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  • Barclay, Alexander (English poet)

    Alexander Barclay, poet who won contemporary fame chiefly for his adaptation of a popular German satire, Das Narrenschiff, by Sebastian Brant, which he called The Shyp of Folys of the Worlde (first printed 1509). Barclay, possibly of Scottish birth, was by 1509 a chaplain at the College of St. Mary

  • Barclay, Arthur (president of Liberia)

    Liberia: The early republic: In 1904 President Arthur Barclay, who was born in Barbados, initiated a policy of direct cooperation with the tribes. Having obtained a loan from London in 1907, he made real efforts at reform. The foreign debt, however, was a burden, and the government was unable to exert effective…

  • Barclay, John (Scottish writer)

    John Barclay, Scottish satirist and Latin poet whose Argenis (1621), a long poem of romantic adventure, had great influence on the development of the romance in the 17th century. Barclay was a cosmopolitan man of letters who traveled freely between Paris and London. He remained in London from about

  • Barclay, Robert (Scottish Quaker leader)

    Robert Barclay, Quaker leader whose Apology for the True Christian Divinity (1678) became a standard statement of Quaker doctrines. His friendship with James II, then duke of York, helped obtain the patent to settle the province of East Jersey, in the New World. After returning to Scotland from his

  • Barclaya (plant genus)

    Nymphaeales: The genus Barclaya (four species) is sometimes considered a separate family, Barclayaceae. It is distinguished from Nymphaeaceae by an extended perianth tube (combined sepals and petals) arising from the top of the ovary and by stamens that are joined basally. Barclaya is native to tropical Asia and…

  • Barclays PLC (British bank)

    Barclays PLC, British banking and trust firm registered July 20, 1896, under the name Barclay & Co. Ltd. and assuming the name Barclays Bank Ltd. in 1917. It was converted into a public limited company in 1981. The largest commercial banking concern in the United Kingdom, Barclays Bank operates

  • Barco Vargas, Virgilio (president of Colombia)

    Virgilio Barco Vargas, Colombian politician (born Sept. 17, 1921, Cúcuta, Colom.—died May 20, 1997, Bogotá, Colom.), served as president of Colombia from 1986 to 1990 after having won the election by the largest margin in the country’s history. During his term his ambitious plans for social r

  • barcode (data format)

    Barcode, a printed series of parallel bars or lines of varying width that is used for entering data into a computer system. The bars are typically black on a white background, and their width and quantity vary according to application. The bars are used to represent the binary digits 0 and 1,

  • barcode scanner (technology)

    laser: Laser scanners: …detect light reflected from striped bar codes on packages, decode the symbol, and relay the information to a computer so that it can add the price to the bill.

  • Barcoo River (river, Australia)

    Cooper Creek, intermittent stream, east central Australia, in the Channel Country (wide floodplains, grooved by rivers). Rising as the Barcoo on the northern slopes of the Warrego Range, Queensland, it flows northwest to Blackall. Joined by the Alice River, it continues southwest past Isisford and

  • bard (poet-singer)

    Bard, a poet, especially one who writes impassioned, lyrical, or epic verse. Bards were originally Celtic composers of eulogy and satire; the word came to mean more generally a tribal poet-singer gifted in composing and reciting verses on heroes and their deeds. As early as the 1st century ad, the

  • Bard College (college, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, United States)

    Bard College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, U.S. It is affiliated with the Episcopal church. A liberal arts college, it includes divisions of social studies, languages and literature, arts, and natural sciences and mathematics, as well as

  • Bard of Avon (English author)

    William Shakespeare, English poet, dramatist, and actor often called the English national poet and considered by many to be the greatest dramatist of all time. Shakespeare occupies a position unique in world literature. Other poets, such as Homer and Dante, and novelists, such as Leo Tolstoy and

  • Bard, Joseph (Hungarian writer)

    Eileen Agar: …in love with Hungarian writer Joseph Bard (whom she married in 1940).

  • Bard, Philip (American physiologist)

    motivation: The Cannon-Bard theory: Cannon and a colleague, Philip Bard, proposed an alternative arousal theory, subsequently known as the Cannon-Bard theory. According to this approach, the experience of an event, such as the automobile accident mentioned earlier, leads to the simultaneous determination of emotion and changes to the body. The brain, upon receiving…

  • Bard, The (work by Gray)

    English literature: Poets and poetry after Pope: …evidenced in another great ode, The Bard, 1757) is part of a larger movement of taste, of which the contemporary enthusiasm for James Macpherson’s alleged translations of Ossian (1760–63) is a further indicator.

