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  • Banqiao Dam (dam, China)

    Typhoon Nina–Banqiao dam failure: The Banqiao Dam had been built on the Ru River in the early 1950s as part of a flood-prevention and electricity-production program aimed at controlling the Huang He (Yellow River). At a height of 387 feet (118 metres) and with a storage capacity of some 17.4…

  • Banque Africaine de Développement

    African Development Bank (ADB), African organization established in 1964, operational beginning in 1966, and dedicated to financing the economic and social development of its African member countries. Its membership includes 53 African states and 24 non-African countries. ADB headquarters are in

  • Banque Arabe pour le Développement économique en Afrique (international finance)

    Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa, bank created by the Arab League summit conference in Algiers in November 1973 to finance development projects in Africa. In 1975 BADEA began operating by supplying African countries, excluding members of the Arab League, with technical assistance, which

  • Banque Centrale de la République de Guinée (bank, Guinea)

    Guinea: Finance: The central bank is the Banque Centrale de la République de Guinée.

  • Banque Centrale des états de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (West African government)

    Mali: Finance and trade: …share a common bank, the Central Bank of West African States (Banque Centrale des états de l’Afrique de l’Ouest), which is headquartered in Dakar, Seneg. The bank issues the currency used by the member countries, the CFA (Communauté Financière Africaine) franc, officially pegged to the euro since 2002. Mali has…

  • Banque Générale (bank, France)

    history of Europe: Early capitalism: …ambitious scheme for a royal bank in France foundered in 1720 because it was linked to his Louisiana company and its inflated prospects. After its failure tax farmers resumed their hold over state finance, and as a result interest rates remained higher than those of Britain because there was no…

  • Banques Suisses, Union de (bank, Switzerland)

    Union Bank of Switzerland, one of the largest commercial banks in Switzerland, with overseas representative offices and branches. Headquarters are in Zürich. The bank was founded in 1912 in the merger of Bank in Winterthur (established 1862) and Toggenburger Bank (1863). Since then it has absorbed

  • Banquet (work by Lucian)

    Lucian: Banquet gives an amusing account of an imaginary wedding feast given by a patron of the arts. Among the guests are representatives of every philosophical school, who all behave outrageously and start fighting over delicacies to take home when the party comes to an end.…

  • Banquet by Lantern Light (work by Ma Yuan)

    Ma Yuan: Later works and influence: …the unsigned version of the Banquet by Lantern Light in the National Palace Museum in Taipei.

  • Banquet in Blitva, The (work by Krle?a)

    Miroslav Krle?a: in 1 (1961; The Banquet in Blitva), deals with characters and events in an imaginary eastern European country; it portrays in an allegorical and satirical manner both eastern European backwardness and western European decadence and opportunism in response to rising fascism in the interwar period. Krle?a’s dramatic trilogy…

  • Banquet of Officers of the Civic Guard of St. George at Haarlem (works by Hals)

    Frans Hals: Early life and works: …such painting is his second Banquet of Officers of the Civic Guard of St. George at Haarlem (1627), in which the figures take up postures normally employed for the expression of mystical religious rapture to celebrate their well-nourished contentment. In this painting, Hals displays his unmistakable genius for mise-en-scène; the…

  • Banquet of the Children of Job (work by Orley)

    Bernard van Orley: …be seen in the altarpiece Banquet of the Children of Job (1521). Of Orley’s portraits, that of Georg Zelle is the only surviving one that is signed and dated (1519). Tapestries designed by Orley include the series Hunts of Maximilian and The Battle of Pavia.

  • Banquet, Le (work by Mammeri)

    Mouloud Mammeri: …later works included a play, Le Banquet (1973), which dealt with the destruction of the Aztecs, and La Traversée (1982; “The Crossing”), a novel that centred on an alienated journalist’s attempt to return to his Berber roots.

  • Banquet, The (work by Methodius of Olympus)

    patristic literature: Late 2nd to early 4th century: … (died 311), of whose treatises The Banquet, exalting virginity, survives in Greek and others mainly in Old Church Slavonic translations. Although indebted to Alexandrian allegorism, Methodius remained faithful to the Asiatic tradition (literal and historical) of Irenaeus—who had come to France from Asia Minor—and his realism and castigated Origen’s ideas…

  • Banquet, The (poem by Dante)

    aesthetics: Medieval aesthetics: 1304–07; The Banquet). In this piece, generally considered one of the first sustained works of literary criticism in the modern manner, the poet analyzes the four levels of meaning contained in his own poems.

