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  • bulk modulus (physics)

    Bulk modulus, numerical constant that describes the elastic properties of a solid or fluid when it is under pressure on all surfaces. The applied pressure reduces the volume of a material, which returns to its original volume when the pressure is removed. Sometimes referred to as the

  • bulk oil process

    Francis Edward and Alexander Stanley Elmore: The “bulk oil process,” the first flotation process commercially employed, was invented by Francis, patented in 1898, and brought into use by his brother. In this process the ore was ground, suspended in water, and brought in contact with oil. As the oil floated up through…

  • bulk polymerization (chemistry)

    chemistry of industrial polymers: Bulk polymerization: Bulk polymerization is carried out in the absence of any solvent or dispersant and is thus the simplest in terms of formulation. It is used for most step-growth polymers and many types of chain-growth polymers. In the case of chain-growth reactions, which are…

  • bulk strain (physics)

    Compression, decrease in volume of any object or substance resulting from applied stress. Compression may be undergone by solids, liquids, and gases and by living systems. In the latter, compression is measured against the system’s volume at the standard pressure to which an organism is

  • bulk stress (physics)

    Pressure, in the physical sciences, the perpendicular force per unit area, or the stress at a point within a confined fluid. The pressure exerted on a floor by a 42-pound box the bottom of which has an area of 84 square inches is equal to the force divided by the area over which it is exerted;

  • bulk terminal

    harbours and sea works: Bulk terminals: The enormous increase in the marine transit of materials in bulk, with petroleum leading the way, has given rise to the development of special terminals for the loading and discharge of such materials. The principal factor influencing the design of these installations is the…

  • bulk transfer coefficient (physics)

    ice in lakes and rivers: Rates of growth: The exact value of the bulk transfer coefficient (Hia) depends on the various components of the energy budget, but it usually falls between 10 and 30 watts per square metre kelvin. Higher values are associated with windy conditions and lower values with still air conditions, but, with other information unavailable,…

  • bulk transportation

    petroleum refining: Bulk transportation: Large oceangoing tankers have sharply reduced the cost of transporting crude oil, making it practical to locate refineries near major market areas rather than adjacent to oil fields. To receive these large carriers, deepwater ports have been constructed in such cities as Rotterdam…

  • bulk viscosity (physics)

    fluid mechanics: Bulk viscosity: …viscosity coefficient known as the bulk viscosity.

  • bulk-population method (agriculture)

    plant breeding: Hybridization: The bulk-population method of breeding differs from the pedigree method primarily in the handling of generations following hybridization. The F2 generation is sown at normal commercial planting rates in a large plot. At maturity the crop is harvested in mass, and the seeds are used to…

  • Bulkeley, Richard (British statesman)

    Richard Bulkeley, British statesman who exercised power in Nova Scotia for 52 years. Details of Bulkeley’s early life are unclear; he may have been an officer in the British Dragoon Guards and later may have served as king’s messenger at Whitehall. In 1749 he traveled to Nova Scotia with the

  • bulkhead (ship part)

    ship construction: The naval architect: …must satisfy a standard of bulkhead subdivision that will ensure adequate stability under specified conditions if the hull is pierced accidentally, as through collision.

  • bulking

    textile: Textured yarns: Bulking creates air spaces in the yarns, imparting absorbency and improving ventilation. Bulk is frequently introduced by crimping, imparting waviness similar to the natural crimp of wool fibre; by curling, producing curls or loops at various intervals; or by coiling, imparting stretch. Such changes are…

  • Bull (constellation and astrological sign)

    Taurus, (Latin: “Bull”) in astronomy, zodiacal constellation lying in the northern sky between Aries and Gemini, at about 4 hours 20 minutes right ascension and 16° north declination. The constellation’s brightest star, Aldebaran (Arabic for “the follower”; also called Alpha Tauri), is the 14th

  • bull (cattle)

    Bull, in animal husbandry, the mature, uncastrated male of domesticated cattle. See also bull cult and

  • bull (Roman Catholicism)

    Papal bull, in Roman Catholicism, an official papal letter or document. The name is derived from the lead seal (bulla) traditionally affixed to such documents. Since the 12th century it has designated a letter from the pope carrying a bulla that shows the heads of the apostles Peter and Paul on one

  • bull bay (plant)

    Magnoliales: Distribution and abundance: …Magnolia grandiflora (bull bay, or Southern magnolia), for example, grows in forests from southern Virginia to eastern Texas and extends into the West Indies. Another American species, M. ashei, however, is found only in a few counties in Florida.

