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  • boscage (botany)

    allée: … normally passed through a planted boscage (a small wood); in the 17th century the boscage was square-trimmed at the sides and on top; later the sides were trained so high that the free-branching trees within the wood were invisible. As architectural gardening became unfashionable in the 18th century, the trimming…

  • Boscán, Juan (Spanish poet)

    Juan Boscán, Catalan poet who wrote exclusively in Castilian and adapted the Italian hendecasyllable to that language. Though a minor poet, Boscán is of major historical importance because of his naturalizing of Italian metres and verse forms, an experiment that induced one of the greatest of all

  • Boscawen, Edward (British admiral)

    Edward Boscawen, British admiral who played a distinguished part in the Seven Years’ War. The third son of Hugh, 1st Viscount Falmouth, Boscawen entered the navy at an early age, serving under Vice Admiral Francis Hosier in the West Indies in 1726 and under Admiral Edward Vernon at Portobelo (1739)

  • Bosch Gavi?o, Juan (president of Dominican Republic)

    Juan Bosch, Dominican writer, scholar, and politician elected president of the Dominican Republic in 1962 but deposed less than a year later. Bosch, an intellectual, was an early opponent of Rafael Trujillo’s dictatorial regime. He went into exile in 1937 and in 1939 founded the leftist Dominican

  • Bosch GmbH (German corporation)

    Bosch GmbH, German company that is Europe’s largest auto-parts manufacturer and one of the world’s leading makers of auto ignition, fuel injection, and antilock braking systems. The company also produces industrial hydraulic and pneumatic equipment, telecommunications equipment and systems, power t

  • Bosch, Carl (German chemist)

    Carl Bosch, German industrial chemist who developed the Haber-Bosch process for high-pressure synthesis of ammonia and received, with Friedrich Bergius, the 1931 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for devising chemical high-pressure methods. Bosch was educated at the University of Leipzig, where he studied

  • Bosch, Hi?ronymus (Netherlandish painter)

    Hi?ronymus Bosch, brilliant and original northern European painter whose work reveals an unusual iconography of a complex and individual style. He was recognized as a highly imaginative “creator of devils” and a powerful inventor of seeming nonsense full of satirical and moralizing meaning. Bosch

  • Bosch, Johannes, graaf van den (Dutch statesman)

    Johannes, count van den Bosch, statesman who expanded the poor-relief system and instituted the paternalistic Dutch East Indies Culture System, by which vast riches in export crops were extracted from 1830 to about 1860. In his early years (1798–1810), Bosch served in the army in Batavia (now

  • Bosch, Juan (president of Dominican Republic)

    Juan Bosch, Dominican writer, scholar, and politician elected president of the Dominican Republic in 1962 but deposed less than a year later. Bosch, an intellectual, was an early opponent of Rafael Trujillo’s dictatorial regime. He went into exile in 1937 and in 1939 founded the leftist Dominican

  • Bosch, Robert (German engineer)

    Robert Bosch, German engineer and industrialist who was responsible for the invention of the spark plug and magneto for automobiles and whose firm produced a wide range of precision machines and electrical equipment in plants throughout the world. Trained in the United States, where he worked with

  • Bosch, Robert August (German engineer)

    Robert Bosch, German engineer and industrialist who was responsible for the invention of the spark plug and magneto for automobiles and whose firm produced a wide range of precision machines and electrical equipment in plants throughout the world. Trained in the United States, where he worked with

  • Boschini, Marco (Italian historian)

    art criticism: Art criticism in the 17th century: Programmatic theory: In contrast, the Venetian Marco Boschini, in La carta del navegar pitoresco (1660; “Map of the Picturesque Journey”) and Le ricche minere della pittura veneziana (1674; “Rich Mines of Venetian Painting”), celebrates the vitality of 16th-century Venetian painting, especially the work of Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese. He admires the…

  • Boschniakia (plant genus)
  • Boschniakia rossica (plant)

    Lamiales: Order characteristics: …to a member of Orobanchaceae, Boschniakia rossica, a small parasitic plant that produces more than 300,000 seeds. The size of seeds in Lamiales ranges from the dustlike seeds of broomrapes (Orobanchaceae), which can be less than 0.3 mm (0.01 inch) long, to the long, thin seeds of some members of…