  • Banqueters, The (play by Aristophanes)

    Aristophanes: Life and career: …a play, the Daitaleis (The Banqueters), which appears, from surviving fragments, to have been a satire on his contemporaries’ educational and moral theories. He is thought to have written about 40 plays in all. A large part of his work is concerned with the social, literary, and philosophical life…

  • Banqueting House (building, London, United Kingdom)

    Inigo Jones: In 1619 the Banqueting House at Whitehall was destroyed by fire; and between that year and 1622 Jones replaced it with what has always been regarded as his greatest achievement. The Banqueting House consists of one great chamber, raised on a vaulted basement. It was conceived internally as…

  • Banquo (fictional character)

    Macbeth: Macbeth and Banquo, who are generals serving King Duncan of Scotland, meet the Weird Sisters, three witches who prophesy that Macbeth will become thane of Cawdor, then king, and that Banquo will beget kings. Soon thereafter Macbeth discovers that he has indeed been made thane of Cawdor,…

  • Bansang (The Gambia)

    Bansang, town, east-central Gambia, on the south bank of the Gambia River. Bansang is a local trade centre for peanuts (groundnuts), rice, and fish among the Malinke, Fulani, and Wolof peoples, and it is a port of call for the government steamer from Banjul, 188 miles (303 km) downstream. Bansang

  • bansha no goku (Japanese history)

    Japan: Western studies: …bakufu officials in the so-called bansha no goku incident dealt a serious blow to Western studies in Japan. Thereafter, as consciousness of the foreign threat grew stronger, adherents of Western studies placed heavy emphasis on the study of military technology.

  • Banshan culture (anthropology)

    China: 4th and 3rd millennia bce: …painted on pots of the Banshan (mid-3rd millennium) and Machang (last half of 3rd millennium) cultures. Some two-thirds of the pots found in the Machang burial area at Liuwan in Qinghai, for example, were painted. In the North China Plain, Dahe culture sites contain a mixture of Miaodigou and eastern,…

  • Banshan ware

    Banshan ware, type of Chinese Neolithic painted pottery. Its name is derived from the grave site in the Gansu province of north China at which the pottery was found in 1924. According to radiocarbon dating, Banshan ware is generally considered to be from between 2650 and 2350 bc. The extant

  • banshee (Celtic folklore)

    Banshee, (“woman of the fairies”) supernatural being in Irish and other Celtic folklore whose mournful “keening,” or wailing screaming or lamentation, at night was believed to foretell the death of a member of the family of the person who heard the spirit. In Ireland banshees were believed to warn

  • Bansho Shirabesho (Japanese government bureau)

    Japanese art: Western-style painting: …established a bureau (later named Bansho Shirabesho, or Institute for the Study of Western Documents) to study Western painting as part of an effort to master Western technology. Technical drawing was emphasized in the curriculum. Takahashi Yuichi, a graduate of that bureau, was the first Japanese artist of the period…

  • Banská Bystrica (Slovakia)

    Banská Bystrica, town, capital of Banskobystricky kraj (region), central Slovakia. It lies in the Hron River valley, surrounded by mountains. An ancient town, it was an important mining centre from the 13th century, when it was chartered. Gothic and Renaissance-style buildings, including burghers’

  • Banstead (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Reigate and Banstead, borough (district), administrative and historic county of Surrey, southeastern England, immediately south of Greater London. Named for the two principal locales of the district, Reigate (the administrative centre) and Banstead, it extends across the North Downs, a range of low

  • bansuri (musical instrument)

    Hariprasad Chaurasia: …brought global recognition to the bansuri, a simple side-blown bamboo flute.

