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  • Button, Sir Thomas (British navigator and naval officer)

    Sir Thomas Button, English navigator and naval officer and an early explorer of Canada. The son of Miles Button of Worleton in Glamorganshire, Wales, Button saw his first naval service in 1588 or 1589, and by 1601, when the Spanish fleet invaded Ireland, he had become captain of the pinnace Moon.

  • Button, Stephen Decatur (American architect)

    Stephen Decatur Button, American architect whose works influenced modern tall-building design, particularly that of Louis Sullivan. His impact, however, was not recognized by architectural historians until the mid-20th century. Button discarded the massive dead-wall treatment appropriate to masonry

  • Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart, The (album by Newhart)

    Bob Newhart: On The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart (1960), recorded during the first set of nightclub performances Newhart ever gave, he enacted a series of one-sided conversations in which he assumed the role of an earnest straight man in absurd or wildly dramatic scenarios. On the strength…

  • Button-Down Mind Strikes Back!, The (album by Newhart)

    Bob Newhart: …which also enjoyed robust sales; The Button-Down Mind Strikes Back! (1960) earned a Grammy in the field of comedy performance. In 1961 he parlayed his popularity into a television variety series, The Bob Newhart Show, which earned Emmy and Peabody awards but aired for only one season. While maintaining his…

  • buttonball (plant)

    plane tree: The American plane tree, or sycamore (P. occidentalis), also known as buttonwood, buttonball, or whitewood, is the tallest, sometimes reaching a height of more than 50 m (160 feet). Its pendent, smooth, ball-shaped seed clusters usually dangle singly and often persist after leaf fall. Native from…

  • buttonbush (plant)

    Buttonbush, (genus Cephalanthus), genus of at least six species of shrubs or small trees of the madder family (Rubiaceae) native to Africa, Asia, and North America. Buttonbrush plants are named for their fragrant creamy white spherical flowers. They are sometimes used in landscaping and are a

  • buttonhole (sewing)

    dress: Female display: Moreover, the adoption of buttonholes from the Moors around 1250 had introduced the art of tailoring. Clothes could now be cut very tight and still be easily removed. Shaped seams evolved, and the possession of a shapely figure was essential for both men and women. By 1400 women’s waistlines…

  • buttonhole twist (thread)

    textile: Sewing thread: Buttonhole twist is a strong, lustrous silk about three times the diameter of normal sewing silk, and is used for hand-worked buttonholes, for sewing on buttons, and for various decorative effects.

  • Buttons and Bows (song by Evans and Livingston)

    Jay Harold Livingston: …songs that won Academy Awards—“Buttons and Bows” from the Bob Hope western comedy The Paleface (1948); “Mona Lisa” from Captain Carey, U.S.A. (1950) and later made famous by Nat (“King”) Cole; and “Que Sera, Sera,” sung by Doris Day in The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956). Among their…

  • Buttons, Red (American actor)

    Red Buttons, (Aaron Chwatt), American actor (born Feb. 5, 1919, New York, N.Y.—died July 13, 2006, Los Angeles, Calif.), was a sprightly red-haired comedian who performed in burlesque before fronting his own television show (1952–55) and creating a cast of unforgettable characters—notably Rocky, a

  • buttonwood (plant)

    plane tree: The American plane tree, or sycamore (P. occidentalis), also known as buttonwood, buttonball, or whitewood, is the tallest, sometimes reaching a height of more than 50 m (160 feet). Its pendent, smooth, ball-shaped seed clusters usually dangle singly and often persist after leaf fall. Native from…

  • buttress (architecture)

    Buttress, in architecture, exterior support, usually of masonry, projecting from the face of a wall and serving either to strengthen it or to resist the side thrust created by the load on an arch or a roof. In addition to their practical functions, buttresses can be decorative, both in their own

  • buttress dam (engineering)

    dam: Concrete buttress and multiple-arch dams: Unlike gravity dams, buttress dams do not rely entirely upon their own weight to resist the thrust of the water. Their upstream face, therefore, is not vertical but inclines about 25° to 45°, so the thrust of the water on the upstream face inclines toward the foundation. Embryonic…

  • buttress root (plant anatomy)

    Amazon River: Plant life: …these giant trees is their buttresses, the basal enlargements of their trunks, which help stabilize the top-heavy trees during infrequent heavy winds. Further characteristics of the canopy trees are their narrow, downward-pointing “drip-tip” leaves, which easily shed water, and their cauliflory (the production of flowers directly from the trunks rather…