  • Bosco, Don (Italian educator)

    St. John Bosco, ; canonized April 1, 1934; feast day January 31), Roman Catholic priest who was a pioneer in educating the poor and founded the Salesian order. Bosco was ordained a priest (1841) in Turin and, influenced by St. Joseph Cafasso, began to work to alleviate the plight of boys who came

  • Bosco, Henri (French author)

    children's literature: The 20th century: …original temperament was that of Henri Bosco, author of four eerie, haunting Proven?al novels about the boy Pascalet and his strange involvements with a gypsy companion, a fox, and a dog in a shifting, legend-shrouded natural world. It may be that time will rate these books, like those of the…

  • Bosco, Robbie (American football player)

    Utah: Sports and recreation: Robbie Bosco, and Ty Detmer.

  • Bosco, San Giovanni Melchior (Italian educator)

    St. John Bosco, ; canonized April 1, 1934; feast day January 31), Roman Catholic priest who was a pioneer in educating the poor and founded the Salesian order. Bosco was ordained a priest (1841) in Turin and, influenced by St. Joseph Cafasso, began to work to alleviate the plight of boys who came

  • Bosco, St. John (Italian educator)

    St. John Bosco, ; canonized April 1, 1934; feast day January 31), Roman Catholic priest who was a pioneer in educating the poor and founded the Salesian order. Bosco was ordained a priest (1841) in Turin and, influenced by St. Joseph Cafasso, began to work to alleviate the plight of boys who came

  • Boscoreale (ancient city, Italy)

    metalwork: Roman: …and the most sumptuous, the Boscoreale treasure (mostly in the Louvre), was accidentally saved by the same volcanic catastrophe that destroyed Herculaneum and killed Pliny in ad 79. A slightly smaller hoard found at Hildesheim (now in Berlin) also belongs to the early empire. The acquisition and appreciation of silver…

  • Boscovich, Ruggero Giuseppe (Italian astronomer and mathematician)

    Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich, astronomer and mathematician who gave the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position. Boscovich’s father was a

  • Bose (China)

    Baise, city, western Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, China. It lies along the You River, which flows southeast to Nanning (the capital of Guangxi), and is situated at its junction with its tributary, the Chengbi River. It is at the limit of navigation on the You River for small craft and is

  • Bose condensation (physics)

    Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, ? 273.15 °C, or ? 459.67 °F; K = kelvin), coalesce into a single quantum mechanical entity—that is, one that can be described by a wave function—on a near-macroscopic

  • Bose Levu Vakaturaga (Fiji group of hereditary clan leaders)

    Fiji: Constitutional framework: …turn was appointed by the Bose Levu Vakaturaga (Great Council of Chiefs), a body composed of the hereditary leaders of the 70 major Fijian clans. It also called for a House of Representatives and a Senate. After yet another military coup in 2006, the 1997 constitution was declared to be…

  • Bose, Ananda Mohan (Indian politician)

    Indian Association: …Surendranath Banerjea and Ananda Mohan Bose; it soon displaced the Indian League, which had been founded the year before, and rivaled the long-standing British Indian Association, which it regarded as a reactionary body of landlords and industrialists. The association was supported mainly by younger professional men among the Bengali intelligentsia.…

  • Bose, Buddhadeva (Indian author)

    South Asian arts: Bengali: …the poet and prose writer Buddhadeva Bose.

  • Bose, Sarat Chandra (Indian lawyer and politician)

    Subhas Chandra Bose: Early life and political activity: …emotionally by an elder brother, Sarat Chandra Bose (1889–1950), a wealthy Calcutta lawyer and Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) politician.

  • Bose, Satyendra Nath (Indian physicist)

    Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian mathematician and physicist noted for his collaboration with Albert Einstein in developing a theory regarding the gaslike qualities of electromagnetic radiation (see Bose-Einstein statistics). Bose, a graduate of the University of Calcutta, taught at the University of

  • Bose, Sir Jagadis Chandra (Indian plant physiologist and physicist)

    Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, Indian plant physiologist and physicist whose invention of highly sensitive instruments for the detection of minute responses by living organisms to external stimuli enabled him to anticipate the parallelism between animal and plant tissues noted by later biophysicists.

