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  • Ballestrero, Anastasio Alberto Cardinal (archbishop of Turin)

    Anastasio Alberto Cardinal Ballestrero, Italian Roman Catholic priest who served as archbishop of Turin from 1977 to 1989 and as such was custodian of the Shroud of Turin; he allowed scientific dating tests to be performed on the shroud and later made the announcement that it dated from the Middle

  • ballet (dance)

    Ballet, theatrical dance in which a formal academic dance technique—the danse d’école—is combined with other artistic elements such as music, costume, and stage scenery. The academic technique itself is also known as ballet. This article surveys the history of ballet. Ballet traces its origins to

  • ballet (skiing)

    skiing: Freestyle skiing: …acrobatics and includes three events: acro, aerials, and moguls. Formerly known as ballet, acro was invented in the early 1930s in Europe. Utilizing moves from figure skating and gymnastics, the acro skier performs a 90-second routine set to music, in which jumps, flips, and spins are executed while skiing a…

  • Ballet 422 (film by Lipes [2014])

    Justin Peck: …of filmmaker Jody Lee Lipes’s Ballet 422 (2014), a documentary that followed Peck for two months as he created NYCB’s 422nd original dance, Paz de la Jolla. That year 2wice Arts Foundation also partnered with Peck and NYCB principal Daniel Ulbricht to develop the iPad app Passe-Partout. The program allowed…

  • Ballet Caravan (American ballet company)

    American Ballet: Ballet Caravan, founded by Kirstein in 1936 to produce works by young American choreographers, presented many American Ballet dancers in the early works of Eugene Loring, Lew Christensen, and William Dollar. The company toured the United States in 1938. Its dancers rejoined the American Ballet,…

  • Ballet comique de la reine (dance by Beaujoyeulx)

    Ballet comique de la reine, court entertainment that is considered the first ballet. Enacted in 1581 at the French court of Catherine de Médicis by the Queen, her ladies, and the nobles of the court to celebrate the betrothal of her sister, it fused the elements of music, dance, plot (the escape

  • ballet company

    ballet: Companies: Every one of these celebrated artists belonged to a larger entity: a company. Companies can operate successfully only if knowledgeable members who understand the vital aspects and particularities of ballet’s nature are prepared to devote themselves to the art form and its institutions. Ballet…

  • ballet d’action (dance)

    Ballet d’action, ballet in which all the elements of production (e.g., choreography, set design, and costuming) are subordinate to the plot and theme. John Weaver, an English ballet master of the early 18th century, is considered the originator of pantomime ballet, a drama in dance form that

  • ballet de cour (dance)

    Western dance: The birth of ballet: … launched the species known as ballet de cour, in which the monarchs themselves participated. The idealized dances represented the supreme order that France itself, suffering from internal wars, lacked so badly. The steps were those of the social dances of the times, but scholars became aware of how these native…

  • Ballet de Cuba (ballet company)

    ballet: Ballet in the cultural milieu: The Ballet Nacional de Cuba was founded in 1948 by Cuban ballerina Alicia Alonso, who also headed the National School of Ballet Alicia Alonso (founded 1950). It provides a good model of how a western European tradition is taken up and reinterpreted to suit national and…

  • Ballet Folklorico (Mexican ballet company)

    Latin American dance: Mexico: …named Amalia Hernández founded the Ballet Folklórico de México, a dance spectacle in the grand style of the Ballets Russes (which was established in 1909), with elaborate costumes, scenery, and lighting. As the American dancer Katherine Dunham had done in the 1930s using Caribbean dance, Hernández created a hybrid form…

  • Ballet mécanique, Le (film by Léger)

    Fernand Léger: …he conceived, directed, and produced The Mechanical Ballet, a purely non-narrative film with photography by Man Ray and Dudley Murphy and music by the American composer George Antheil. He also designed sets for ballets and motion pictures, and he created mosaics and stained-glass windows. Léger was interested in the relationship…

  • ballet movement (dance)

    Ballet movement, in classical ballet, any of the formalized actions of a dancer that follow specific rules regarding the positions of the arms, feet, and body. Ballet choreography is based on combinations of these fundamental movements. Some movements, like the plié and battement, are training