  • Bardadoh (India)

    Bharhut, village, 120 miles (190 km) southwest of Allahabad, in northeastern Madhya Pradesh state, India. It is believed to have been founded by the Bhoro people. Bharhut is famous for the ruins of a Buddhist stupa (shrine) discovered there by Major General Alexander Cunningham in 1873. The stupa’s

  • Bardāī, Chand (Indian poet)

    South Asian arts: Hindi: …epic poem P?thvīrāj Rāsau, by Chand Bardaī of Lahore, which recounts the feats of P?thvīrāj, the last Hindu king of Delhi before the Islāmic invasions. The work evolved from the bardic tradition maintained at the courts of the Rājputs. Noteworthy also is the poetry of the Persian poet Amīr Khosrow,…

  • Bardaisan (Syrian scholar)

    Bardesanes, a leading representative of Syrian Gnosticism. Bardesanes was a pioneer of the Christian faith in Syria who embarked on missionary work after his conversion in 179. His chief writing, The Dialogue of Destiny, or The Book of the Laws of the Countries, recorded by a disciple, Philip, is

  • Bardanes (Byzantine emperor)

    Philippicus Bardanes, Byzantine emperor whose brief reign (711–713) was marked by his quarrels with the papacy and his ineffectiveness in defending the empire from Bulgar and Arab invaders. He was the son of the patrician Nicephorus of Pergamum (modern Bergama, western Turkey). Emperor Tiberius III

  • Bardas (Byzantine aristocrat)

    Michael III: …Theoctistus by his maternal uncle Bardas (November 855) and in March 856, with the help of Bardas, took over direct control of the government. When Theodora attempted to resume power, she and her daughters were relegated to a convent.

  • Bardavati (India)

    Bharhut, village, 120 miles (190 km) southwest of Allahabad, in northeastern Madhya Pradesh state, India. It is believed to have been founded by the Bhoro people. Bharhut is famous for the ruins of a Buddhist stupa (shrine) discovered there by Major General Alexander Cunningham in 1873. The stupa’s

  • Bardawīl Lake (lake, Egypt)

    Shamāl Sīnā?: …lies the large and brackish Bardawīl Lake (266 square miles [690 square km]); this lake is bounded on the north by a long, narrow sandbar pierced by two canals that link the lake with the sea. A large aquifer of groundwater, which is augmented by drainage from winter rainfall, underlies…

  • bardd teulu (Welsh literary office)

    Celtic literature: The Middle Ages: Next came the bardd teulu, who was the poet of the ruler’s war band although he seems to have been poet to the ruler’s family as well. There were other, less exalted grades, with less exalted duties and the license probably to engage in satire and ribaldry.

  • Barddas (Welsh periodical)

    Celtic literature: The second revival: …publication of the popular periodical Barddas (“Bardism”), whose editor, Alan Llwyd, was an outstanding poet. The work of most poets, old and young, reflected a varying involvement in contemporary Welsh political activity.

  • Barddhaman (India)

    Burdwan, city, central West Bengal state, northeastern India. The city is a major communications centre lying astride the Banka River just north of the Damodar River. It was chosen by a merchant family from Punjab (based on a farman [edict] issued by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb) as its

  • Bardeen, John (American physicist)

    John Bardeen, American physicist who was cowinner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in both 1956 and 1972. He shared the 1956 prize with William B. Shockley and Walter H. Brattain for their joint invention of the transistor. With Leon N. Cooper and John R. Schrieffer he was awarded the 1972 prize for

  • Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory (physics)

    BCS theory, in physics, a comprehensive theory developed in 1957 by the American physicists John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, and John R. Schrieffer (their surname initials providing the designation BCS) to explain the behaviour of superconducting materials. Superconductors abruptly lose all

  • Bardem, Javier (Spanish actor)

    Javier Bardem, charismatic and versatile Spanish actor who first came to prominence in the 1990s. Bardem, who was born into a family of actors and filmmakers, appeared in his first professional role at age five. After briefly studying painting in Madrid, he concentrated on an acting career. In 1992

  • Bardem, Javier ángel Encinas (Spanish actor)

    Javier Bardem, charismatic and versatile Spanish actor who first came to prominence in the 1990s. Bardem, who was born into a family of actors and filmmakers, appeared in his first professional role at age five. After briefly studying painting in Madrid, he concentrated on an acting career. In 1992

  • Bardesanes (Syrian scholar)

    Bardesanes, a leading representative of Syrian Gnosticism. Bardesanes was a pioneer of the Christian faith in Syria who embarked on missionary work after his conversion in 179. His chief writing, The Dialogue of Destiny, or The Book of the Laws of the Countries, recorded by a disciple, Philip, is