  • Buttrose, Ita (Australian journalist, editor, and businesswoman)

    Ita Buttrose, Australian journalist, editor, and businesswoman who was the founding editor (1972–75) of the highly popular Australian women’s magazine Cleo and the first woman to serve as editor in chief (1981–84) of the Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph newspapers in Sydney. Buttrose left

  • Buttrose, Ita Clare (Australian journalist, editor, and businesswoman)

    Ita Buttrose, Australian journalist, editor, and businesswoman who was the founding editor (1972–75) of the highly popular Australian women’s magazine Cleo and the first woman to serve as editor in chief (1981–84) of the Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph newspapers in Sydney. Buttrose left

  • Butts, Gerald (Canadian political consultant)

    Canada: SNC-Lavalin affair: …close friend and principal secretary Gerald Butts and Clerk of the Privy Council Michael Wernick said that they had not put inappropriate political pressure on Wilson-Raybould to intercede in the SNC-Lavalin matter.

  • Butts, Mary (British author)

    English literature: The literature of World War I and the interwar period: …and Armed with Madness (1928), Butts explored a more general loss of value in the contemporary wasteland (T.S. Eliot was an obvious influence on her work), while Doolittle (whose reputation rested upon her contribution to the Imagist movement in poetry) used the quest-romance in a series of autobiographical novels—including Paint…

  • Butts, Professor Lucifer Gorgonzola (cartoon character)

    Rube Goldberg: …also created the cartoon character Professor Lucifer Gorgonzola Butts, an inventor of contraptions that accomplished simple ends in a roundabout manner. One of his hundreds of inventions was an automatic stamp licker activated by a dwarf robot who overturned a can of ants onto a page of postage stamps, gumside…

  • Butts, The (work by Chra?bi)

    Driss Chra?bi: Les Boucs (1955; The Butts) shifted the author’s accusatory finger from a paternalistic Islamic formalism to the oppressed condition of many North Africans living in France. Then, leaving aside the directness of polemic, Chra?bi turned to more allegorical political expression in L’?ne (1956; “The Donkey”) and La Foule…

  • Butua (historical kingdom, Africa)

    Butua, former African kingdom in what is now southwestern Zimbabwe. Though called Guruhuswa in Shona tradition, the region was first mentioned in Portuguese records as Butua in 1512. The Togwa dynasty governed the kingdom until 1683, when it was conquered and absorbed by the changamire (or ruler)

  • Butuan (Philippines)

    Butuan, chartered city, northern Mindanao, Philippines, on the Agusan River near its mouth at Butuan Bay. A major settlement in early Spanish times, Butuan was visited by ships from Borneo and Luzon, reportedly trading for gold, cinnamon, and slaves. A Jesuit mission station was established there

  • Bū?uga II (Ga?ga ruler)

    Ganga dynasty: …dispute weakened the Gangas, but Butuga II (c. 937–960) obtained extensive territories between the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers, ruling from Talakad (the capital) to Vatapi. Repeated Chola invasions cut contact between Gangavadi and the imperial capital, and Talakad fell into the hands of the Chola ruler Vishnuvardhana in about 1004.…

  • Butung (island, Indonesia)

    Buton, island in the Indonesian propinsi (or provinsi; province) of Southeast Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tenggara). It is one of a group of islands that includes also Muna, Wowoni, and Kabaena. Its chief town, administrative centre, and port is Baubau on the southwestern coast. With an area of 1,620 square

  • Butung, Pulau (island, Indonesia)

    Buton, island in the Indonesian propinsi (or provinsi; province) of Southeast Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tenggara). It is one of a group of islands that includes also Muna, Wowoni, and Kabaena. Its chief town, administrative centre, and port is Baubau on the southwestern coast. With an area of 1,620 square

  • Butwa (historical kingdom, Africa)

    Butua, former African kingdom in what is now southwestern Zimbabwe. Though called Guruhuswa in Shona tradition, the region was first mentioned in Portuguese records as Butua in 1512. The Togwa dynasty governed the kingdom until 1683, when it was conquered and absorbed by the changamire (or ruler)

  • butyl alcohol (chemical compound)

    Butyl alcohol (C4H9OH), any of four organic compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures: normal (n-) butyl alcohol, secondary (sec-) butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, and tertiary (t-) butyl alcohol. All four of these alcohols have important industrial applications. n-Butyl