  • Ballet Nacional de Cuba (ballet company)

    ballet: Ballet in the cultural milieu: The Ballet Nacional de Cuba was founded in 1948 by Cuban ballerina Alicia Alonso, who also headed the National School of Ballet Alicia Alonso (founded 1950). It provides a good model of how a western European tradition is taken up and reinterpreted to suit national and…

  • Ballet Nationale Guinéen (ballet company, Guinea)

    Guinea: The arts: The professional National Guinean Ballet, which emerged after independence, has retained some of the dance and music of the distinct ethnic and regional groups. Creative accomplishments in modern dance and popular music have given Guinean musicians and singers an international reputation. One of the best-known contemporary Guinean…

  • ballet position (dance)

    Ballet position, any of the five positions of the feet fundamental to all classical ballet. The term may also denote the various poses of the body. First used by Thoinot Arbeau in 1588, codified by Pierre Beauchamp circa 1680, and set down by Pierre Rameau in Le Ma?tre à danser (1725; The Dancing

  • Ballet Rambert (British ballet company)

    Rambert, the oldest existing dance company in England. Initially established to perform ballets, it evolved into a contemporary dance company. It has been an important training ground for young talent; among the famous artists who gained early experience with the company were the dancers Alicia

  • Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo (ballet company)

    Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, ballet company founded in Monte-Carlo in 1932. The name Ballets Russes had been used by the impresario Serge Diaghilev for his company, which revolutionized ballet in the first three decades of the 20th century. Under the direction of Colonel W. de Basil, the Ballet

  • Ballet Society (American ballet company)

    New York City Ballet, resident ballet company of the New York State Theatre at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. The company, first named Ballet Society, was founded in 1946 by the choreographer George Balanchine (artistic director) and Lincoln Kirstein (general director) as a private

  • Ballet Theatre (American ballet company)

    American Ballet Theatre, ballet company based in New York City and having an affiliated school. It was founded in 1939 by Lucia Chase and Richard Pleasant and presented its first performance on January 11, 1940. Chase was director, with Oliver Smith, from 1945 to 1980. The dancer Mikhail

  • Ballet West (American ballet company)

    Willam Christensen: …it changed its name to Ballet West. Christensen retired as director a decade later and was succeeded by Bruce Marks. As a choreographer, Christensen created works to music by J.S. Bach, Felix Mendelssohn, Igor Stravinsky, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Darius Milhaud.

  • Ballets 1933, Les (American ballet company)

    George Balanchine: The European years: …founders of the avant-garde company Les Ballets 1933, whose work so enormously impressed the American dance enthusiast Lincoln Kirstein that he invited Balanchine to organize the School of American Ballet and the American Ballet company (of which Kirstein was cofounder and director), thus beginning the association of “Mr. B.,” as…

  • Ballets de Paris de Roland Petit (French ballet company)

    Roland Petit: In 1948 he formed the Ballets de Paris de Roland Petit (1948–50, 1953–54, 1955, and 1958), which made several tours of Europe and the United States. Dancers who rose to prominence in his companies include Jean Babilée, Colette Marchand, Leslie Caron, and Renée (“Zizi”) Jeanmaire, whom he married in 1954.

  • Ballets des Champs-Elysées, Les (French ballet company)

    Roland Petit: …Petit was instrumental in creating Les Ballets des Champs-Elysées, where he remained as principal dancer, ballet master, and choreographer until 1947. In 1948 he formed the Ballets de Paris de Roland Petit (1948–50, 1953–54, 1955, and 1958), which made several tours of Europe and the United States. Dancers who rose…

  • Ballets Russes (ballet company)

    Ballets Russes, ballet company founded in Paris in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev. The original company included the choreographer Michel Fokine and the dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky; the choreographer George Balanchine joined in 1925. Music was commissioned of

  • Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo (ballet company)

    Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, ballet company founded in Monte-Carlo in 1932. The name Ballets Russes had been used by the impresario Serge Diaghilev for his company, which revolutionized ballet in the first three decades of the 20th century. Under the direction of Colonel W. de Basil, the Ballet

  • Balletti a cinque voci…per cantare, sonare, et ballare (work by Gastoldi)

    balletto: …Gastoldi in 1591 in his Balletti a cinque voci . . . per cantare, sonare, et ballare (Balletti in Five Voices . . . to Sing, Play, and Dance).

