it is designed to divert water from the Mississippi River to Lake Pontchartrain. The spillway consists of a concrete dike along the east (left)

  • bonnet monkey (primate)

    Bonnet monkey, (Macaca radiata), macaque of southern India named for the thatch of long hair forming a cap, or “bonnet,” on the head. The bonnet monkey is grayish brown with a hairless pink face. It is about 35–60 cm (14–24 inches) long, excluding its long tail. Average adult females weigh about 4

  • bonnet shell (snail)

    Bonnet shell, any of certain small marine mollusks of the helmet shell (q.v.)

  • Bonnet, Charles (Swiss philosopher and scientist)

    Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist and philosophical writer who discovered parthenogenesis (reproduction without fertilization) and developed the catastrophe theory of evolution. Though Bonnet was a lawyer by profession, his favourite pursuit was natural science. Concentrating first on entomology, he

  • Bonnet, Georges-étienne (French politician)

    Georges-étienne Bonnet, leader in the French Radical-Socialist Party and minister of foreign affairs immediately preceding World War II, who was a prominent supporter of appeasement of Nazi Germany. Bonnet studied at the Sorbonne, graduating in law and political science. His marriage to the niece

  • bonnethead shark (fish)
  • Bonnetia (plant genus)

    Malpighiales: Bonnetiaceae: …is native to South America; Bonnetia (30 species) is native to South America, with one species from Cuba. Some Bonnetia grow at high altitudes on the tepuis of South America. Their leaves may then be borne in rosettes, and their stems are stout. Bonnetiaceae have long-pointed buds, usually rather closely…

  • Bonnetiaceae (plant family)

    Malpighiales: The Clusiaceae group: Clusiaceae, Bonnetiaceae, Podostemaceae, and Hypericaceae have many anatomical features in common. Their inflorescence is cymose; their petals overlap each other regularly in bud; and their flowers lack a nectary. Their capsular fruit opens down the radii of the partitions, and their seeds and embryo are distinctive.…

  • Bonneval, Claude Alexandre, Comte de (French noble)

    Mahmud I: …by Comte de Bonneval (Humbaraci Ahmed Pa?a, a French convert to Islām), participated in political and military affairs and attempted a partial reform of the army. A patron of music and literature, he wrote poetry in Arabic.

  • Bonneville Dam (dam, Oregon-Washington, United States)

    Columbia River: Economy: …construction of Grand Coulee and Bonneville dams by the federal government. Nearly all of the river’s 1,290-foot (390-metre) fall within the United States has been converted into a series of “stair steps” by 11 dams on the main river, augmented by dams on tributaries and three upstream storage reservoirs in…

  • Bonneville Salt Flats (region, Utah, United States)

    Bonneville Salt Flats, stretch of barren salt flats covering about 100 square miles (260 square km) in Tooele county, northwestern Utah, U.S. The flats, part of the Great Salt Lake Desert, are a remnant of the bed of an ancient lake formed about 30,000 years ago late in the Pleistocene Epoch and

  • Bonneville Speedway (sports area, Utah, United States)

    Bonneville Salt Flats: The site of Bonneville Speedway, the extremely level, smooth flats are as solid as concrete by the summer’s end and are ideally suited for speed trials; several world automobile and motorcycle speed and endurance records have been established there since 1935.

  • Bonneville, Benjamin-Louis-Eulalie de (American explorer)

    Benjamin-Louis-Eulalie de Bonneville, U.S. army engineer and frontiersman who gained contemporary fame as an explorer of the Rocky Mountains. Historical reevaluation of his activities, however, has virtually destroyed the romanticized, heroic image of him that had been established chiefly through

  • Bonneville, Lake (ancient lake, North America)

    Lake Bonneville, prehistoric lake, formed about 30,000 years ago (late in the Pleistocene Epoch), that at high water covered an estimated 20,000 square miles (52,000 square km), embracing much of what is now the western half of Utah and parts of Nevada and Idaho in the United States. Surviving