  • butyl rubber (chemical compound)

    Butyl rubber (IIR), a synthetic rubber produced by copolymerizing isobutylene with small amounts of isoprene. Valued for its chemical inertness, impermeability to gases, and weatherability, butyl rubber is employed in the inner linings of automobile tires and in other specialty applications. Both

  • butylated hydroxytoluene (chemical compound)

    preservative: , butylated hydroxytoluene, or BHT) retard the development of rancidity produced by oxidation in margarine, shortening, and a variety of foods containing fats and oils. Antibiotics such as the tetracyclines are used to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria in poultry, fish, and canned foods. Humectants,…

  • butylated melamine resin (chemical compound)

    melamine: Manufacture and applications of melamine: Butylated melamine resins, made by incorporating butyl alcohol into the melamine–formaldehyde reaction mixture, are fluids used as ingredients of paints and varnishes. A copolymer containing melamine, formaldehyde, and sodium bisulfite produces a foam with sound-absorbing and flame-retardant properties. The foam has a notably hard microbubble…

  • butylene (chemical compound)

    Butene, any of four isomeric compounds belonging to the series of olefinic hydrocarbons. The chemical formula is C4H8. The isomeric forms are 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutylene. All four butenes are gases at room temperature and pressure. Butenes are formed during the c

  • butyllithium (chemical compound)

    lithium: Significant uses: …a large scale is n-butyllithium, C4H9Li. Its principal commercial use is as an initiator of polymerization, for example, in the production of synthetic rubber. It is also extensively used in the production of other organic chemicals, especially pharmaceuticals. Because of its light weight and large negative electrochemical potential, lithium…

  • butyric acid (chemical compound)

    Butyric acid (CH3CH2CH2CO2H), a fatty acid occurring in the form of esters in animal fats and plant oils. As a glyceride (an ester containing an acid and glycerol), it makes up 3–4 percent of butter; the disagreeable odour of rancid butter is that of hydrolysis of the butyric acid glyceride. The

  • butyrophenone (drug)

    antipsychotic drug: …third class of antipsychotics, the butyrophenones, emerged when a small Belgian drug company embarked on a plan in the late 1950s to develop analogs of meperidine through inexpensive chemical substitutions. Experiments gave rise to a compound that caused chlorpromazine-like sedation but had a completely different structure. This led to the…

  • butyryl-S-ACP (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Fatty acids: …catalyzed by crotonyl-ACP reductase, are butyryl-S-ACP and NADP+.

  • Butz, Earl Lauer (American economist and government official)

    Earl Lauer Butz, American economist and government official (born July 3, 1909, Albion, Ind.—died Feb. 2, 2008, Kensington, Md.), served (1971–76) as the forceful secretary of agriculture under U.S. Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford; he had also held (1954–57) the post of assistant secretary

  • Butzer, Martin (Protestant religious reformer)

    Martin Bucer, Protestant reformer, mediator, and liturgical scholar best known for his ceaseless attempts to make peace between conflicting reform groups. He influenced not only the development of Calvinism but also the liturgical development of the Anglican Communion. Bucer entered the Dominican

  • Butzner, Jane (Canadian writer)

    Jane Jacobs, American-born Canadian urbanologist noted for her clear and original observations on urban life and its problems. After graduating from high school, Butzner worked at the Scranton Tribune. She moved to New York City in 1934, where she held several different jobs while writing articles

  • Buvuma Island (island, Africa)

    East African lakes: Physiography: , lies Buvuma Island. There are numerous other islands, most being of ironstone formation overlying quartzite and crystalline schists. The Kagera River, largest of the affluents, may be considered the most remote headstream of the Nile. The outlet of the lake and the conventional source of the…

  • Buwayhid dynasty

    Būyid Dynasty, (945–1055), Islāmic dynasty of pronounced Iranian and Shī?ī character that provided native rule in western Iran and Iraq in the period between the Arab and Turkish conquests. Of Daylamite (northern Iranian) origin, the line was founded by the three sons of Būyeh (or Buwayh), ?Alī, ?