  • balletto (music)

    Balletto, in music, genre of light vocal composition of the late 16th–early 17th centuries, originating in Italy. Dancelike and having much in common with the madrigal, a major vocal form of the period, it is typically strophic (stanzaic) with each of the two repeated parts ending in a “fa-la-la”

  • Balli di Sfessania (engravings by Callot)

    Jacques Callot: …or dual figures—for example, the Balli di Sfessania (“Dance of Sfessania”), the Caprices of Various Figures, and the Hunchbacks—are witty and picturesque and show a rare eye for factual detail.

  • Balli Komb?tar (political party, Albania)

    Albania: World War II: …contended with them for power—the National Front (Balli Komb?tar) and the pro-Zog Legality Party (Legaliteti)—the communists seized control of the country on November 29, 1944. Enver Hoxha, a college instructor who had led the resistance struggle of communist forces, became the leader of Albania by virtue of his post as…

  • Ballia (India)

    Ballia, city, eastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies along the Ganges (Ganga) River, 75 miles (120 km) northeast of Varanasi (Benares). The city developed from an ancient settlement, which occasionally has been moved northward because of changes in the river’s course. Ballia is an

  • Balliett, Whitney Lyon (American writer)

    Whitney Lyon Balliett, American writer (born April 17, 1926 , New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 1, 2007 , New York City), became the most influential of all jazz critics by describing the music and its musicians with vivid, sensual metaphors. During 1957–2001 The New Yorker published more than 550 articles

  • Ballina (New South Wales, Australia)

    Ballina, town and port, north coastal New South Wales, Australia, situated primarily on an island at the mouth of the Richmond River. Ballina is about 500 miles (805 km), by road, northeast of Sydney. Aboriginal people of Bundjalung nation have lived in the region for thousands of years. Settlement

  • Ballina (Ireland)

    Ballina, town, County Mayo, Ireland, on the River Moy. The town, the largest in Mayo, has a modern Roman Catholic cathedral and the remains of an Augustinian friary founded about 1375. Salmon and trout fishing nearby are notable. Hand tools, drills, and medical products are manufactured there. Pop.

  • Ballinasloe (Ireland)

    Ballinasloe, town, County Galway, Ireland, on the River Suck and a northerly extension of the Grand Canal. Originally a small settlement beside the medieval castle guarding the important Suck crossing, the town was developed mainly in the 18th century. It is the main market town of east County

  • balling (biology)

    reptile: Balling: Many snakes, both harmless and venomous, attempt to hide their heads under coils of their bodies. For most species with this habit, the body may be coiled loosely. However, it may also be tightly coiled so that it forms a compact ball with the…

  • Balling, Pieter (Flemish author)

    Benedict de Spinoza: Association with Collegiants and Quakers: …visited by a former Collegiant, Pieter Balling, who belonged to a philosophical group in Amsterdam that was very interested in Spinoza’s ideas. Shortly after his visit, Balling published a pamphlet, Het licht op den kandelar (Dutch: “Light on the Candlestick”), that attempted to justify the tenets of Quakerism. The work,…

  • Ballinger, Richard A. (American politician)

    Richard A. Ballinger, U.S. secretary of the interior (1909–11) whose land-use policy contributed to the rift between the conservative and progressive factions in the Republican Party. As the reform mayor of Seattle (1904–06), Ballinger attracted the attention of the Theodore Roosevelt

  • Ballinger, Richard Achilles (American politician)

    Richard A. Ballinger, U.S. secretary of the interior (1909–11) whose land-use policy contributed to the rift between the conservative and progressive factions in the Republican Party. As the reform mayor of Seattle (1904–06), Ballinger attracted the attention of the Theodore Roosevelt

  • Balliol College (college, University of Oxford, England, United Kingdom)

    John de Balliol: …regarded as the founder of Balliol College, Oxford; he was the father of John de Balliol, king of Scots. The elder John served (1251–55) as guardian of the young Scottish king Alexander III. His loyalty to King Henry III of England in the Barons’ War (1264–67, against rebellious nobles led…

  • Balliol family (British family)

    Balliol family, medieval family that played an important part in the history of Scotland and came originally to England from Bailleul (Somme) in Normandy. Guy de Balliol already possessed lands in Northumberland and elsewhere during the reign of William II of England (1087–1100). Guy’s nephew and

  • Balliol, Edward de (king of Scotland)

    Edward, son of King John de Balliol of Scotland and claimant to the title of King of Scots, who was crowned in September 1332. Expelled in December 1332, he was restored in 1333–56, having acknowledged Edward III of England as his lord. Edward inherited only the family lands in France and his