  • Banswara (India)

    Banswara, town, southern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated in an upland region of low hills just west of a large reservoir formed by damming the Mahi River. The area once constituted the princely state of Banswara, founded about 1530, of which the walled town of Banswara was the

  • Bantam (former city, Indonesia)

    Bantam, former city and sultanate of Java, Indonesia. It lay near the site of the present-day city of Banten, on Banten Bay, at the extreme northwest of the island, just north of Serang. Now in ruins, Bantam was the most important port on Java for the spice trade with Europe from the 16th century

  • Bantam (former sultanate, Indonesia)

    Banten: History: …became the first sultan of Banten, and the population in the port area subsequently converted to Islam. It is from this historic sultanate that the province of Banten draws its name. The new sultanate extended its authority southward by sacking the remains of Pajajaran in 1579 and northwestward by subjugating…

  • Banteai Srei (temple, Angkor, Cambodia)

    Southeast Asian arts: Kingdom of Khmer: 9th–13th century: …relief sculpture first appears on Banteay Srei (10th century). The relief centres on a series of Indian legends dealing with the cosmic mountain Meru as the source of all creation and with the divine origin of water. The chief artistic achievement of its architecture is the way in which it…

  • Banteay Srei (temple, Angkor, Cambodia)

    Southeast Asian arts: Kingdom of Khmer: 9th–13th century: …relief sculpture first appears on Banteay Srei (10th century). The relief centres on a series of Indian legends dealing with the cosmic mountain Meru as the source of all creation and with the divine origin of water. The chief artistic achievement of its architecture is the way in which it…

  • Banten (province, Indonesia)

    Banten, propinsi (or provinsi; province), western Java, Indonesia, bounded to the north by the Java Sea, to the northeast by the special capital district of Jakarta, to the east by the province of West Java (Jawa Barat), to the south by the Indian Ocean, and to the west by the Sunda Strait, across

  • Banten (former city, Indonesia)

    Bantam, former city and sultanate of Java, Indonesia. It lay near the site of the present-day city of Banten, on Banten Bay, at the extreme northwest of the island, just north of Serang. Now in ruins, Bantam was the most important port on Java for the spice trade with Europe from the 16th century

  • Banten (former sultanate, Indonesia)

    Banten: History: …became the first sultan of Banten, and the population in the port area subsequently converted to Islam. It is from this historic sultanate that the province of Banten draws its name. The new sultanate extended its authority southward by sacking the remains of Pajajaran in 1579 and northwestward by subjugating…

  • Bantenese (people)

    Banten: Geography: The Bantenese—a group of people who are culturally distinct from their Sundanese and Javanese neighbors but who speak a dialect of the Javanese language—constitute nearly one-half of the population of Banten. Sundanese people form more than one-fifth of the population. Other significant minorities include the Javanese…

  • banteng (mammal)

    Banteng, (species Bos banteng), a species of wild Southeast Asian cattle, family Bovidae (order Artiodactyla), found in hill forests. A shy animal resembling a domestic cow, the banteng attains a shoulder height of about 1.5–1.75 m (60–69 inches). It has a slight ridge on the back, a white rump,

  • Banti, Anna (Italian author and critic)

    Anna Banti, Italian biographer, critic, and author of fiction about women’s struggles for equality of opportunity. Banti acquired a degree in art and became literary editor of the important arts journal Paragone. Her early fiction, including short stories and the novel Sette lune (1941; “Seven

  • Bantia (Italy)

    epigraphy: Ancient Rome: …laws of the town of Bantia (on the borderlands of Lucania and Apulia in southern Italy) are inscribed on a fragmentary bronze tablet found in 1790 (now in Naples), with a Latin-language text on one side and the longest known Oscan inscription on the other, both datable to the late…

  • Banting, Sir Frederick Grant (Canadian physician)

    Sir Frederick Grant Banting, Canadian physician who, with Charles H. Best, was one of the first to extract (1921) the hormone insulin from the pancreas. Injections of insulin proved to be the first effective treatment for diabetes, a disease in which glucose accumulates in abnormally high

  • banto faros (riverine plain)

    Gambia River: …river flats (known locally as banto faros) of the lower river are rendered useless for cultivation by the salt water that periodically inundates them, and settlements on them are few. The flats of the middle and upper river are of some agricultural value, however. Much of the grassland is regularly…

  • Bantock, Granville (British composer)

    Granville Bantock, English composer known especially for his large-scale choral and orchestral works. After preparing for the Indian civil service, Bantock studied in London at Trinity College of Music and the Royal Academy of Music. He was active as a conductor, founded and edited the New

  • Bantock, Sir Granville (British composer)

    Granville Bantock, English composer known especially for his large-scale choral and orchestral works. After preparing for the Indian civil service, Bantock studied in London at Trinity College of Music and the Royal Academy of Music. He was active as a conductor, founded and edited the New

  • Bantoid languages

    Benue-Congo languages: Bantoid: The 11th group within Benue-Congo, Bantoid, is far and away the largest not only in Benue-Congo but in Niger-Congo as a whole. Its 700 languages are spoken from eastern Nigeria across the rest of central, eastern, and southern Africa.