  • Bull Connor (American political official)

    Alabama: Since 1900: …which commissioner of public safety Eugene (“Bull”) Connor turned fire hoses and police dogs on black protesters; Gov. George C. Wallace’s defiant attempt to stop the desegregation of the state university that same year; the death of four black children in an explosion that destroyed their Birmingham Sunday school, also…

  • bull cult

    Bull cult, prehistoric religious practice that originated in the eastern Aegean Sea and extended from the Indus Valley of Pakistan to the Danube River in eastern Europe. The bull god’s symbol was the phallus, and in the east the bull often was depicted as the partner of the great goddess of

  • bull dance (American Indian dance)

    Native American dance: The Great Plains: …hunting ceremonies, such as the bull dance of the Mandans, developed from the economic significance of the buffalo herds. Buffalo rites merged with sun, war, and fertility ceremonies and spread to tribes in other areas. The individual warrior, his prowess, and dancing skill were extolled as women progressed clockwise in…

  • Bull Durham (film by Shelton [1988])

    Tim Robbins: …talented pitcher Nuke LaLoosh in Bull Durham (1988); the film costarred Susan Sarandon, and the couple began a long-term relationship. He later received notice for his performance in the comedy Miss Firecracker (1989), costarred with Robin Williams in Cadillac Man (1990), and took the lead role as a Vietnam War…

  • Bull Durham (tobacco)
  • bull fiddle (musical instrument)

    Double bass, stringed musical instrument, the lowest-pitched member of the violin family, sounding an octave lower than the cello. It has two basic designs—one shaped like a viol (or viola da gamba) and the other like a violin—but there are other designs, such as that of a guitar. It varies

  • Bull Halsey (United States naval commander)

    William F. Halsey, Jr., U.S. naval commander who led vigorous campaigns in the Pacific theatre during World War II. He was a leading exponent of warfare using carrier-based aircraft and became known for his daring tactics. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., in 1904, Halsey

  • bull market (economics)

    Bull market, in securities and commodities trading, a rising market. A bull is an investor who expects prices to rise and, on this assumption, purchases a security or commodity in hopes of reselling it later for a profit. A bullish market is one in which prices are generally expected to rise.

  • bull mastiff (breed of dog)

    mastiff: The bullmastiff, a cross between the mastiff and the bulldog, was developed in 19th-century England; it was used chiefly to discourage poaching on estates and game preserves and was known as the “gamekeeper’s night-dog.” The bullmastiff is a tan, reddish brown, or brindled dog, with black…

  • Bull Moose Party (political party, United States)

    Bull Moose Party, U.S. dissident political faction that nominated former president Theodore Roosevelt as its candidate in the presidential election of 1912; the formal name and general objectives of the party were revived 12 years later. Opposing the entrenched conservatism of the regular

  • bull orchid (plant)

    Dendrobium: …crumenatum), a white-flowered species; the bull orchid (D. taurinum), a Philippine species with twisted, hornlike petals; and the cucumber orchid (D. cucumerinum), an Australian species with unusual, cucumber-like leaves.