  • Balliol, John de (Scottish magnate)

    John de Balliol, Scottish magnate of Norman descent, one of the richest landowners of his time in Britain, who is regarded as the founder of Balliol College, Oxford; he was the father of John de Balliol, king of Scots. The elder John served (1251–55) as guardian of the young Scottish king Alexander

  • Balliol, John de (king of Scotland [1250-1313])

    John, king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296, the youngest son of John de Balliol and his wife Dervorguilla, daughter and heiress of the lord of Galloway. His brothers dying childless, he inherited the Balliol lands in England and France in 1278 and succeeded to Galloway in 1290. In that year, when

  • ballista (ancient missile launcher)

    Ballista, ancient missile launcher designed to hurl javelins or heavy balls. Ballistas were powered by torsion derived from two thick skeins of twisted cords through which were thrust two separate arms joined at their ends by the cord that propelled the missile. The much smaller carroballistae were

  • ballistic galvanometer

    galvanometer: The ballistic galvanometer is designed to deflect its indicating needle (or mirror) in a way that is proportional to the total charge passing through its moving coil or to a voltage pulse of short duration. Any conventional galvanometer may also be employed as a ballistic type,…

  • ballistic missile (rocket)

    Ballistic missile, a rocket-propelled self-guided strategic-weapons system that follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver a payload from its launch site to a predetermined target. Ballistic missiles can carry conventional high explosives as well as chemical, biological, or nuclear munitions. They

  • ballistic missile defense radar

    radar: Ballistic missile defense and satellite-surveillance radars: The systems for detecting and tracking ballistic missiles and orbiting satellites are much larger than those for aircraft detection because the ranges are longer and the radar echoes from space targets can be smaller than echoes from aircraft. Such…

  • Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (radar technology)

    radar: Ballistic missile defense and satellite-surveillance radars: …radar is used in the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) network, with installations in Alaska, Greenland, and England. BMEWS is designed to provide warning of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Each array antenna measures about 82 feet (25 metres) across and has 2,560 active elements identical to those of the…

  • ballistic pendulum (instrument)

    Ballistic pendulum, device for measuring the velocity of a projectile, such as a bullet. A large wooden block suspended by two cords serves as the pendulum bob. When a bullet is fired into the bob, its momentum is transferred to the bob. The bullet’s momentum can be determined from the amplitude

  • ballistic vest

    Bulletproof vest, protective covering worn to protect the torso against bullets. Metal body armour fell into disuse in the 16th and 17th centuries, partly because armour that was effective against bullets was too heavy to be practical. Modern body armour reappeared on a small scale in World War I

  • ballistics

    Ballistics, science of the propulsion, flight, and impact of projectiles. It is divided into several disciplines. Internal and external ballistics, respectively, deal with the propulsion and the flight of projectiles. The transition between these two regimes is called intermediate ballistics.

  • ballistite (chemical explosive)

    explosive: Nitrocellulosic explosives: …revolutionary inventions, which he called Ballistite. He mixed 40 percent of a lower nitrogen content, more soluble nitrocellulose, and 60 percent of nitroglycerin. Cut into flakes, this made an excellent propellant, and it continued in use for over 75 years. The British refused to recognize Nobel’s patent and developed a…

  • ballistocardiogram

    ballistocardiography: …movements are recorded photographically (ballistocardiogram, or BCG) as a series of waves. The BCG is one of the most sensitive measures of the force of the heartbeat, and an abnormality appearing in the BCG of an apparently healthy subject aged 40, or younger, may be suggestive of symptomatic coronary…

  • ballistocardiography

    Ballistocardiography, graphic recording of the stroke volume of the heart for the purpose of calculating cardiac output. The heartbeat results in motion of the body, which in turn causes movements in a suspended supporting structure, usually a special table or bed on which the subject is lying,

  • ballistospore

    Ballistospore, in fungi, a spore forcibly propelled from its site. The basidiospores of the mushrooms, produced on the gills and on the walls of the spores, are ballistospores. They are shot a very short distance from the vertical walls of the fruiting structure and then drift down. In other

  • Ballivián, Lake (ancient lake, South America)