  • Bonney, Mabel Thérèse (American photographer)

    Thérèse Bonney, American photographer and writer remembered chiefly for her pictures portraying the ravages of World War II in Europe. Bonney grew up in New York and California. She graduated from the University of California, took a master’s degree in Romance languages at Harvard University, and,

  • Bonney, Mary Lucinda (American educator and reformer)

    Mary Lucinda Bonney, American educator and reformer, active in both the early movement for women’s education and the late 19th-century movement to preserve treaties with Native Americans and their land rights. Bonney was educated in a local academy and for two years at Emma Willard’s Troy Female

  • Bonney, Thérèse (American photographer)

    Thérèse Bonney, American photographer and writer remembered chiefly for her pictures portraying the ravages of World War II in Europe. Bonney grew up in New York and California. She graduated from the University of California, took a master’s degree in Romance languages at Harvard University, and,

  • Bonney, William H., Jr. (American outlaw)

    Billy the Kid, one of the most notorious gunfighters of the American West, reputed to have killed at least 27 men before being gunned down at about age 21. Born on New York City’s East Side, Billy as a child migrated with his parents to Kansas; his father died there, and the mother and her two boys

  • Bonnichsen v. United States (law case)

    Native American: Repatriation and the disposition of the dead: The lawsuit, Bonnichsen v. United States, was resolved in 2004. The court’s finding is summarized in its concluding statement:

  • Bonnie and Clyde (American criminals)

    Bonnie and Clyde, robbery team that became notorious in the United States through their flamboyant encounters with police and the sensationalization of their exploits by the country’s newspapers. Barrow had been a criminal long before he met Parker in January 1930. After 20 months in prison in

  • Bonnie and Clyde (film by Penn [1967])

    Bonnie and Clyde, crime film, released in 1967, that pioneered a new era of filmmaking, tearing down barriers in the depiction of violence and sexuality. The movie was based on the Great Depression-era robbery team known as Bonnie and Clyde. Clyde Barrow (played by Warren Beatty) turns a chance

  • Bonnie Blue Flag (United States history)

    flag of Georgia: The so-called Bonnie Blue Flag—a white star in the centre of a blue field—was flown in Georgia in 1861, as was a flag of white with a red star. Neither is known to have had any official standing. Georgia also used a flag featuring three pillars supporting…

  • Bonnie Blue Flag, The (song by McCarty)

    Remembering the American Civil War: George Frederick Root: The Battle-Cry of Freedom; and Harry McCarty: The Bonnie Blue Flag: Every war manifests its spirit in songs. One of the most popular songs of the North was “The Battle-Cry of Freedom,” composed by George Frederick Root, a professional songwriter. The song was written a few hours after Pres. Abraham Lincoln called…

  • Bonnie Lou (American singer)

    Bonnie Lou, (Mary Joan Kath), American country and rockabilly singer (born Oct. 27, 1924, Towanda, Ill.—died Dec. 8, 2015, Cincinnati, Ohio), was a fixture on country music radio and TV shows during the 1950s and later. Two of her recordings, “Seven Lonely Days” and “Tennessee Wig Walk,” were

  • Bonnie Prince Charlie (British prince)

    Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, last serious Stuart claimant to the British throne and leader of the unsuccessful Jacobite rebellion of 1745–46. Charles’s grandfather was the exiled Roman Catholic king James II (ruled 1685–88), and his father, James Edward, the Old Pretender, affected in exile

  • Bonnin, Gertrude (American writer)

    Zitkala-Sa, (Lakota: “Red Bird”) writer and reformer who strove to expand opportunities for Native Americans and to safeguard their cultures. Gertrude Simmons was the daughter of a Yankton Sioux mother and a Euro-American father. She adopted the name Zitkala-Sa in her teens. When she was eight, she

  • Bonny (Nigeria)

    Bonny, town and Atlantic oil port situated in Rivers state, southern Nigeria. It lies along the Bonny River (an eastern distributary of the Niger River) 6 miles (10 km) upstream from the Bight of Biafra. A traditional trading centre (fish, salt, palm oil, and palm kernels) of the Ijo people, it was