  • bull pine (tree)

    pine: Major North American pines: Ponderosa, western yellow, or bull pine (P. ponderosa), which grows from 45 to 60 metres (148 to 197 feet) high, with a trunk 1.5 to 2.5 metres (5 to 8 feet) in diameter, is noted for its soft, easily worked wood. It is the most widely distributed American pine,…

  • bull riding

    Bull riding, rodeo event in which the contestant attempts to ride a bucking bull for eight seconds while holding with one hand a braided rope made of nylon or Manila that is wrapped around the animal’s chest. A weighted cow bell attached to the rope pulls it free when the ride is over. No stirrups,

  • Bull Run, First Battle of (American Civil War [1861])

    First Battle of Bull Run, (July 21, 1861), in the American Civil War, the first of two engagements fought at a small stream named Bull Run, near Manassas in northern Virginia. (Civil War battles often had one name in the North, which was usually associated with a prominent nearby physical feature,

  • Bull Run, Second Battle of (American Civil War [1862])

    Second Battle of Bull Run, (August 29–30, 1862), in the American Civil War, the second of two engagements fought at a small stream named Bull Run, near Manassas in northern Virginia. (Civil War battles often had one name in the North, which was usually associated with a prominent nearby physical

  • bull running (sport)

    bearbaiting: A sport called bull running also developed in some places, usually as an annual affair. The townspeople, armed with clubs, chased a bull until all were exhausted; the bull was then killed.

  • bull shark (fish)

    Bull shark, species belonging to the Carcharhinidae. See carcharhinid

  • bull snake (reptile)

    Bull snake, (Pituophis catenifer), North American constrictor snake of the family Colubridae. These snakes are called bull snakes over much of their range; however, in the western United States they are often called gopher snakes. Bull snakes are rather heavy-bodied, small-headed, and may reach 2.5

  • bull terrier (breed of dog)

    Bull terrier, breed of dog developed in 19th-century England from the bulldog, the white English terrier (a breed now extinct), and the Dalmatian; other breeds including the Spanish pointer, foxhound, and greyhound may also have been incorporated. The bull terrier was developed for the dog-fighting

  • bull’s-eye lantern

    lantern: The bull’s-eye lantern, with one or more sides of bulging glass, was in popular use from the early 18th century, similar devices having been made at least as early as the 13th century. Dark until it was suddenly switched on by opening its door, it focused…

  • bull’s-eye window

    Oeil-de-boeuf window, in architecture, a small circular or oval window, usually resembling a wheel, with glazing bars (bars framing the panes of glass) as spokes radiating outward from an empty hub, or circular centre. In French, oeil-de-boeuf means “eye of the steer,” and, in the French chateau of

  • bull’s-horn thorn (tree)

    Bagheera kiplingi: …it nests in or near swollen-thorn acacia trees, which serve as the spider’s primary food source. B. kiplingi is 5 to 6 mm (about 0.2 inch) long and has translucent brownish yellow to light yellow legs and a dark cephalothorax (prosoma), which in males is green in the front and…

  • Bull, Hedley (Australian scholar)

    Hedley Bull, Australian scholar, one of the leading international-relations experts during the second half of the 20th century, whose ideas profoundly shaped the development of the discipline, particularly in Australia and the United Kingdom. Bull studied history and philosophy at the University of

  • Bull, John (English symbol)

    John Bull, in literature and political caricature, a conventional personification of England or of English character. Bull was invented by the Scottish mathematician and physician John Arbuthnot as a character in an extended allegory that appeared in a series of five pamphlets in 1712 and later in

  • Bull, John (English composer)

    John Bull, English composer of outstanding technical ability and a keyboard virtuoso. Bull was educated as a chorister of the Chapel Royal in London. In December 1582 he was appointed organist and the following month choirmaster at Hereford Cathedral; but in 1585 he returned to the Chapel Royal,

  • Bull, Olaf (Norwegian poet)

    Olaf Bull, one of the greatest Norwegian poets of his generation and often referred to as the Keats of Norway. As a young man, he studied philology, then wrote for newspapers, while already writing poetry. His first volume, Digte (1909; “Poems”), immediately led to recognition. He was influenced by

  • Bull, Olaf Jacob Martin Luther (Norwegian poet)

    Olaf Bull, one of the greatest Norwegian poets of his generation and often referred to as the Keats of Norway. As a young man, he studied philology, then wrote for newspapers, while already writing poetry. His first volume, Digte (1909; “Poems”), immediately led to recognition. He was influenced by

  • Bull, Ole (Norwegian musician)

    Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist, composer, and nationalist known for his unique performance method and for starting a short-lived utopian community called New Norway, or Oleana. Bull began playing the violin at age five, influenced by French-trained violinists of the Bergen Harmonic Society as well