    Lake Ballivián, predecessor to modern Lake Titicaca, on the Bolivia-Peru border during the Pleistocene Epoch (approximately 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). Its surface is thought to have been at least 100 metres (330 feet) higher than Lake Titicaca’s current level. As the lake drained, it formed

  • ballivus (English law)

    agency: Medieval influence of canon law and Germanic law: …law created the figures of ballivus and attornatus. His position in the household of his master empowered the ballivus to transact commercial business for his master, reminiscent of the power of the slave to bind his master under Roman law. Later the ballivus was given more authority, especially in his…

  • Ballmer, Steven (American businessman)

    Steven Ballmer, American businessman who was CEO of the computer software company Microsoft Corporation (2000–14). Ballmer graduated from Harvard University in 1977 with bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and economics. After working for two years at consumer products company Procter & Gamble as a

  • Ballmer, Steven Anthony (American businessman)

    Steven Ballmer, American businessman who was CEO of the computer software company Microsoft Corporation (2000–14). Ballmer graduated from Harvard University in 1977 with bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and economics. After working for two years at consumer products company Procter & Gamble as a

  • ballo in maschera, Un (opera by Verdi)

    Un ballo in maschera, (Italian: “A Masked Ball”) opera in three acts by Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi (Italian libretto by Antonio Somma) that premiered at the Teatro Apollo in Rome on February 17, 1859. The Italian libretto was hastily adapted from French dramatist Eugène Scribe’s libretto

  • Ballon de Guebwiller (mountain, France)

    France: The Vosges: …the Ballon de Guebwiller (Mount Guebwiller), with an elevation of 4,669 feet (1,423 metres). To the north the Vosges massif dips beneath a cover of forested sandstone from the Triassic Period (about 250 to 200 million years ago).

  • Ballon, Jean (French dancer)

    Jean Balon, ballet dancer whose extraordinarily light, elastic leaps reputedly inspired the ballet term “ballon” used to describe a dancer’s ability to ascend without apparent effort and to land smoothly and softly. The ballet term is also thought to derive from the French word ballon (“balloon”).

  • Ballonius, Guillaume de (French physician)

    Guillaume de Baillou, physician, founder of modern epidemiology, who revived Hippocratic medical practice in Renaissance Europe. Dean of the University of Paris medical faculty (1580), he compiled a clear account of epidemics between 1570 and 1579, the first comprehensive work of its kind since

  • balloon (aircraft)

    Balloon, large airtight bag filled with hot air or a lighter-than-air gas, such as helium or hydrogen, to provide buoyancy so that it will rise and float in the atmosphere. Transport balloons have a basket or container hung below for passengers or cargo. A self-propelled steerable balloon is called

  • balloon angioplasty (medicine)

    atherosclerosis: …occlusions can be opened by balloon angioplasty, in which a catheter is inserted to the site of obstruction and a balloon is inflated in order to dilate the artery and flatten the plaque deposits. Passages opened in this way frequently reclose over time, but the chances of this occurring can…

  • Balloon Corps (United States history)

    Balloon Corps , civilian aeronautical unit (1861–63) created during the American Civil War to provide aerial surveillance of Confederate troops for the Union army. Balloons supported Union campaigns from ground stations and naval vessels in the Peninsular Campaign, the capture of Island Number Ten,

  • Balloon Dog (Orange) (sculpture by Koons)

    Jeff Koons: Balloon Dog (Orange) (1990s) sold for $53.4 million in 2013 and Rabbit (1986) went for $90.2 million in 2019, setting records for the most expensive work by a living artist at the time of sale. Koons’s sculpture Bouquet of Tulips, a work featuring a colossal…

  • balloon flight (aviation)

    Balloon flight, passage through the air of a balloon that contains a buoyant gas, such as helium or heated air, for which reason it is also known as lighter-than-air free flight. Unmanned balloons have been used to carry meteorological instruments and may be radio-controlled. Manned balloons have a

  • balloon fly (insect)

    Balloon fly, (family Acroceridae), any member of a family of flies in the insect order Diptera that are named for their swollen abdomen. It is also characterized by an extremely small head and a humped back. Some adults have a slender proboscis (feeding organ) and feed from flowers, whereas others

  • balloon framing (architecture)

    Balloon framing, framework of a wooden building in which the elements consist of small members nailed together. In balloon framing, the studs (vertical members) extend the full height of the building (usually two stories) from foundation plate to rafter plate, as contrasted with platform framing,