  • Bonny Earl of Moray, The (Scottish noble)

    James Stewart, 2nd earl of Moray, son-in-law of the regent James Stewart, the 1st earl. He became earl in 1580 when he married the 1st earl’s daughter Elizabeth, at the behest of King James VI. A faithful Protestant, Moray was made commissioner to act against the Spanish Armada (1588) and

  • Bonny Earl of Murray, The (English ballad)

    ballad: Historical ballads: …of Henry VIII, nor “The Bonny Earl of Murray” is correct in key details, but they accurately express the popular mourning for these figures. By far the largest number of ballads that can be traced to historical occurrences have to do with local skirmishes and matters of regional rather…

  • Bonny River (river, Nigeria)

    Bonny River, river, an arm of the Niger River delta in Rivers state, southern Nigeria. At its mouth, 25 miles (40 km) south-southeast of Port Harcourt, is Bonny town, a river pilot station and oil terminal. Under the influence of European traders from the 16th century, Bonny became the centre of a

  • Bonny, Anne (Irish American pirate)

    Anne Bonny, Irish American pirate whose brief period of marauding the Caribbean during the 18th century enshrined her in legend as one of the few to have defied the proscription against female pirates. Most of what is known of Bonny’s life comes from the volume A General History of the Robberies

  • Bonny, Bight of (inlet, Africa)

    Bight of Biafra, bay of the Atlantic Ocean on the western coast of Africa, extending east, then south, for 370 miles (600 km) from the Nun outlet of the Niger River (Nigeria) to Cape Lopez (Gabon). The innermost bay of the Gulf of Guinea, it is bounded by southeastern Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial

  • Bonny, kingdom of (African history)

    Bonny: …of the 15th- to 19th-century kingdom of Bonny. Reaching its height in the reign of the Pepple dynasty in the 18th and early 19th centuries, its economy (and the kingdom’s) was based on the sale of slaves to European traders. It was one of the largest slave-exporting depots of West…

  • Bono (Irish singer)

    Bono, lead singer for the popular Irish rock band U2 and prominent human rights activist. He was born of a Roman Catholic father and a Protestant mother (who died when he was just age 14). In Dublin in 1977, he and school friends David Evans (later “the Edge”), Larry Mullen, Jr., and Adam Clayton

  • Bono (historical state, Africa)

    Bono, Akan state of western Africa from the 15th to the 18th century, located between the forests of Guinea and the savannas of the Sudan in what is now Brong-Ahafo region in the Republic of Ghana. Bono was probably founded about 1450, and its rise was undoubtedly connected with the developing gold

  • Bono, Emilio De (Italian general and politician)

    Emilio De Bono, Italian general, an early convert to Fascism who helped the party’s founder and chief, Benito Mussolini, gain power. Entering the army in 1884 as a second lieutenant, De Bono rose to a place on the general staff in the Italo-Turkish War (1911). In World War I he distinguished

  • Bono, Salvatore (American entertainer and politician)

    Sonny Bono, American entertainer, restaurateur, and politician (born Feb. 16, 1935, Detroit, Mich.—died Jan. 5, 1998, South Lake Tahoe, Calif.), enjoyed a political career that culminated in service in the U.S. House of Representatives but was better remembered as a performer and the driving f

  • Bono, Sonny (American entertainer and politician)

    Sonny Bono, American entertainer, restaurateur, and politician (born Feb. 16, 1935, Detroit, Mich.—died Jan. 5, 1998, South Lake Tahoe, Calif.), enjoyed a political career that culminated in service in the U.S. House of Representatives but was better remembered as a performer and the driving f

  • bonobo (primate)

    Bonobo, (Pan paniscus), ape that was regarded as a subspecies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) until 1933, when it was first classified separately. The bonobo is found only in lowland rainforests along the south bank of the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Closely resembling