  • Bardhaman (India)

    Burdwan, city, central West Bengal state, northeastern India. The city is a major communications centre lying astride the Banka River just north of the Damodar River. It was chosen by a merchant family from Punjab (based on a farman [edict] issued by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb) as its

  • Bardhan, Shanti (Indian dancer)

    South Asian arts: Modern Indian dance: Shanti Bardhan, a junior colleague of Uday Shankar, produced some of the most imaginative dance-dramas of the 20th century. After founding the Little Ballet Troupe in Andheri, Bombay (Mumbai), in 1952 he produced Ramayana, in which the actors moved and danced like puppets. His posthumous…

  • Bardi chapel (chapel, Florence, Italy)

    Giotto: Santa Croce frescoes: The Bardi and Peruzzi chapels contained cycles of St. Francis, St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist, but the frescoes were whitewashed and were not recovered until the mid-19th century, when they were damaged in the process of removing the whitewash and then heavily…

  • Bardi family (Italian family)

    Bardi Family, an aristocratic Florentine family that successfully developed its financial and banking company to become one of the most influential European business powers between 1250 and 1345. By coordinating its political activity with its financial interests, the Bardi became the leading

  • Bardi, Donato di Niccolò di Betto (Italian sculptor)

    Donatello, master of sculpture in both marble and bronze, one of the greatest of all Italian Renaissance artists. A good deal is known about Donatello’s life and career, but little is known about his character and personality, and what is known is not wholly reliable. He never married and he seems

  • Bardi, Giovanni, conte di Vernio (Italian musician, writer, and scientist)

    Giovanni Bardi, conte di Vernio, musician, writer, and scientist, influential in the evolution of opera. About 1573 he founded the Florentine Camerata, a group that sought to revive ancient Greek music and drama. Among the members were the theorist Vincenzo Galilei (father of Galileo) and the

  • Bardi–Busini, Palazzo (palace, Florence, Italy)

    Filippo Brunelleschi: Architectural career: …the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, and the Palazzo Bardi-Busini. Each of these palaces contains novel features that are tempting to attribute to Brunelleschi’s inventiveness, but definitive proof of his influence or authorship has not been offered.

  • Bardia (fortress, Africa)

    World War II: Egypt and Cyrenaica, 1940–summer 1941: …up in the fortress of Bardia (Bardīyah), which O’Connor’s tanks speedily isolated. On January 3, 1941, the British assault on Bardia began, and three days later the whole garrison of Bardia surrendered—45,000 men. The next fortress to the west, Tobruk (?ubruq), was assaulted on January 23 and captured the next…

  • Bardiya (king of Persia)

    Bardiya, a son of Cyrus the Great of Persia and possible king of Persia in 522 bce, although some accounts claim the king known as Bardiya was an impersonator of that son. The Greek historian Herodotus and the Persian king Darius, in his inscription at Bīsitūn, state that Bardiya was murdered by

  • Bardīya (fortress, Africa)

    World War II: Egypt and Cyrenaica, 1940–summer 1941: …up in the fortress of Bardia (Bardīyah), which O’Connor’s tanks speedily isolated. On January 3, 1941, the British assault on Bardia began, and three days later the whole garrison of Bardia surrendered—45,000 men. The next fortress to the west, Tobruk (?ubruq), was assaulted on January 23 and captured the next…

  • Bardo National Museum (museum, Tunisia)

    Tunisia: Cultural institutions: …of which is probably the Bardo National Museum (1888). This institution, located in the former palace of the Ottoman bey in the medina, or old quarter, of Tunis, houses collections of fine works dating from the Carthaginian, Roman, and Islamic periods. Among its holdings is the largest—and possibly the finest—collection…

  • Bardo Th?dol (Tibetan Buddhist text)

    Bardo Th?dol, (Tibetan: “Liberation in the Intermediate State Through Hearing”) in Tibetan Buddhism, a funerary text that is recited to ease the consciousness of a recently deceased person through death and assist it into a favourable rebirth. A central tenet of all schools of Buddhism is that

  • Bardo, Treaty of (France-Tunisia [1881])

    Treaty of Bardo, (1881), agreement that established France’s protectorate over Tunisia. A French expeditionary force of 36,000 men was sent to Tunisia in 1881 at the urging of the French foreign minister, Jules Ferry, ostensibly to subdue attacks of the Tunisian Kroumer tribe on the Algerian

  • Bárdossy, László (prime minister of Hungary)

    László Bárdossy, Hungarian politician who played a key role in bringing his country into World War II as an ally of Germany. After completing his legal studies in 1913, Bárdossy entered the Hungarian civil service. In 1924 he became director of the press department of the Foreign Ministry; in 1930