  • Bose, Sir Jagadish Chandra (Indian plant physiologist and physicist)

    Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, Indian plant physiologist and physicist whose invention of highly sensitive instruments for the detection of minute responses by living organisms to external stimuli enabled him to anticipate the parallelism between animal and plant tissues noted by later biophysicists.

  • Bose, Subhas Chandra (Indian leader)

    Subhas Chandra Bose, Indian revolutionary prominent in the independence movement against British rule of India. He also led an Indian national force from abroad against the Western powers during World War II. He was a contemporary of Mohandas K. Gandhi, at times an ally and at other times an

  • Bose-Einstein condensate (physics)

    Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, ? 273.15 °C, or ? 459.67 °F; K = kelvin), coalesce into a single quantum mechanical entity—that is, one that can be described by a wave function—on a near-macroscopic

  • Bose-Einstein condensation (physics)

    Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, ? 273.15 °C, or ? 459.67 °F; K = kelvin), coalesce into a single quantum mechanical entity—that is, one that can be described by a wave function—on a near-macroscopic

  • Bose-Einstein statistics (physics)

    Bose-Einstein statistics, one of two possible ways in which a collection of indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states. The aggregation of particles in the same state, which is characteristic of particles obeying Bose-Einstein statistics, accounts for the

  • B?selager, Count Philipp von (German army officer)

    Count Philipp von B?selager, German army officer (born Sept. 6, 1917, Burg Heimerzheim, near Bonn, Ger.—died May 1, 2008, Altenahr, Ger.), provided the plastic explosives for the briefcase bomb that was used in the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler by German officers on July 20, 1944. B?selager

  • Boselaphini (mammal tribe)

    antelope: Classification: and bushbucks) Tribe Boselaphini (includes the nilgai and the four-horned antelope) Subfamily Cephalophinae Tribe Cephalophini (duikers) Subfamily

  • Boselaphus tragocamelus (mammal)

    Nilgai, (Boselaphus tragocamelus), the largest Asian antelope (family Bovidae). The nilgai is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, and Hindus accord it the same sacred status as cattle (both belong to the subfamily Bovinae). Accordingly, the nilgai is the only one of the four Indian antelopes

  • Boselli, Paolo (Italian statesman)

    Paolo Boselli, statesman who headed the Italian government that declared war on Germany in World War I. The first professor of financial science at the University of Rome, Boselli served as a parliamentary deputy for half a century from 1870 to 1921, representing the right centre, and as a senator

  • Boselli, Tony (American football player)

    Jacksonville Jaguars: …pick was future All-Pro tackle Tony Boselli, who would serve as the anchor of a productive offense that helped the Jaguars quickly become a winning franchise. After posting a 4–12 record in their inaugural season, the Jaguars went 9–7 and earned a spot in the AFC playoffs the following season…

  • Boseman, Chadwick (American actor)

    Black Panther: …War, a blockbuster that cast Chadwick Boseman as the Wakandan prince. The character subsequently experienced something of a renaissance, with the success of Coates’s flagship title leading to the release of Black Panther: World of Wakanda, a series that explored Wakanda’s other heroes, and Black Panther &amp; the Crew, a…

  • Bosen, Jens Vera Cruz (American director)

    James Cruze, American film director and actor who was a giant in the days of silent films but became a minor figure after the advent of sound. Cruze was born to Mormon parents and reputedly partly of Ute Indian origin. He left Utah for San Francisco in 1900 and gravitated to the stage. (Some

  • B?sendorfer piano

    Ignaz B?sendorfer: B?sendorfer served an apprenticeship with the Viennese piano maker Joseph Brodmann. After Franz Liszt began using B?sendorfer’s instruments, his company gained international fame, and B?sendorfer was formally recognized by the Austrian emperor as imperial piano-manufacturer in 1830.