  • bull, papal (Roman Catholicism)

    Papal bull, in Roman Catholicism, an official papal letter or document. The name is derived from the lead seal (bulla) traditionally affixed to such documents. Since the 12th century it has designated a letter from the pope carrying a bulla that shows the heads of the apostles Peter and Paul on one

  • bull-and-terrier (breed of dog)

    Staffordshire bull terrier, breed of terrier developed in 19th-century England for fighting other dogs in pits. The breed was created by crossing the bulldog, then a longer-legged and more agile dog, with a terrier, possibly the fox terrier or one of the old breeds known as the white English and

  • Bull-Dogger, The (film by Norman [1921])

    Bill Pickett: …appeared in the silent films The Bull-Dogger (1921) and The Crimson Skull (1922). He died after being kicked by a horse in April 1932.

  • bull-horn acacia (tree)

    Bagheera kiplingi: …it nests in or near swollen-thorn acacia trees, which serve as the spider’s primary food source. B. kiplingi is 5 to 6 mm (about 0.2 inch) long and has translucent brownish yellow to light yellow legs and a dark cephalothorax (prosoma), which in males is green in the front and…

  • bull-roarer (musical instrument)

    Bull-roarer, pseudomusical instrument or device that produces a howling or whirring sound when whirled through the air. The bull-roarer is commonly a flat piece of wood measuring from 4 to 14 inches (10 to 35 cm) in length and fastened at one end to a thong or string. This device, which produces

  • bulla (blister)

    blister: …less in diameter and as bullae if they are larger. Blisters can commonly result from pressure and friction on sites such as the palms or soles; they are produced when friction causes an upper skin layer to move back and forth over an underlying skin layer. A small gap opens…

  • bulla (jewelry)

    Bulla, characteristic Etruscan ornamental pendant. Typically round or oval, bullae resemble a lion or satyr head. Bullae are hollow, often with filigree or granulation decorating the edges, and they have a removable loop (from which the pendant is hung). It is thought that the loop acted as a s

  • bullae (jewelry)

    Bulla, characteristic Etruscan ornamental pendant. Typically round or oval, bullae resemble a lion or satyr head. Bullae are hollow, often with filigree or granulation decorating the edges, and they have a removable loop (from which the pendant is hung). It is thought that the loop acted as a s

  • Bullant, Jean (French architect)

    Jean Bullant, a dominant figure in French architecture during the period of the Wars of Religion (1562–98), whose works represent the transition from High Renaissance to Mannerist design. In his youth Bullant studied in Italy, and his exposure to the ancient buildings there had a profound influence

  • Bullard, Sir Edward (British geophysicist)

    Sir Edward Bullard, British geophysicist noted for his work in geomagnetism. He became professor of geophysics and director of the department of geodesy and geophysics at the University of Cambridge in 1964. In his research on the structure of Earth’s crust and Earth’s internal constitution, he

  • Bullard, Sir Edward Crisp (British geophysicist)

    Sir Edward Bullard, British geophysicist noted for his work in geomagnetism. He became professor of geophysics and director of the department of geodesy and geophysics at the University of Cambridge in 1964. In his research on the structure of Earth’s crust and Earth’s internal constitution, he

  • bullbaiting (spectacle)

    Bearbaiting, the setting of dogs on a bear or a bull chained to a stake by the neck or leg. Popular from the 12th to the 19th century, when they were banned as inhumane, these spectacles were usually staged at theatre-like arenas known as bear gardens. In England many large groups of bears were

  • bullbat (bird)

    Bullbat, common American species of nighthawk

  • bulldog (breed of dog)

    Bulldog, breed of dog developed centuries ago in Great Britain for use in fighting bulls (bullbaiting). Characteristically powerful and courageous, often vicious, and to a great extent unaware of pain, the bulldog nearly disappeared when dogfighting was outlawed in 1835. Fanciers of the breed,

  • bulldog bat (mammal)

    Free-tailed bat, (family Molossidae), any of 100 species of bats, so called for the way in which part of the tail extends somewhat beyond the membrane connecting the hind legs. Some free-tailed bats are also known as mastiff bats because their faces bear a superficial resemblance to those dogs.