  • Bantry Bay (bay, Ireland)

    Bantry Bay, long inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, southwestern County Cork, Ireland. The bay has a maximum length of 30 miles (48 km) and is 10 miles (16 km) wide at its broadest point; it separates the Beara peninsula to the north from the Sheep’s Head peninsula to the south and is surrounded by

  • Bantu Authorities Act (South Africa [1951])

    apartheid: Under the Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 the government reestablished tribal organizations for black Africans, and the Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act of 1959 created 10 African homelands, or Bantustans. The Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970 made every black South African, irrespective of actual residence, a…

  • Bantu Church (South African Protestant denomination)

    Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, denomination formed in 1859 by the all-white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa for its black African mission congregations. It has the same structure, doctrine, traditions, and customs as the mother church, which retains extensive control over it by supplying 8

  • Bantu Education Act (South Africa [1953])

    Bantu Education Act, South African law, enacted in 1953 and in effect from January 1, 1954, that governed the education of black South African (called Bantu by the country’s government) children. It was part of the government’s system of apartheid, which sanctioned racial segregation and

  • Bantu Folk-Tales and Poems (work by Plaatje)

    Solomon Tshekiso Plaatje: …same year, and the collection Bantu Folk-Tales and Poems at a later date. He also translated a number of Shakespeare’s plays into Tswana. His novel Mhudi (1930), a story of love and war, is set in the 19th century. The characters are vivid and the style that of a traditional…

  • Bantu Homeland (historical territory, South Africa)

    Bantustan, any of 10 former territories that were designated by the white-dominated government of South Africa as pseudo-national homelands for the country’s black African (classified by the government as Bantu) population during the mid- to late 20th century. The Bantustans were a major

  • Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act (South Africa [1970])

    apartheid: The Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970 made every black South African, irrespective of actual residence, a citizen of one of the Bantustans, thereby excluding blacks from the South African body politic. Four of the Bantustans were granted independence as republics, and the remaining had varying…

  • Bantu languages

    Bantu languages, a group of some 500 languages belonging to the Bantoid subgroup of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. The Bantu languages are spoken in a very large area, including most of Africa from southern Cameroon eastward to Kenya and southward to the southernmost tip

  • Bantu peoples

    Bantu peoples, the approximately 85 million speakers of the more than 500 distinct languages of the Bantu subgroup of the Niger-Congo language family, occupying almost the entire southern projection of the African continent. The classification is primarily linguistic, for the cultural patterns of

  • Bantu philosophy

    Bantu philosophy, the philosophy, religious worldview, and ethical principles of the Bantu peoples—tens of millions of speakers of the more than 500 Bantu languages on the African continent—as articulated by 20th-century African intellectuals and founders of contemporary African philosophy and

  • Bantu Philosophy (work by Tempels)

    Bantu philosophy: However, it was Bantu Philosophy, a book published in 1945 by the Belgian missionary Placide Tempels, that popularized the notion of Bantu philosophy in Africa and in the West. That small book generated much controversy that played an important role in the development of contemporary African philosophy and…

  • Bantu Self-Government Act (South Africa [1959])

    Hendrik Verwoerd: He pushed through the Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act in 1959; it provided for the resettlement of blacks in eight separate reservations, or Bantu Homelands (later called Bantustans or black states). These racial policies provoked demonstrations that in March 1960 led to the massacre of Africans protesting the Pass…

  • Bantustan (historical territory, South Africa)

    Bantustan, any of 10 former territories that were designated by the white-dominated government of South Africa as pseudo-national homelands for the country’s black African (classified by the government as Bantu) population during the mid- to late 20th century. The Bantustans were a major

  • banty (winter sport)

    Bandy, a game similar to ice hockey. It is played almost exclusively in the Scandinavian countries, the Baltic countries, and Mongolia. A team is composed of from 8 to 11 players who wear skates and use curved sticks to hit a ball. Rink size varies but is characteristically larger than an ice h

  • Banū ?af? (Berber dynasty)

    ?af?id dynasty, Amazigh (Berber) dynasty of the 13th–16th century in Ifrīqiyyah (Tunisia and eastern Algeria), founded by the Almohad governor Abū Zakariyyā? Ya?yā about 1229. In the 20 years of his rule, Abū Zakariyyā? kept the various tribal disputes and intrigues under control, ensured ?af?id

  • Banū Wa??ās (North African dynasty)

    Marīnid dynasty: …branch of the Marīnids, the Wa??āsids (Banū Wa??ās), assumed rule over Morocco in 1465, but it collapsed when the Sa?dī sharifs took Fès in 1548.