  • Buxaceae (plant family)

    Boxwood, (family Buxaceae), any of the plants in the family Buxaceae (order Buxales), best known for the ornamental and useful boxwoods. The boxwood family comprises five genera of trees, shrubs, and herbs and is native to North America, Europe, North Africa, and Asia. Flowers are small, unisexual,

  • Buxales (plant order)

    Buxales, the boxwood order of dicotyledonous flowering plants, comprising Buxaceae (90–120 species in five genera) and the small taxonomically contentious family Haptanthaceae (one species in one genus). Buxales belongs to a group of plants known as peripheral eudicots, together with Proteales,

  • Buxar (India)

    Buxar, historic city, western Bihar state, northeastern India. It is situated just south of the Ganges (Ganga) River. The Battle of Baksar (Buxar; 1764) resulted in the final acquisition of lower Bengal by the British. A place of great sanctity, it is believed to have been originally called

  • Buxar, Battle of (British-Mughal conflict [1764])

    Battle of Buxar, Buxur also spelled Baksar, (22 October 1764), conflict at Buxar in northeastern India between the forces of the British East India Company, commanded by Major Hector Munro, and the combined army of an alliance of Indian states including Bengal, Awadh, and the Mughal Empire. This

  • Buxbaumia (moss genus)

    Elf-cap moss, (genus Buxbaumia), any of the 12 species of moss of the genus Buxbaumia (subclass Buxbaumiidae) that grow on soil or rotten wood in the Northern Hemisphere. The four species native to North America are uncommon. Male and female organs are borne on separate plants. The male plant has

  • Buxbaumiidae (moss subclass)

    bryophyte: Annotated classification: Subclass Buxbaumiidae Sporophyte with elongate or short seta; sporangium asymmetrical, with operculum; peristome teeth sometimes in several concentric circles, the outer articulated, the inner forming a cone opened at the tip; spores released slowly when slight pressure on the sporangium surface causes the spores to puff…

  • Buxheimer Orgelbuch (German music composition)

    Western music: Instrumental music: …German sources, such as the Buxheimer Orgelbuch and Conrad Paumann’s Fundamentum organisandi (Fundamentals of Organ Playing). The compositions in both collections are of two basic types, arrangements of vocal works and keyboard pieces entitled Praeambulum (Prelude).

  • Buxhoevden, Albert von (bishop of Livonia)

    Order of the Brothers of the Sword: …the third bishop of Livonia, Albert von Buxhoevden, founded the Order of the Brothers of the Sword, with the pope’s permission, as a permanent military body in Livonia to protect the church’s conquests and to forcibly convert the native pagan tribes to Christianity.

  • Buxoro (oblast, Uzbekistan)

    Buxoro, oblast (province), central Uzbekistan. The oblast was constituted in 1938, but in 1982 much of its territory in the north and east was transferred to a newly formed Navoi oblast. Buxoro oblast mainly comprises the Kimirekkum Desert, with the lower reaches of the Zeravshan River in the

  • Buxoro (Uzbekistan)

    Bukhara, city, south-central Uzbekistan, located about 140 miles (225 km) west of Samarkand. The city lies on the Shakhrud Canal in the delta of the Zeravshan River, at the centre of Bukhara oasis. Founded not later than the 1st century ce (and possibly as early as the 3rd or 4th century bce),

  • Buxtehude, Dieterich (Danish composer)

    Dietrich Buxtehude, Danish or German organist and composer of church music, one of the most esteemed and influential composers of his time. His exact place of birth is uncertain, and nothing is known of his early youth. It is usually assumed that he began his musical education with his father, who

  • Buxtehude, Dietrich (Danish composer)

    Dietrich Buxtehude, Danish or German organist and composer of church music, one of the most esteemed and influential composers of his time. His exact place of birth is uncertain, and nothing is known of his early youth. It is usually assumed that he began his musical education with his father, who

  • Buxton (England, United Kingdom)

    Buxton, town, High Peak borough, administrative and historic county of Derbyshire, north-central England. It is encircled by (but excluded from) Peak District National Park. Standing between 1,000 and 1,100 feet (305 and 335 metres) above sea level, Buxton is the highest market town in England. The

  • Buxton, Glen (American musician)

    Alice Cooper: March 16, 1948), Glen Buxton (b. Nov. 10, 1947, Akron, Ohio—d. Oct. 19, 1997, Mason City, Iowa), Dennis Dunaway (b. Dec. 9, 1946, Cottage Grove, Ore.), and Neal Smith (b. Sept. 23, 1947, Akron).

  • Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell, 1st Baronet (British philanthropist and politician)

    Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, 1st Baronet, British philanthropist and politician who, in 1822, succeeded William Wilberforce as leader of the campaign in the House of Commons for the abolition of slavery in the British colonies and thus was partly responsible for the Abolition Act of August 28, 1833. A

  • Buxus (plant)

    Box, In botany, an evergreen shrub or small tree (genus Buxus) of the box family (Buxaceae), best known for the ornamental and useful boxwoods. The family comprises seven genera of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, native to North America, Europe, North Africa, and Asia. The plants bear male

  • Buxus balearica (tree)

    box: microphylla); and the tall boxwood tree (B. balearica).

  • Buxus microphylla (plant species)

    boxwood: The Japanese boxwood (B. microphylla) and its varieties provide a wide range of ornamental shrubs.

  • Buxus sempervirens (tree)

    boxwood: …the widely grown boxwood: the common, or American, box (B. sempervirens), the Japanese box (B. microphylla), and the Korean box (B. sinica). See also boxwood.

  • Buxus sempervirens suffructicosa (plant)

    boxwood: The dwarf English boxwood, B. sempervirens, variety suffruticosa, is often used to edge walks in formal gardens. The Japanese boxwood (B. microphylla) and its varieties provide a wide range of ornamental shrubs.

  • Buxus vahlii (plant)

    boxwood: Vahl’s boxwood (B. vahlii), which occurs in just two locations in Puerto Rico, is considered to be a critically endangered species. The Malawi endemic B. nyasica is also endangered.

  • Buy Nothing Day

    Buy Nothing Day, day of protest in which participants pledge to buy nothing for 24 hours to raise awareness of the negative environmental, social, and political consequences of overconsumption. Conceived of in 1992 by Canadian artist Ted Dave, it is typically observed in North America on the Friday

  • buya (religion)

    bubi: … is thus the opposite of buya, or goodness or beauty of character. Luba religion is generally oriented toward minimizing or counteracting bubi within society.

  • Buyantu (emperor of Yuan dynasty)

    Buyantu, (reigned 1311–20), Mongol emperor of the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368) of China, who was a patron of literature. He distributed offices more equitably between Chinese and Mongols than had his predecessors, and during his reign commercial ties with Europe

  • Buyei (people)

    Buyei, an official minority group inhabiting large parts of Guizhou province in south-central China. They call themselves Jui or Yoi. There are also some 50,000 Buyei living in Vietnam, where they are an official nationality. They had no written script of their own until 1956, when the Chinese

  • buyer (business)

    commercial transaction: Obligations of the buyer: The buyer’s main duties are simple: payment of the purchase price and acceptance of delivery. Contemporary legal systems are no longer concerned with enforcing a just price. Only a few European countries (including Italy and France) still have rules on exorbitant prices and only…

  • buyer’s monopoly (economics)

    Monopsony, in economic theory, market situation in which there is only one buyer. An example of pure monopsony is a firm that is the only buyer of labour in an isolated town. Such a firm is able to pay lower wages than it would under competition. Although cases of pure monopsony are rare,

  • Buyi (people)

    Buyei, an official minority group inhabiting large parts of Guizhou province in south-central China. They call themselves Jui or Yoi. There are also some 50,000 Buyei living in Vietnam, where they are an official nationality. They had no written script of their own until 1956, when the Chinese

  • Būyid dynasty

    Būyid Dynasty, (945–1055), Islāmic dynasty of pronounced Iranian and Shī?ī character that provided native rule in western Iran and Iraq in the period between the Arab and Turkish conquests. Of Daylamite (northern Iranian) origin, the line was founded by the three sons of Būyeh (or Buwayh), ?Alī, ?

  • buying (business)

    logistics: Purchasing: Closely related to production scheduling is purchasing, because many of the inputs needed for production must be purchased from outside vendors. The logistics staff advises as to the transportation services that must be used to ensure that the purchased materials arrive on schedule. If…

  • buying power (economics)

    accounting: Problems of measurement and the limitations of financial reporting: …units—not in units of constant purchasing power. Changes in purchasing power—that is, changes in the average level of prices of goods and services—have two effects. First, net monetary assets (essentially cash and receivables minus liabilities calling for fixed monetary payments) lose purchasing power as the general price level rises. These…

  • Buyoya, Pierre (head of state of Burundi)

    Burundi: The Third Republic: Pierre Buyoya’s decision to overthrow the Second Republic in September 1987 and proclaim a Third Republic. Buyoya, also a Tutsi-Bahima from Bururi, took the title of president and presided over a country that was ruled by a 30-member military junta, the Military Committee for National…

  • Buyr Nuur (lake, Asia)