  • Bonomi, Ivanoe (prime minister of Italy)

    Ivanoe Bonomi, statesman who served terms as Italian prime minister before and after the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini and who led the anti-Fascist movement during World War II. Elected to Parliament in 1909 as Socialist deputy for Mantua, he was expelled from the Socialist Party in 1912 with

  • Bononcini, Giovanni (Italian composer)

    Giovanni Bononcini, composer, chiefly remembered as Handel’s rival in England. He studied with his father, composer and theoretician Giovanni Maria Bononcini, and later at Bologna. Precocious musical gifts won him his first appointment, as a cellist, in 1687, and he soon became maestro di cappella

  • Bononia (Italy)

    Bologna, city, capital of Emilia-Romagna region, in northern Italy, north of Florence, between the Reno and Savena rivers. It lies at the northern foot of the Apennines, on the ancient Via Aemilia, 180 ft (55 metres) above sea level. Originally the Etruscan Felsina, it was occupied by the Gallic

  • Bonpland, Aimé (French botanist)

    Alexander von Humboldt: Expedition to South America: …accompanied by the French botanist Aimé Bonpland, whom he had met in Paris, then the liveliest scientific centre in Europe. The estate he had inherited at the death of his mother enabled Humboldt to finance the expedition entirely out of his own pocket. Humboldt and Bonpland spent five years, from…

  • Bonporti, Francesco Antonio (Italian composer)

    Francesco Antonio Bonporti, Italian composer notable for his highly original Invenzioni, short instrumental suites from which Johann Sebastian Bach took the title for his keyboard Inventions. Bonporti studied theology and composition in Rome, was ordained, and returned to Trento; in 1697 he was

  • Bons Offices, Les (novel by Mertens)

    Pierre Mertens: …emerges in his third novel, Les Bons Offices (1974; “The Good Offices”), a satire on Western intellectualism in which his Belgian hero Sanchotte, a Cervantean hybrid, finds himself caught between Europe and the Middle East. Terre d’asile (1978; “Land of Refuge”) is a rich, flowing metatext about the experiences of…

  • Bonsack machine (technology)

    cigarette: The Bonsack machine was imported to England in 1883. In the next few years the cigarette industry developed in several European countries.

  • Bonsack, James A. (American manufacturer)

    cigarette: In 1880 James A. Bonsack was granted a U.S. patent for a cigarette machine in which tobacco was fed onto a continuous strip of paper and was automatically formed, pasted, closed, and cut to lengths by a rotary cutting knife. The Bonsack machine was imported to England…

  • bonsai (horticulture)

    Bonsai, (Japanese: “tray-planted”) living dwarf tree or trees or the art of training and growing them in containers. Bonsai specimens are ordinary trees and shrubs (not hereditary dwarfs) that are dwarfed by a system of pruning roots and branches and training branches by tying with wire. The art

  • bonsai cypress (tree)

    conifer: Diversity of size and structure: …are also conifers: the natural bonsai cypresses (Cupressus goveniana) and lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) of the pygmy forests (adjacent to the towering redwood forests) of the northern California coasts. On the sterile hardpan soils of those astounding forests, the trees may reach full maturity at under 0.2 metre (0.7 foot)…

  • Bonset, I. K. (Dutch artist)

    Theo van Doesburg, Dutch painter, decorator, poet, and art theorist who was the leader of the De Stijl movement. Originally van Doesburg intended to pursue a career in the theatre, but he turned to painting about 1900. He worked in Post-Impressionist and Fauvist styles until 1915, when he

  • Bonstetten, Charles Victor von (Swiss writer)

    Karl Viktor von Bonstetten, Swiss writer (in both French and German) of wide cosmopolitan interests and outlook. Of a conservative and patrician family, Bonstetten for 12 years had to resist being forced into the traditional career of municipal magistrate. Instead he studied Horace and Jean-Jacques

  • Bonstetten, Karl Viktor von (Swiss writer)