  • Banu Yamina (ancient people)

    Abraham: The Genesis narrative in the light of recent scholarship: …so also remarkably are the Banu Yamina (“Benjaminites”). It is not that the latter are identical with the family of Benjamin, a son of Jacob, but rather that a name with such a biblical ring appears in these extrabiblical sources in the 18th century bce. What seems beyond doubt is…

  • Banū Zayyān (Berber dynasty)

    ?Abd al-Wādid Dynasty, dynasty of Zanātah Berbers (1236–1550), successors to the Almohad empire in northwestern Algeria. In 1236 the Zanātahs, loyal vassals to the Almohads, gained the support of other Berber tribes and nomadic Arabs and set up a kingdom at Tilimsān (Tlemcen), headed by the Zanātah

  • Banū Zīrī (North African and Spanish history)

    Zīrid dynasty, Muslim dynasty of ?anhājah Berbers whose various branches ruled in Ifrīqiyyah (Tunisia and eastern Algeria) and Granada (972–1152). Rising to prominence in the mountains of Kabylie, Algeria, where they established their first capital, Ashīr, the Zīrids became allies of the Fā?imids

  • Banū ?Annāz (Kurdish dynasty)

    ?Annazid dynasty, Kurdish dynasty (c. 990/991–1117) that ruled territory on what is now the Iran-Iraq frontier in the central Zagros Mountain region, with major centres that included Dīnawar, Shahrazūr, and Kermānshāh. The ?Annazids oversaw a general period of political instability and, later

  • Banū ?Ayyār (Kurdish dynasty)

    ?Annazid dynasty, Kurdish dynasty (c. 990/991–1117) that ruled territory on what is now the Iran-Iraq frontier in the central Zagros Mountain region, with major centres that included Dīnawar, Shahrazūr, and Kermānshāh. The ?Annazids oversaw a general period of political instability and, later

  • Banu?, Maria (Romanian author)

    Romanian literature: After World War II: …after World War II were Maria Banu?, who expressed the struggle for peace in her poetry, Miron Paraschivescu, a lyric poet who took themes from folklore, and Marcel Bresla?u, a complex writer on a wide range of subjects.

  • Banvard, John (American artist)

    Hudson River school: John Banvard and Henry Lewis painted huge panoramas of empty stretches of the Mississippi River. Among the first artists to explore the Far West were the enormously successful Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt, who painted grandiose scenes of the Rocky Mountains, the Grand Canyon, and…

  • Banville, étienne-Claude-Jean-Baptiste-Théodore-Faullain de (French poet)

    Théodore de Banville, French poet of the mid-19th century who was a late disciple of the Romantics, a leader of the Parnassian movement, a contributor to many of the literary reviews of his time, and an influence on the Symbolists. His first book of verse, Les Cariatides (1842; “The Caryatids”),

  • Banville, John (Irish writer)

    John Banville, Irish novelist and journalist whose fiction is known for being referential, paradoxical, and complex. Common themes throughout his work include loss, obsession, destructive love, and the pain that accompanies freedom. Banville attended St. Peter’s College in Wexford. He began working

  • Banville, Théodore de (French poet)

    Théodore de Banville, French poet of the mid-19th century who was a late disciple of the Romantics, a leader of the Parnassian movement, a contributor to many of the literary reviews of his time, and an influence on the Symbolists. His first book of verse, Les Cariatides (1842; “The Caryatids”),

  • Banya (work by Mayakovsky)

    Vladimir Mayakovsky: 30, 1930; The Bathhouse), a satire of bureaucratic stupidity and opportunism under Joseph Stalin.