    Lake Buir, lake largely in eastern Mongolia, on the border with northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. It has an area of 235 square miles (609 square km). It receives the Halh?n (Halaha) River from the southeast, and its outlet, the Orxon (Orshun) River, flows into Lake Hulun to

  • Buys Ballot’s Law (atmospheric science)

    Buys Ballot’s law, the relation of wind direction with the horizontal pressure distribution named for the Dutch meteorologist C.H.D. Buys Ballot, who first stated it in 1857. He derived the law empirically, unaware that it already had been deduced theoretically by the U.S. meteorologist William

  • Buys Ballot, Christophorus (Dutch meteorologist)

    Christophorus Buys Ballot, Dutch meteorologist particularly remembered for his observation in 1857 that the wind tends to blow at right angles to the atmospheric pressure gradient. Although he was not the first to make this discovery, his name remains attached to it as Buys Ballot’s law (q.v.).

  • Buys, Paulus (Dutch statesman)

    Paulus Buys, Dutch statesman who, as advocate (provincial executive) of Holland (1572–85), helped the province achieve its preeminent role in the revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish rule. The harsh religious persecution and high taxes of the Duke of Alba’s regime (1567–73) led Buys to join

  • Buysse, Cyriel (Belgian writer)

    Cyriel Buysse, Belgian novelist and playwright, one of the outstanding exponents of Flemish naturalism. Although Buysse, like the sons of most wealthy Flemings, received a French education, he early devoted himself to writing primarily in Flemish. In 1893 he cofounded and coedited Van Nu en Straks

  • Büyük A?r? Da?? (mountain, Turkey)

    Mount Ararat: Great Ararat, or Büyük A?r? Da??, which reaches an elevation of 16,945 feet (5,165 metres) above sea level, is the highest peak in Turkey. Little Ararat, or Kü?ük A?r? Da??, rises in a smooth, steep, nearly perfect cone to 12,782 feet (3,896 metres). Both Great…

  • Büyük Menderes Nehri (river, Turkey)

    Menderes River, river, southwestern Turkey. It rises on the Anatolian plateau south and west of Afyon and flows westward through a narrow valley and canyon. At Sarayk?y it expands into a broad, flat-bottomed valley with a typical Mediterranean landscape, dotted with fig trees, olive groves, and

  • Büyük Menderes River (river, Turkey)

    Menderes River, river, southwestern Turkey. It rises on the Anatolian plateau south and west of Afyon and flows westward through a narrow valley and canyon. At Sarayk?y it expands into a broad, flat-bottomed valley with a typical Mediterranean landscape, dotted with fig trees, olive groves, and

  • Büyük Millet Meclisi (Turkish history)

    Mehmed VI: The Grand National Assembly on Nov. 1, 1922, abolished the sultanate. Sixteen days later Mehmed VI boarded a British warship and fled to Malta. His later attempts to install himself as caliph in the Hejaz failed.

  • Büyük the Great (governor of Basra)

    Iraq: The 18th-century Mamlūk regime: …known as Büyük (the Great) Süleyman Pa?a, and his rule (1780–1802) is generally acknowledged to represent the apogee of Mamlūk power in Iraq. He imported large numbers of mamlūks to strengthen his own household, curbed the factionalism among rival households, eliminated the Janissaries as an independent local force, and fostered…

  • Büyükada (island, Turkey)

    K?z?l Adalar: …on the four larger islands, Büyükada (Prinkipo, ancient Pityoussa), Heybeli Ada (Halki, ancient Chalcitis), Burgaz Adas? (Antigoni, ancient Panormos), and K?nal? Ada (Proti). Büyükada was Leon Trotsky’s home for a time after his exile from the Soviet Union in 1929. Heybeli Ada has a branch of the Turkish naval academy.

  • Büyükkale (hill, Turkey)

    Büyükkale, high hill that dominated the east side of Bo?azk?y (now Bo?azkale, Tur.), site of the ancient Hittite capital (2nd millennium bce). Büyükkale, which means “Great Fortress,” became the acropolis of the Hittite

  • Buyun, Mount (mountain, China)

    Liaodong Peninsula: …high, but the highest peak, Mount Buyun, reaches 3,710 feet (1,130 metres). Most of the southern part of the peninsula is gentler in relief, seldom exceeding 1,650 feet (500 metres) in height. The mountains are deeply dissected by a complex river system, which drains partly into the Yalu River to…

  • Buzabaliawo, Saint James (Ugandan saint)

    Martyrs of Uganda: …soldiers and officials Bruno Serunkuma, James Buzabaliawo, and Luke Banabakintu were martyred with them.