  • balloon payment (finance)

    Balloon payment, an unusually large payment that is due at the end of a consumer or mortgage loan period. In a loan that is structured with a balloon payment, the borrower makes small monthly payments while interest accrues on the larger remaining balance, causing the payment due at the end of the

  • balloon tuboplasty (medical procedure)

    infertility: Damage of the fallopian tubes: For example, balloon tuboplasty involves the insertion of a catheter through the cervix into the fallopian tube to the point of obstruction; a small deflated balloon is then inserted through the catheter and inflated to dilate the tube. Aqueous dissection (flushing with water) is another method for…

  • balloon vine (plant)

    Balloon vine, (species Cardiospermum halicacabum), woody perennial vine in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae) that is native to subtropical and tropical America. It is naturalized and cultivated widely as an ornamental for its white flowers and its nearly globular inflated fruits, which are about

  • balloonflower (plant)

    Balloon flower, (Platycodon grandiflorus), perennial plant of the bellflower family Campanulaceae, native to East Asia and commonly cultivated as a garden ornamental. The balloon flower gets its name from its balloonlike buds that open to form flaring bell-shaped flowers with five lobes. These

  • ballooning (aviation)

    Ballooning, unpowered balloon flight in competition or for recreation, a sport that became popular in the 1960s. The balloons used are of plastic, nylon, or polyethylene, and are filled with hydrogen, helium, methane, or hot air. Ballooning began in 1783 with the flight of the Montgolfier brothers’

  • ballooning (arthropod locomotion)

    gypsy moth: …the silk acts as a parasail, carrying the young larvae to new, uninfested trees to feed. When larval development is complete, they crawl down the tree trunk, settle in leaf litter at the base of the tree, and enter the pupal stage. The adult moth emerges from the cocoon after…

  • ballot (politics)

    election: Balloting: The ballot makes secret voting possible. Its initial use seems to have been as a means to reduce irregularities and deception in elections. However, this objective could be achieved only if the ballot was not supplied by the voter himself, as was the case…

  • Ballot Act (United Kingdom [1872])

    Ballot Act, (1872) British law that introduced the secret ballot for all parliamentary and municipal elections. The secret ballot was also called the Australian ballot, because it was first used in Australian elections (1856). The British law, which was designed to protect voters from bribery and

  • Ballota nigra (herb)

    horehound: Black horehound (Ballota nigra), a hairy perennial herb with a fetid odour, belongs to the same family. It has purplish flowers and lacks the woolly white appearance of white horehound. It is sometimes used to adulterate extracts of white horehound. It is native to the…

  • ballotade (horsemanship)

    horsemanship: Dressage: …levade position; and the croupade, ballotade, and capriole, a variety of spectacular airs in which the horse jumps and lands again in the same spot.

  • Ballou, Adin (American theologian)

    Massachusetts Association of Universal Restorationists: …of MAUR’s leading proponents was Adin Ballou (1803–90), Hosea’s cousin and an outstanding advocate of a program of social reform grounded in the New Testament that he called “Practical Christianity.” While most Universalists held restorationist views by the end of the 19th century, internal differences between moderates and hardliners and…

  • Ballou, Hosea (American educator [1796–1861])

    Tufts University: Hosea Ballou (1796–1861), nephew of the theologian Hosea Ballou (1771–1852), was joined by Universalist church members in founding Tufts College in 1852 and served as its first president. It was named for its original benefactor, Charles Tufts of Somerville. Women were first admitted in 1892…

  • Ballou, Hosea (American theologian [1771-1852])

    Hosea Ballou, American theologian who for more than 50 years was an influential leader in the Universalist church. Converted in 1789 to a belief in universal salvation, he began preaching that doctrine on a Calvinist basis, substituting for John Calvin’s concept of salvation of the “elect” a

  • ballpoint pen (writing implement)

    Patrick Joseph Frawley, Jr.: …purchasing a bankrupt fabricator of ballpoint pen components for $18,000. Ballpoint pens, which had been invented in the mid-1930s, were unpopular at the time: they leaked, the ink smeared, and most of them were expensive. By sponsoring the development of a quick-drying ink and a leakproof pen design, the Frawley…

  • ballroom dance

    Ballroom dance, type of social dancing, originally practiced in Europe and the United States, that is performed by couples and follows prescribed steps. The tradition was historically distinguished from folk or country dance by its association with the elite social classes and with invitational