  • B?sendorfer, Ignaz (Austrian piano craftsman)

    Ignaz B?sendorfer, Austrian builder of pianos and founder of the firm that bears his name. B?sendorfer served an apprenticeship with the Viennese piano maker Joseph Brodmann. After Franz Liszt began using B?sendorfer’s instruments, his company gained international fame, and B?sendorfer was formally

  • bosh (metallurgy)

    blast furnace: The bosh is the hottest part of the furnace because of its close proximity to the reaction between air and coke. Molten iron accumulates in the hearth, which has a taphole to draw off the molten iron and, higher up, a slag hole to remove the…

  • bosh parallel (metallurgy)

    iron processing: Structure: …short vertical section called the bosh parallel, or the barrel, connects the bosh to the truncated upright cone that is the stack. Finally, the fifth and topmost section, through which the charge enters the furnace, is the throat. The lining in the bosh and hearth, where the highest temperatures occur,…

  • Bosh, Chris (American basketball player)

    Miami Heat: …James and All-Star power forward Chris Bosh. The star-studded Heat were the focus of a great deal of media attention during the 2010–11 campaign. After an uneven start to the regular season, the team charged through the play-offs, losing a total of just three games en route to the NBA…

  • Boshan (district, Zibo, China)

    Zibo: Zhoucun, Zichuan, and Boshan. Each is now a district of the municipality. Zhangdian, in the north-central part of the municipality, is its administrative seat. Linzi constitutes the eastern district and Zhoucun the western. Stretching to the south are Zichuan and Boshan; the name Zibo was coined by combining…

  • boshan xianglu (Chinese incense burner)

    Boshan xianglu, Chinese bronze censer common in the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220). Censers (vessels made for burning incense) of this type were made to represent the form of the Bo Mountain (Bo Shan), a mythical land of immortality. Typically, the censer has a round pedestal base with molded patterns

  • Bos?āq (Persian poet)

    Islamic arts: Parodies of classic forms: …classic models of literature; thus, Bos?āq (died c. 1426) composed odes and ghazals exclusively on the subject of food.

  • Boshevism

    Leninism, principles expounded by Vladimir I. Lenin, who was the preeminent figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917. Whether Leninist concepts represented a contribution to or a corruption of Marxist thought has been debated, but their influence on the subsequent development of communism in the

  • Bosio, Fran?ois-Joseph, Baron (French sculptor)

    Antoine-Louis Barye: …the studio of the sculptor Fran?ois Bosio. He was also influenced by the Romantic paintings of Théodore Géricault. From 1823 to 1831 he worked with Jacques-Henri Fauconnier, a goldsmith.

  • bosken, Het (work by Noot)

    Jan Baptista van der Noot: …work was published in England—Het bosken (1570 or 1571; “The Little Wood”), a collection of his earliest poetry in the style and form of the Italian poet Petrarch and the French poet Pierre de Ronsard. In 1568 one of his main works had appeared, Het theatre oft toon-neel (“Theatre…

  • Bosko (cartoon character)

    Looney Tunes: …in the Bathtub (1930), featured Bosko, a wide-eyed character that bore an uncanny resemblance to Otto Messmer’s Felix the Cat. Sinkin’ in the Bathtub’s bawdy humour was a hit with moviegoers, and the cartoon concluded with Bosko addressing the audience with a phrase that would become a Looney Tunes trademark—“That’s…

  • Boskop skull (fossil human remnant)

    Boskop skull, human fossil remnant consisting of a portion of a skull dome unearthed in 1913 by labourers on a farm near the village of Boskop in the Transvaal, South Africa. The specimen consisted of the greater part of the frontal and parietal bones and a small portion of the occipital.

  • Bo?kovi?, Rudjer Josip (Italian astronomer and mathematician)

    Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich, astronomer and mathematician who gave the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position. Boscovich’s father was a

  • Bosley, Thomas Edward (American actor)

    Tom Bosley, (Thomas Edward Bosley), American actor (born Oct. 1, 1927, Chicago, Ill.—died Oct. 19, 2010, Palm Springs, Calif.), was best remembered for his portrayal of Howard Cunningham, the affable paternal head of a Wisconsin family that included son Richie, daughter Joanie, and wife Marion on

  • Bosley, Tom (American actor)