  • Banyak Islands (islands, Indonesia)

    Banyak Islands, group of more than 60 small islands, in Aceh semiautonomous province, Indonesia. The largest of the islands are Great Banyak, or Tuangku, Island and Bangkaru Island. With an area of 123 square miles (319 square km), the group lies north of Nias Island and 18 miles (29 km) west of

  • Banyak, Kepulauan (islands, Indonesia)

    Banyak Islands, group of more than 60 small islands, in Aceh semiautonomous province, Indonesia. The largest of the islands are Great Banyak, or Tuangku, Island and Bangkaru Island. With an area of 123 square miles (319 square km), the group lies north of Nias Island and 18 miles (29 km) west of

  • Banyamwesi (people)

    Nyamwezi, Bantu-speaking inhabitants of a wide area of the western region of Tanzania. Their language and culture are closely related to those of the Sukuma (q.v.). The Nyamwezi subsist primarily by cereal agriculture, their major crops being sorghum, millet, and corn (maize). Rice is a s

  • banyan (plant)

    Banyan, (Ficus benghalensis), unusually shaped tree of the mulberry family (Moraceae) native to the Indian subcontinent. The banyan reaches a height up to 30 metres (100 feet) and spreads laterally indefinitely. Aerial roots that develop from its branches descend and take root in the soil to become

  • Banyaruanda

    Rwanda language, a Bantu language spoken by some 12 million people primarily in Rwanda and to a lesser extent in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Tanzania. The Bantu languages form a subgroup of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. Rwanda is closely

  • Banyoro (people)

    Nyoro, an Interlacustrine Bantu people living just east of Lake Albert (also called Lake Mobutu Sese Seko), west of the Victoria Nile, in west central Uganda. In precolonial times, the Nyoro formed one of the most powerful of a number of kingdoms in the area. Until the 18th century the Bunyoro

  • Banyuwangi (Indonesia)

    Banyuwangi, city, East Java (Jawa Timur) propinsi (or provinsi; province), Java, Indonesia. A major port on the Bali Strait, opposite Bali just to the east, it is located about 120 miles (195 km) southeast of Surabaya, the capital of East Java. It is linked by railway and road with Jember to the

  • Banza Bakwai (historical region, Africa)

    Hausa states: …their seven outlying satellites, or Banza Bakwai (Zamfara, Kebbi, Yauri, Gwari, Nupe, Kororofa [Jukun], and Yoruba), had no central authority, were never combined in wars of conquest, and were therefore frequently subject to domination from outside. Isolated until the 14th century, they were then introduced to Islām by missionaries from…

  • Banzart (Tunisia)

    Bizerte, town in northern Tunisia. It lies along the Mediterranean coast at the mouth of a channel that links Lake Bizerte with the sea. The town originated as a Phoenician outpost and was known through Carthaginian and Roman times as Hippo Diarrhytus or Hippo Zarytus. Captured in 661 ce by

  • Bánzer Suárez, Hugo (president of Bolivia)

    Hugo Bánzer Suárez, soldier and politician who was president of Bolivia from 1971 to 1978 and from 1997 to 2001. Bánzer was educated at the Bolivian Army Military College and in two United States Army training schools. He served as minister of education from 1964 to 1966 in the cabinet of President

  • Banzhaf value (mathematics)

    game theory: The Banzhaf value in voting games: In the section Power in voting: the paradox of the chair’s position, it was shown that power defined as control over outcomes is not synonymous with control over resources, such as a chair’s tie-breaking vote. The strategic situation facing voters…

  • bao (Chinese court circular)

    journalism: History: …a court circular called a bao, or “report,” was issued to government officials. This gazette appeared in various forms and under various names more or less continually to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1911. The first regularly published newspapers appeared in German cities and in Antwerp about 1609.…

  • Bao Dai (Vietnamese emperor)

    Bao Dai, the last reigning emperor of Vietnam (1926–45). The son of Emperor Khai Dinh, a vassal of the French colonial regime, and a concubine of peasant ancestry, Nguyen Vinh Thuy was educated in France and spent little of his youth in his homeland. He succeeded to the throne in 1926 and assumed

  • Bao Xi (Chinese mythological emperor)

    Fu Xi, first mythical emperor of China. His miraculous birth, as a divine being with a serpent’s body, is said to have occurred in the 29th century bce. Some representations show him as a leaf-wreathed head growing out of a mountain or as a man clothed with animal skins. Fu Xi is said to have

  • Bao’an language

    Mongolian languages: …the east; and Monguor (Tu), Bao’an (Bonan), and Santa (Dongxiang) in the south—were isolated from the main body of Mongolian languages when the tide of Mongol conquest receded. These languages diverged from the main group of Mongolian dialects and to this day retain archaic features characteristic of Middle Mongolian that…