  • bulldog bat (mammal, family Noctilionidae)

    Bulldog bat, (family Noctilionidae), either of two tropical Central and South American bats that are among the few bats that routinely forage low over water. They have full lips and a flat, squarish muzzle very similar to that of a bulldog. Bulldog bats have long, narrow wings and long, pointed

  • bulldog, French (breed of dog)

    French bulldog, breed of dog of the non-sporting group, which was developed in France in the later 1800s from crosses between small native dogs and small bulldogs of a toy variety. The French bulldog is a small counterpart of the bulldog, but it has large, erect ears, rounded at the tips, that

  • bulldogging (rodeo)

    Steer wrestling, rodeo event in which a mounted cowboy (or bulldogger) races alongside and then tackles a full-grown steer. The event starts with the bulldogger and his hazer (a second rider who keeps the steer running straight) on either side of the steer’s chute. The steer has a head start, which

  • bulldozer (machine)

    Bulldozer, powerful machine for pushing earth or rocks, used in road building, farming, construction, and wrecking; it consists of a heavy, broad steel blade or plate mounted on the front of a tractor. Sometimes it uses a four-wheel-drive tractor, but usually a track or crawler type, mounted on

  • Bullen, Anne (queen of England)

    Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII of England and mother of Queen Elizabeth I. The events surrounding the annulment of Henry’s marriage to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and his marriage to Anne led him to break with the Roman Catholic Church and brought about the English

  • Bullen, Anne (fictional character)

    Henry VIII: …becomes enamoured of the beautiful Anne Bullen (Boleyn) and, concerned over his lack of a male heir, expresses doubts about the validity of his marriage to Katharine, his brother’s widow. Separately, Anne, though reluctant to supplant the queen, accepts the king’s proposal. Wolsey tries to extend his power over the…

  • Buller River (river, New Zealand)

    Buller River, river in northwestern South Island, New Zealand. Named after Charles Buller, founder of the New Zealand Company, it is the major river of the island’s west coast. Rising as the Travers River on the St. Arnaud Range of the central highlands, it drains Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa, flows

  • Bullers of Buchan (cave, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Cruden Bay: The Bullers of Buchan, 2 miles (3 km) to the north, is a famous roofless cave some 200 feet (60 metres) high and 50 feet (15 metres) wide. Cruden Bay is now a pipeline terminal for North Sea oil; it became operational in 1975, when crude…

  • bullet (ammunition)

    Bullet, an elongated metal projectile that is fired by a pistol, rifle, or machine gun. Bullets are measured by their calibre, which indicates the interior diameter, or bore, of a gun barrel. (See bore.) Early bullets were round lead balls that were loaded down the muzzle of smoothbore weapons and

  • Bullet (Navajo chief)

    Manuelito, Navajo chief known for his strong opposition to the forced relocation of his people by the U.S. government. Little is known of Manuelito’s early life. He was already an established leader by 1864 when U.S. Army Colonel Kit Carson, after a war of attrition in which Navajo crops, homes,

  • Bullet cluster (galaxy cluster)

    dark matter: …Observatory has observed in the Bullet cluster, which consists of two merging galaxy clusters, that the hot gas (ordinary visible matter) is slowed by the drag effect of one cluster passing through the other. The mass of the clusters, however, is not affected, indicating that most of the mass consists…

  • Bullet for Joey, A (film by Allen [1955])

    Lewis Allen: The Cold War thriller A Bullet for Joey (1955) followed, with George Raft and Edward G. Robinson as a gangster and an inspector, respectively, who struggle over the fate of an atomic scientist in Canada. Robinson returned in Illegal (1955), portraying a criminal lawyer defending a woman (Nina Foch)…

  • bullet train (railway, Japan)

    Shinkansen, (Japanese: “New Trunk Line”) pioneer high-speed passenger rail system of Japan, with lines on the islands of Honshu, Kyushu, and Hokkaido. It was originally built and operated by the government-owned Japanese National Railways and has been part of the private Japan Railways Group since