    Tom Bosley, (Thomas Edward Bosley), American actor (born Oct. 1, 1927, Chicago, Ill.—died Oct. 19, 2010, Palm Springs, Calif.), was best remembered for his portrayal of Howard Cunningham, the affable paternal head of a Wisconsin family that included son Richie, daughter Joanie, and wife Marion on

  • Bosman, Herman Charles (South African author)

    Herman Charles Bosman, South African writer who is noted for his short stories depicting rural Afrikaner character and life. Bosman, the son of Afrikaner parents, had an English education at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, where he took his degree in education. His teaching career

  • Bosman, Jean-Marc (Belgian athlete)

    football: Europe: …the early 1990s, Belgian player Jean-Marc Bosman sued the Belgian Football Association, challenging European football’s traditional rule that all transfers of players (including those without contracts) necessitate an agreement between the clubs in question, usually involving a transfer fee. Bosman had been prevented from joining a new club (US Dunkerque)…

  • Bosna i Hercegovina, Republika

    Bosnia and Herzegovina, country situated in the western Balkan Peninsula of Europe. The larger region of Bosnia occupies the northern and central parts of the country, and Herzegovina occupies the south and southwest. These historical regions do not correspond with the two autonomous political

  • Bosna River (river, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Bosna River, river of Bosnia and Herzegovina, rising from a spring at the foot of Mount Igman and following a 168-mile (271-km) course northward to enter the Sava River. Its tributaries are the ?eljeznica, Miljacka, Fojnica, La?va, Gostovi?, Krivaja, Usora, and Spre?a rivers, all noted for

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Bosnia and Herzegovina, country situated in the western Balkan Peninsula of Europe. The larger region of Bosnia occupies the northern and central parts of the country, and Herzegovina occupies the south and southwest. These historical regions do not correspond with the two autonomous political

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation of (region, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    20th-century international relations: The Balkans: …Herzegovina divided roughly between the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (a decentralized federation of Croats and Bosniaks) and the Republika Srpska (Bosnian Serb Republic).

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina, flag of

    national flag consisting of a blue field (background) divided by a large yellow triangle and a diagonal line of nine white stars; the stars at the top and bottom are cut off by the edges of the flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.Bosnia, with its mixed ethnic population, never developed

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina, history of

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: History: When the Romans extended their conquests into the territory of modern Bosnia during the 2nd and 1st centuries bce, the people they encountered there belonged mainly to Illyrian tribes. Most of the area of modern Bosnia was incorporated into the…

  • Bosniac (people)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnia and Herzegovina in communist Yugoslavia: From the mid-1990s the term Bosniak replaced Muslim as the name Bosnian Muslims use for themselves.

  • Bosniak (people)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnia and Herzegovina in communist Yugoslavia: From the mid-1990s the term Bosniak replaced Muslim as the name Bosnian Muslims use for themselves.

  • Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (political organization, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina: …parts of the republic, the Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska (Bosnian Serb Republic), were largely autonomous, each having its own assembly.

  • Bosnian church (Bosnian history)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ancient and medieval periods: …the development of a distinctive Bosnian church. After the schism of 1054 divided Western (Latin, or Roman Catholic) and Eastern (Eastern Orthodox) Christianity, most of the Bosnian territory (excluding modern Herzegovina) was Latin, but during the long period of isolation from Rome the Bosnian church fell into its own de…

  • Bosnian crisis of 1908 (Balkan history)

    Bosnian crisis of 1908, state of severe international tension caused by the annexation by Austria-Hungary of the Balkan provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Congress of Berlin (1878) had given Austria-Hungary the right to occupy and administer Bosnia and Herzegovina temporarily, but the

  • Bosnian language

    Serbo-Croatian language, term of convenience used to refer to the forms of speech employed by Serbs, Croats, and other South Slavic groups (such as Montenegrins and Bosniaks, as Muslim Bosnians are known). The term Serbo-Croatian was coined in 1824 by German dictionary maker and folklorist Jacob

  • Bosnian Serb Republic (political organization, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina: … and the Republika Srpska (Bosnian Serb Republic), were largely autonomous, each having its own assembly.