  • Buz?u (county, Romania)

    Buz?u, jude? (county), southeastern Romania, occupying an area of 2,356 square miles (6,103 square km). The Buz?u mountain range, part of the Eastern Carpathians and the sub-Carpathian mountains, lies in the west, rising above settlement areas in the valleys and lowlands. The Buz?u River and its

  • Buz?u (Romania)

    Buz?u, city, capital of Buz?u jude? (county), southeastern Romania, on the Buz?u River, approximately 60 miles (100 km) northeast of Bucharest. Its location near the foothills of the Eastern Carpathians at the limit of the Danube Plain fostered its development as a market and trading centre. It was

  • Buz?u Mountains (mountain range, Romania)

    Ciuca?: …the highest point in the Buz?u Mountains. It is a picturesque mountain noted for the strange shapes of its limestone and conglomerate rocks, which are known locally as the Frying Pans but have the appearance of chimney towers.

  • Buz?u Pass (pass, Romania)

    Buz?u Pass, pass connecting Bra?ov with Buz?u, southeastern Romania, over the Buz?u Mountains, in the Eastern Carpathians. It follows the valley of the Buz?u River for most of its distance. A road crosses the pass, and there are short, nonconnecting rail branches from Bra?ov and

  • Buzek, Jerzy (prime minister of Poland)

    Jerzy Buzek, Polish engineer, educator, and political leader who served as prime minister of Poland (1997–2001) and as president of the European Parliament (2009–12). Buzek earned a degree in technical sciences from the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice. He later taught there as well as

  • Buzek, Jerzy Karol (prime minister of Poland)

    Jerzy Buzek, Polish engineer, educator, and political leader who served as prime minister of Poland (1997–2001) and as president of the European Parliament (2009–12). Buzek earned a degree in technical sciences from the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice. He later taught there as well as

  • Būzjānī, Mu?ammad ibn Mu?ammad ibn Ya?yā ibn Ismā?īl ibn al-?Abbās Abū al-Wafā? al- (Persian mathematician)

    Abū al-Wafā?, a distinguished Muslim astronomer and mathematician, who made important contributions to the development of trigonometry. Abū al-Wafā? worked in a private observatory in Baghdad, where he made observations to determine, among other astronomical parameters, the obliquity of the

  • buzkashī (game)

    Buzkashī, (Persian: “goat dragging”) a rugged equestrian game, played predominantly by Turkic peoples in northern Afghanistan, in which riders compete to seize and retain control of a goat or calf carcass. Buzkashī has two main forms: the traditional, grassroots game, known as tūdabarāy (Persian

  • buzuki (Greek musical instrument)

    Bouzouki, long-necked plucked lute of Greece. Resembling a mandolin, the bouzouki has a round wooden body, with metal strings arranged in three or four double courses over a fretted fingerboard. The musician plucks the strings over the soundhole with a plectrum held in the right hand, while

  • Buzuluk (Russia)

    Buzuluk, city, western Orenburg oblast (region), southeastern European Russia. It is situated in the western outliers of the southern Ural Mountains along the Samara River (a tributary of the Volga River), near its confluence with the Buzuluk River. Buzuluk was founded in 1736 as a Russian fortress

  • Buzz (social network)

    Gmail: …a social networking application, called Buzz, into Gmail. Buzz allowed users to share updates and photos with contacts in their Gmail networks in a manner similar to Facebook or Twitter, but it was not restricted by the 140-character limit that defined Twitter. The service proved relatively unpopular, however, and was…

  • buzz bomb (military technology)

    V-1 missile, German jet-propelled missile of World War II, the forerunner of modern cruise missiles. More than 8,000 V-1s were launched against London from June 13, 1944, to March 29, 1945, with about 2,400 hitting the target area. A smaller number were fired against Belgium. The rockets were

  • buzzard (bird)

    Buzzard, any of several birds of prey of the genus Buteo and, in North America, various New World vultures (family Cathartidae), especially the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura). Similarly, in Australia a large hawk of the genus Hamirostra is called a black-breasted buzzard. In North America, Buteo

  • buzzard hawk (bird)

    Buteo, any of several birds of prey of the genus Buteo, variously classified as buzzards or hawks. See buzzard;

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