  • Bulletin, The (Australian newspaper)

    Alfred George Stephens: …the staff of the Sydney Bulletin and in 1896 developed his “Red Page” literary section, which included book reviews and other editorial notices. This famous feature appeared in the Bulletin until 1961 and came to play a key part in promoting the work of young Australian writers. Stephens also acted…

  • Bulletin, The (American newspaper)

    The Bulletin, daily newspaper published in Philadelphia from 1847 to 1982, long considered one of the most influential American newspapers. Founded by Alexander Cummings as Cummings Telegraphic Evening Bulletin, the newspaper became The Daily Evening Bulletin in 1856 and then the Evening Bulletin

  • bulletin-board system (computer science)

    Bulletin-board system (BBS), Computerized system used to exchange public messages or files. A BBS is typically reached by using a dial-up modem. Most are dedicated to a special interest, which may be an extremely narrow topic. Any user may “post” his or her own message (so that they appear on the

  • bulletproof glass

    industrial glass: Lamination: Bulletproof glass is often laminated, although a single ply of dead-annealed glass as thick as 20 to 25 millimetres is used in some applications. The reason for having dead-annealed glass is the absence of tension in the interior; internal tension would cause the glass to…

  • bulletproof vest

    Bulletproof vest, protective covering worn to protect the torso against bullets. Metal body armour fell into disuse in the 16th and 17th centuries, partly because armour that was effective against bullets was too heavy to be practical. Modern body armour reappeared on a small scale in World War I

  • Bullets or Ballots (film by Keighley [1936])

    William Keighley: …to the crime genre with Bullets or Ballots (1936), in which an undercover detective (played by Edward G. Robinson) is pitted against a mob boss (Barton MacLane) and his henchman (Humphrey Bogart). Then came the biblical musical The Green Pastures (1936), an adaptation of Marc Connelly’s Pulitzer Prize-winning

  • Bullets over Broadway (film by Allen [1994])

    Woody Allen: The 1990s: Bullets over Broadway (1994), which starred John Cusack as a Prohibition-era playwright who finds his first Broadway effort transformed through the interference of a mobster and the protests of a theatrical grande dame (Wiest), earned Allen an Academy Award nomination for best director. Praise was…

  • Bullfighter and the Lady (film by Boetticher [1951])

    bullfighting: Bullfighting and the arts: …ever made is Budd Boetticher’s Bullfighter and the Lady (1951), which sparked great interest in bullfighting in the United States. Boetticher himself was an amateur torero and produced several other bullfighting films. Award-winning director Pedro Almodóvar has also made films involving bullfighting, including Matador (1986), which was roundly criticized in…

  • Bullfighters, The (work by Montherlant)

    bullfighting: Bullfighting and the arts: …de Montherlant’s Les Bestiaires (1926; The Bullfighters) also deals with the matador’s ever-present threat of death in the ring.

  • bullfighting (spectacle)

    Bullfighting, the national spectacle of Spain and many Spanish-speaking countries, in which a bull is ceremoniously fought in a sand arena by a matador and usually killed. Bullfighting is also popular in Portugal and southern France, though in the former, where the bull is engaged by a bullfighter

  • bullfinch (bird)

    Bullfinch, any of several stocky stout-billed songbirds of the families Fringillidae and Emberizidae (order Passeriformes). Eurasia has six species of the genus Pyrrhula, all boldly marked. The common bullfinch (P. pyrrhula), 15 cm (6 inches) long, is black and white, and the male has a pinkish

  • bullfrog (amphibian)

    Bullfrog, (Lithobates catesbeianus), semi-aquatic frog (family Ranidae), named for its loud call. This largest North American frog, native to the eastern United States and Canada, has been introduced into the western United States and into other countries. The name is also applied to other large

  • bullhead (catfish)

    Bullhead, any of several North American freshwater catfishes of the genus Ameiurus (Ictalurus of some authorities) and the family Ictaluridae. Bullheads are related to the channel catfish (I. punctatus) and other large North American species but have squared, rather than forked, tails and are