  • Bosnian War (European history [1992–1995])

    Bosnian War, ethnically rooted war (1992–95) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a former republic of Yugoslavia with a multiethnic population comprising Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Serbs, and Croats. After years of bitter fighting that involved the three Bosnian groups as well as the Yugoslav army, Western

  • Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian language

    Serbo-Croatian language, term of convenience used to refer to the forms of speech employed by Serbs, Croats, and other South Slavic groups (such as Montenegrins and Bosniaks, as Muslim Bosnians are known). The term Serbo-Croatian was coined in 1824 by German dictionary maker and folklorist Jacob

  • Boso (king of Provence)

    Boso, king of lower Burgundy, or Provence, from 877. The son of Buvin (or Beuves), Count of Ardennes, Boso was given the governance of Lombardy (876) by his brother-in-law Charles II the Bald, king of the West Franks (France), and received the title of duke. During the minorities of the West F

  • Bōsō Peninsula (peninsula, Japan)

    Bōsō Peninsula, peninsula, coextensive with Chiba ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It extends for 81 miles (130 km) into the Pacific Ocean, enclosing Tokyo Bay on the west. The Bōsō Peninsula has a maximum width of 66 miles (106 km) and is marked by low hills that decrease in height from s

  • Bōsō-hantō (peninsula, Japan)

    Bōsō Peninsula, peninsula, coextensive with Chiba ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It extends for 81 miles (130 km) into the Pacific Ocean, enclosing Tokyo Bay on the west. The Bōsō Peninsula has a maximum width of 66 miles (106 km) and is marked by low hills that decrease in height from s

  • Bosom Buddies (American television program)

    Tom Hanks: …costar of the television series Bosom Buddies (1980–82). His work in the hit film Splash (1984) earned him leads in other comedies, including Bachelor Party (1984), Volunteers (1985), and The Money Pit (1986). He successfully mixed comedy with drama in Nothing in Common (1986) and Punchline (1988), and his portrayal…

  • Bosomasi Rapids (Pra river, Ghana)

    Pra: Constantly broken by cataracts—especially the Bosomasi Rapids at Anyinabrim—the river is unnavigable even by canoe for most of its length. Oda is the commercial centre of the river’s northern basin.

  • Boson (king of Provence)

    Boso, king of lower Burgundy, or Provence, from 877. The son of Buvin (or Beuves), Count of Ardennes, Boso was given the governance of Lombardy (876) by his brother-in-law Charles II the Bald, king of the West Franks (France), and received the title of duke. During the minorities of the West F

  • boson (subatomic particle)

    Boson, subatomic particle with integral spin (i.e., angular momentum in quantum-mechanical units of 0, 1, etc.) that is governed by the Bose-Einstein statistics (q.v.). Bosons include mesons (e.g., pions and kaons), nuclei of even mass number (e.g., helium-4), and the particles required to embody

  • Boson, Nicholas (English author)

    Cornish literature: Nicholas Boson’s Nebbaz gerriau dro tho Carnoack (c. 1665; “A Few Words About Cornish”) gives an account of the status of Cornish during the 17th century. From about 1680 the scholar William Scawen encouraged his contemporaries to write in Cornish. A number of them, notably…

  • Bosora (Syria)

    Bostra, ruined Syrian city, 67 miles (108 km) south of Damascus. First a Nabataean city, it was conquered by the Roman emperor Trajan, made the capital of the Roman province of Arabia, and served as a key Roman fortress east of the Jordan River. The city eventually achieved the title metropolis

  • Bosorra (Syria)

    Bostra, ruined Syrian city, 67 miles (108 km) south of Damascus. First a Nabataean city, it was conquered by the Roman emperor Trajan, made the capital of the Roman province of Arabia, and served as a key Roman fortress east of the Jordan River. The city eventually achieved the title metropolis

  • BoSox (American baseball team)

    Boston Red Sox, American professional baseball team based in Boston. One of the most-storied franchises in American sports, the Red Sox have won nine World Series titles and 14 American League (AL) pennants. Founded in 1901, the franchise (then unofficially known as the Boston Americans) was one of

  • Bosphorus (strait, Turkey)

    Bosporus, strait (bo?az, “throat”) uniting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara and separating parts of Asian Turkey (Anatolia) from European Turkey. The Bosporus is 19 miles (30 km) long, with a maximum width of 2.3 miles (3.7 km) at the northern entrance and a minimum width of 2,450 feet (750

  • Bosphorus II (bridge, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Bosporus: The second bridge, the Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Bosporus II), was completed in 1988 and has a main span of 3,576 feet (1,090 metres). A rail tunnel under the Bosporus opened in 2013.