    Karl Viktor von Bonstetten, Swiss writer (in both French and German) of wide cosmopolitan interests and outlook. Of a conservative and patrician family, Bonstetten for 12 years had to resist being forced into the traditional career of municipal magistrate. Instead he studied Horace and Jean-Jacques

  • bonte quagga (mammal)

    perissodactyl: Zebras: The plains zebra (E. quagga) formerly inhabited a great area of grassland and savanna from the Cape to South Sudan. The southernmost race (E. quagga quagga), which was only partly striped, became extinct in the 19th century. The populations of the other races have been much…

  • bontebok (mammal)

    blesbok: An isolated related subspecies, the bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus dorcas), confined to the coastal plain of Western Cape province, came nearer to extinction and is still uncommon; the largest population, of 200–250, lives in Bontebok National Park.

  • Bontebok National Park (park, South Africa)

    Bontebok National Park, national park in Western Cape province, South Africa. It occupies 12 square miles (32 square km) in the Bre? (Breede) River valley south of the Langeberg mountains. The park, established in 1931, was moved to its present site in 1960. It is a reserve for the rare bontebok

  • Bontecou, Lee (American artist)

    Lee Bontecou, American artist whose work ranged from dark, dramatic abstract constructions to softer, transparent natural forms, evoking a correspondingly broad range of response. Bontecou studied art at Bradford Junior College (now Bradford College) in Massachusetts through 1952 and in New York

  • Bontempelli, Massimo (Italian poet)

    Massimo Bontempelli, Italian poet, novelist, dramatist, and critic whose “magic realism” developed from Futurism. First a teacher, Bontempelli wrote some traditional poetry, later adopted the antitraditional, anarchic literary doctrine of the Futurists, and ultimately developed his own point of

  • Bontemps, Arna (American writer)

    Arna Bontemps, American writer who depicted the lives and struggles of black Americans. After graduating from Pacific Union College, Angwin, California, in 1923, Bontemps taught in New York and elsewhere. His poetry began to appear in the influential black magazines Opportunity and Crisis in the

  • Bontemps, Arna Wendell (American writer)

    Arna Bontemps, American writer who depicted the lives and struggles of black Americans. After graduating from Pacific Union College, Angwin, California, in 1923, Bontemps taught in New York and elsewhere. His poetry began to appear in the influential black magazines Opportunity and Crisis in the

  • Bonthe (Sierra Leone)

    Bonthe, Atlantic seaport, southwestern Sierra Leone. It lies on the eastern shore of Sherbro Island, on the Sherbro River estuary. A 19th-century British control post against the slave trade, it was settled by freed African slaves and grew as a shipping port for agricultural products. Its harbour

  • Bonus Army (United States history)

    Bonus Army, gathering of probably 10,000 to 25,000 World War I veterans (estimates vary widely) who, with their wives and children, converged on Washington, D.C., in 1932, demanding immediate bonus payment for wartime services to alleviate the economic hardship of the Great Depression. Adjusted

  • Bonvesin da la Riva (Italian poet)

    Bonvesin Da La Riva, Italian teacher, moralist, and poet, whose most important work, the vernacular poetry of Libro delle tre scritture (1274; “Book of the Three Writings”), described in three sections the pains of hell, the joys of heaven, and the Passion. A member of the Humiliati (Umiliati), a

  • bonxie (bird species)

    skua: …also known in Britain as skuas are called jaegers in the United States (see jaeger). All belong to the family Stercorariidae (order Charadriiformes).

  • bony fish (superclass of fish)

    Bony fish, any member of the superclass Osteichthyes, a group made up of the classes Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes) and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) in the subphylum Vertebrata, including the great majority of living fishes and virtually all the world’s sport and commercial fishes. The

  • bony labyrinth (anatomy)

    inner ear: The bony labyrinth, a cavity in the temporal bone, is divided into three sections: the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea. Within the bony labyrinth is a membranous labyrinth, which is also divided into three parts: the semicircular ducts; two saclike structures, the saccule and…

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