  • bullhead (fish)

    Sculpin, any of the numerous, usually small fish of the family Cottidae (order Scorpaeniformes), found in both salt water and fresh water, principally in northern regions of the world. Sculpins are elongated, tapered fish, usually with wide, heavy heads. The gill covers have one or more spines, the

  • bullhead shark (fish)

    Bullhead shark, any shark of the genus Heterodontus, which contains about 10 species and constitutes the family Heterodontidae (order Heterodontiformes). This exclusively marine group is found only in the tropical reaches of the Pacific and Indian oceans and in the eastern Pacific from California

  • bullhorn acacia (plant)

    mutualism: …bullhorn acacia (or bullhorn wattle; Vachellia cornigera). The ants obtain food and shelter, and the acacia depends on the ants for protection from browsing animals, which the ants drive away. Neither member can survive successfully without the other, also exemplifying obligative mutualism.

  • Bullinger, Heinrich (Swiss religious reformer)

    Heinrich Bullinger, convert from Roman Catholicism who first aided and then succeeded the Swiss Reformer Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531) and who, through his preaching and writing, became a major figure in securing Switzerland for the Reformation. While a student at the University of Cologne,

  • Bullins, Ed (American playwright)

    Ed Bullins, American playwright, novelist, poet, and journalist who emerged as one of the leading and most prolific dramatists of black theatre in the 1960s. A high-school dropout, Bullins served in the U.S. Navy (1952–55) before resuming his studies in Philadelphia and at Los Angeles City College,

  • bullion (metallurgy)

    Bullion, the name applied to gold, silver, and platinum considered solely as metal without regard to any value arising from its form as coins or ornaments. The bullion value of a coin is determined by its weight, fineness (proportion of precious metal to total weight), and the current price of the

  • Bullion Report of 1810 (United Kingdom)

    Thomas Tooke: …as a supporter of the Bullion Report of 1810, which recommended a return to the gold standard, convertibility of the note issue, and control of the supply of paper money. His works High and Low Prices (1823) and Considerations on the State of the Currency (1826) traced the causes of…

  • bullionism (economics)

    Bullionism, the monetary policy of mercantilism (q.v.), which called for national regulation of transactions in foreign exchange and in precious metals (bullion) in order to maintain a “favourable balance” in the home country. Spain, with which the policy is most closely associated, was preeminent

  • Bullitt (film by Yates [1968])

    Bullitt, American action film, released in 1968, that features Steve McQueen in what many consider his definitive role. The film is also known for its iconic car-chase sequence. Frank Bullitt (played by McQueen) is a world-weary police lieutenant in San Francisco who is tasked with guarding the mob

  • Bullitt, William C. (American diplomat)

    William C. Bullitt, U.S. diplomat who was the first U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union. Early in 1919 Bullitt was sent by Pres. Woodrow Wilson to Moscow to investigate the stability of the Bolshevik government, and he returned with a recommendation that the U.S. recognize the Soviet Union.

  • Bullitt, William Christian (American diplomat)

    William C. Bullitt, U.S. diplomat who was the first U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union. Early in 1919 Bullitt was sent by Pres. Woodrow Wilson to Moscow to investigate the stability of the Bolshevik government, and he returned with a recommendation that the U.S. recognize the Soviet Union.

  • bullmastiff (breed of dog)

    mastiff: The bullmastiff, a cross between the mastiff and the bulldog, was developed in 19th-century England; it was used chiefly to discourage poaching on estates and game preserves and was known as the “gamekeeper’s night-dog.” The bullmastiff is a tan, reddish brown, or brindled dog, with black…

  • bullock (cattle)

    Steer, young neutered male cattle primarily raised for beef. In the terminology used to describe the sex and age of cattle, the male is first a bull calf and if left intact becomes a bull; if castrated he becomes a steer and about two or three years grows to an ox. Males retained for beef

  • Bullock School (university, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Widener University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Chester, Pennsylvania, U.S. It comprises schools of arts and sciences; law; education, innovation, and continuing studies; hospitality management; human service professions; engineering; nursing; and business

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