  • Bosporus (strait, Turkey)

    Bosporus, strait (bo?az, “throat”) uniting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara and separating parts of Asian Turkey (Anatolia) from European Turkey. The Bosporus is 19 miles (30 km) long, with a maximum width of 2.3 miles (3.7 km) at the northern entrance and a minimum width of 2,450 feet (750

  • Bosporus I Bridge (bridge, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Bosporus: The first, the Bo?azi?i (Bosporus I) Bridge, was completed in 1973 and has a main span of 3,524 feet (1,074 metres). The second bridge, the Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Bosporus II), was completed in 1988 and has a main span of 3,576 feet (1,090 metres). A rail tunnel under the…

  • Bosporus II (bridge, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Bosporus: The second bridge, the Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Bosporus II), was completed in 1988 and has a main span of 3,576 feet (1,090 metres). A rail tunnel under the Bosporus opened in 2013.

  • Bosporus, Kingdom of the (ancient state, Ukraine)

    Kingdom of the Bosporus, ancient Greek state situated on Kerch Strait in present-day southern Ukraine. It reached its peak of power in the 4th century bc. The kingdom’s major city, Panticapaeum (modern Kerch), was ruled by the Archaeanactid dynasty (480–438 bc), then by the Spartocid dynasty

  • boss (architecture)

    Boss, in medieval architecture, keystone used in vaulting to provide a junction for intersecting ribs and to cover the actual complex of mitred joints. In medieval England it was highly developed, but in France it was less developed because of the greater height of French naves. By the 13th

  • Boss (American television series)

    Kelsey Grammer: …gravitas, in the cable series Boss (2011–12). In 2012 he won a Golden Globe Award for his performance on the show. Grammer was paired with Martin Lawrence in 2014 in Partners, a series about two Chicago lawyers. That year he also assumed villainous roles on the big screen in the…

  • BOSS (South African police)

    intelligence: South Africa: …State Security—often referred to as BOSS—was an aggressive security service that placed agents in black communities, arrested dissidents, and assassinated real and suspected enemies of the regime. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, established after the peaceful transition to democratic rule in the 1990s and led by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, brought…

  • boss (Mafia)

    Mafia: …was a “boss,” or “don,” whose authority could be challenged only by the commission. Each don had an underboss, who functioned as a vice president or deputy director, and a consigliere, or counselor, who had considerable power and influence. Below the underboss were the caporegime, or lieutenants, who, acting…

  • Boss Baby, The (film by McGrath [2017])

    Alec Baldwin: 30 Rock, SNL, and later films: …to such animated films as The Boss Baby (2017) and Arctic Dogs (2019).

  • Boss of the Blues (American musician)

    boogie-woogie: …the term itself, Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson, and Meade “Lux” Lewis.

  • Boss Puzzle (game)

    Fifteen Puzzle, puzzle consisting of 15 squares, numbered 1 through 15, which can be slid horizontally or vertically within a four-by-four grid that has one empty space among its 16 locations. The object of the puzzle is to arrange the squares in numerical sequence using only the extra space in the

  • Boss Radio (American radio station)

    KHJ, “Boss Radio”: Los Angeles’ KHJ, better known as “Boss Radio” in the mid-1960s, was the most imitated station of its time. After years of “personality” radio—dominated by deejay chatter and replete with long jingles—it ushered in the mainstreaming of Top 40 radio. Its designer, Bill Drake, a…

  • Boss, Benjamin (American astronomer)

    astronomical map: Star names and designations: …specified as GC 25466, from Benjamin Boss’s General Catalogue of 33,342 Stars (1937), or as ADS 11510, from Robert Grant Aitken’s New General Catalogue of Double Stars (1932). These are the most widely used numbering systems. For more obscure names, such as Ross 614 or Lalande 21185, most astronomers would…

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