  • baobab (tree, Adansonia digitata)

    baobab: The African baobab (A. digitata) boasts the oldest known angiosperm tree: carbon-14 dating places the age of a specimen in Namibia at about 1,275 years. Known as the “Tree of Life,” the species is found throughout the drier regions of Africa and features a water-storing trunk…

  • baobab (tree genus)

    Baobab, (genus Adansonia), genus of nine species of deciduous trees of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae). Six of the species (Adansonia grandidieri, A. madagascariensis, A. perrieri, A. rubrostipa, A. suarezensis, and A. za) are endemic to Madagascar, two (A. digitata and A. kilima) are

  • Baoding (China)

    Baoding, city, southwest-central Hebei sheng (province), China. It is situated in a well-watered area on the western edge of the North China Plain; the Taihang Mountains rise a short distance to the west. Situated on the main road from Beijing through western Hebei, it is southwest of the capital,

  • baogao wenxue (Chinese literary genre)

    Chinese literature: The war years: 1937–49: …were represented, including reportage (baogao wenxue), an enormously influential type of writing that was a natural outgrowth of the federation’s call for writers to go to the countryside and the front lines. Literary magazines were filled with short, easily produced and adaptable plays, topical patriotic verse, and war-zone dispatches.…

  • Baoji (China)

    Baoji, city, western Shaanxi sheng (province), north-central China. Situated on the north bank of the Wei River, it has been a strategic and transportation centre since early times, controlling the northern end of a pass across the Qin (Tsinling) Mountains, the only practicable route from the Wei

  • baojia (Chinese social system)

    Baojia, traditional Chinese system of collective neighbourhood organization, by means of which the government was able to maintain order and control through all levels of society, while employing relatively few officials. A collective neighbourhood guarantee system was first instituted during the

  • Baol (historical state, Africa)

    Baol, in the 14th century, a satellite state of the Wolof empire of West Africa. Situated along the coast and inland to the south of Dakar in present Senegal, it was conquered some time after 1556 by the neighbouring state of Cayor, which controlled it until 1686. Late in the 17th century, Wolof

  • Baol (region, Senegal)

    Senegal: Traditional geographic areas: Cayor, Djolof, and Baol. Here the soils are sandy and the winters cool; peanuts are the primary crop. The population is as diverse as the area itself and includes Wolof in the north, Serer in the Thiès region, and Lebu on Cape Verde.

  • baoli (architecture)

    Stepwell, subterranean edifice and water source, an architectural form that was long popular throughout India but particularly in arid regions of the Indian subcontinent. For centuries, stepwells—which incorporated a cylinder well that extended down to the water table—provided water for drinking,

  • Baopuzi (Chinese alchemist)

    Ge Hong, in Chinese Daoism, perhaps the best-known alchemist, who tried to combine Confucian ethics with the occult doctrines of Daoism. In his youth he received a Confucian education, but later he grew interested in the Daoist cult of physical immortality (xian). His monumental work, Baopuzi (“He

  • Baopuzi (work by Ge Hong)

    Ge Hong: His monumental work, Baopuzi (“He Who Holds to Simplicity”), is divided into two parts. The first part, “The 20 Inner Chapters” (neipian), discusses Ge’s alchemical studies. Ge gives a recipe for an elixir called gold cinnabar and recommends sexual hygiene, special diets, and breathing and meditation exercises. He…

  • Baoqing (China)

    Shaoyang, city, central Hunan sheng (province), southeastern China. It lies in the middle basin of the Zi River. A county named Zhaoling was established at the site of Shaoyang in the 2nd century bce. In the mid-3rd century ce it became the seat of a commandery called Zhaoling. In 280 the name was

  • baori (architecture)

    Stepwell, subterranean edifice and water source, an architectural form that was long popular throughout India but particularly in arid regions of the Indian subcontinent. For centuries, stepwells—which incorporated a cylinder well that extended down to the water table—provided water for drinking,

  • Baoruco, Sierra de (mountains, Hispaniola)

    Sierra de Baoruco, mountain range in the southwestern part of the Dominican Republic. It extends about 50 mi (80 km) east from the Haitian border to the Caribbean Sea and lies parallel to the Cordillera Central. Its highest peak is 5,348 ft (1,630 m). Straddling the Haitian border, the range is

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