  • Ballroom of Romance, The (story by Trevor)

    William Trevor: …Cake, and Other Stories (1967); The Ballroom of Romance, and Other Stories (1972), which became a modern classic and was made into an award-winning television play in 1982; Angels at the Ritz, and Other Stories (1975); The Hill Bachelors (2000); Cheating at Canasta (2007); and Last Stories (2018), his final…

  • Balls, Ed (British politician)

    Ed Balls, British politician who was a member of the Labour Party, particularly involved in economic policy. His various government posts included shadow chancellor (2011–15). Balls attended schools in Norwich and Nottingham before studying at Keble College, Oxford, where he earned (1988) a

  • Balls, Edward Michael (British politician)

    Ed Balls, British politician who was a member of the Labour Party, particularly involved in economic policy. His various government posts included shadow chancellor (2011–15). Balls attended schools in Norwich and Nottingham before studying at Keble College, Oxford, where he earned (1988) a

  • Balluat, Paul-Henri-Benjamin, baron de Constant de Rébecque d’Estournelles (French diplomat)

    Paul-H.-B. d’Estournelles de Constant, French diplomat and parliamentarian who devoted most of his life to the cause of international cooperation and in 1909 was cowinner (with Auguste-Marie-Fran?ois Beernaert) of the Nobel Prize for Peace. In the French diplomatic service he reached the rank of

  • Bally (India)

    Bally, city, southeastern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It lies on the west bank of the Hugli (Hooghly) River, opposite Baranagar, and is part of the Haora (Howrah) urban agglomeration as well as the larger Kolkata (Calcutta) metropolitan area. Bally was constituted a municipality in 1883.

  • Bally, Charles (Swiss philologist)

    stylistics: …the ideas that derive from Charles Bally (1865–1947), the Swiss philologist, and Leo Spitzer (1887–1960), the Austrian literary critic. According to followers of these thinkers, style in language arises from the possibility of choice among alternative forms of expression, as for example, between “children,” “kids,” “youngsters,” and “youths,” each of…

  • Ballycastle (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Ballycastle, town, Causeway Coast and Glens district, Northern Ireland. It is situated along Ballycastle Bay, opposite Rathlin Island, where Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland, is said to have hidden in a cave. Ballycastle is at the mouth of Glenshesk and close to Knocklayd (1,695 feet [517

  • Ballyman Church (church, Ireland)

    Bray: The remains of Ballyman Church, rebuilt in the 12th and 13th centuries, are nearby in the Bray River valley. The area has electronics and engineering industries. Pop. (2002) 26,244; (2011) 26,852.

  • Ballymena (former district, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Ballymena, former district (1973–2015) within the former County Antrim, now in the Mid and East Antrim district, northeastern Northern Ireland. The former district of Ballymena bordered the former districts of Magherafelt to the west, Ballymoney and Moyle to the north, Larne to the east, and Antrim

  • Ballymena (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Ballymena, town, Mid and East Antrim district, Northern Ireland. Founded in 1626, it lies in the River Main valley 24 miles (40 km) northwest of the city of Belfast. The town is the market centre for the surrounding countryside and has been long known for its production of linens and woolens; more

  • Ballymoney (former district, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Ballymoney: Ballymoney town is now a thriving agricultural centre with textile and engineering industries as well as several bacon- and ham-processing plants.

  • Ballymoney (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Ballymoney, town and former district (1973–2015) within the former County Antrim, now part of Causeway Coast and Glens district, northern Northern Ireland. The town of Ballymoney, located on the eastern side of the valley on a tributary of the River Bann, was the birthplace of James McKinley,

  • Ballymun (Ireland)

    Dublin: After national independence: …developments in the towns of Ballymun and Ballyfermot; unfortunately, these proved no more immune to the crime and vandalism that plagued such buildings practically everywhere. Recognizing this, in the early 21st century Dublin City Council approved the demolition of nearly all the tower buildings in Ballymun as part of a…

  • Ballynahinch (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Down: …has some textile industry, while Ballynahinch, located farther west, has agricultural machinery and metal-fabrication industries. Newcastle in the south and Killyleagh in the east are popular seaside resorts. Tollymore Forest Park, about 1,200 acres (500 hectares) of forest on the slopes of the Mourne Mountains in southern Down, was the…

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