  • Bardot, Brigitte (French actress)

    Brigitte Bardot, French film actress who became an international sex symbol in the 1950s and ’60s. Bardot was born to wealthy bourgeois parents, and at the age of 15 she posed for the cover of Elle (May 8, 1950), France’s leading women’s magazine. Roger Vadim, an aspiring director, was impressed

  • Bardsey Island (island, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Bardsey Island, small island, with an area of 0.7 square mile (1.8 square km), off the tip of the Lleyn Peninsula, Gwynedd county, historic county of Caernavonshire (Sir Gaernarfon), Wales. It is separated from the mainland by a channel 2 miles (3 km) wide that has a strong tidal race. On this

  • Bardstown (Kentucky, United States)

    Bardstown, city, seat (1784) of Nelson county, in the outer Bluegrass region of central Kentucky, U.S., 39 miles (63 km) southeast of Louisville. Founded as Salem in 1778, it was later renamed to honour William Bard, one of the original landowners. During the American Civil War, it was occupied

  • bare license (property law)

    license: A bare license occurs when a person enters or uses the property of another with the express or implied permission of the owner or under circumstances that would provide a good defense against an action for trespass. For example, a person entering a gas station to…

  • bare-eared squirrel monkey (monkey)

    squirrel monkey: …on the ears, unlike the bare-eared squirrel monkey (S. ustus) of central Brazil.

  • bare-eyed starling (bird)

    starling: The bare-eyed, or pied, starling (or mynah, S. contra), from India to Java, is black, white, and reddish-brown, with yellow eye skin. Glossy starlings, with highly iridescent plumage, include the superb starling (Lamprotornis superbus) of eastern Africa and the shining starling (Aplonis metallica) of Pacific Islands…

  • bare-knuckle boxing

    boxing: The bare-knuckle era: Boxing history picks up again with a formal bout recorded in Britain in 1681, and by 1698 regular pugilistic contests were being held in the Royal Theatre of London. The fighters performed for whatever purses were agreed upon plus stakes (side bets), and…

  • bare-necked umbrellabird (bird)

    umbrellabird: The bare-necked umbrellabird (C. glabricollis) of Panama and Costa Rica has a short, round wattle, which is bright red and unfeathered. The latter two species are considered by some authorities to be subspecies of C. ornatus.

  • bare-tailed woolly opossum (marsupial)

    woolly opossum: The bare-tailed woolly opossum (Caluromys philander) occurs throughout northern and eastern South America. All have large, nearly naked ears, a long prehensile tail, and either a median stripe on the face or bold markings on the back. The tail is not well furred in the bare-tailed…

  • bare-tailed woolly possum (marsupial)

    woolly opossum: The bare-tailed woolly opossum (Caluromys philander) occurs throughout northern and eastern South America. All have large, nearly naked ears, a long prehensile tail, and either a median stripe on the face or bold markings on the back. The tail is not well furred in the bare-tailed…

  • bare-throated tiger heron (bird)

    heron: Another is the Mexican, or bare-throated, tiger heron (T. mexicanum) of Mexico and Central America.

  • bareback bronc-riding

    Bareback bronc-riding, rodeo event in which a cowboy or cowgirl attempts to ride a bucking horse (bronco) for eight seconds. The horse is equipped with a leather and rawhide handhold “rigging” cinched on like a saddle. The rider grasps the rigging with only one hand, and the holding arm absorbs

  • bareback riding

    circus: Equestrian acts: …riders who were champions of bareback riding—the art of performing acrobatic and gymnastic feats on the bare backs of loping horses. James Robinson, a mid-19th-century American, was one such rider. He was billed as “the One Great and Only Hero and Bareback Horseman and Gold Champion-Belted Emperor of All Equestrians.”

  • bareboat charter (transport)

    charter party: …tramp ship—voyage charter, time charter, bareboat charter, and “lump-sum” contract. The voyage charter is the most common. Under this method a ship is chartered for a one-way voyage between specific ports with a specified cargo at a negotiated rate of freight. On time charter, the charterer hires the ship for…

  • Barebone, Praise-God (English preacher)

    Praise-God Barbon, English sectarian preacher from whom the Cromwellian Barebones Parliament derived its nickname. By 1634 Barbon was becoming a prosperous leather seller and was attracting attention as the minister of a congregation that assembled at his own house, the “Lock and Key,” on Fleet

  • Barebones Parliament (English history)

    Barebones Parliament, (July 4–Dec. 12, 1653), a hand-picked legislative group of “godly” men convened by Oliver Cromwell following the Puritan victory in the English Civil Wars. Its name was derived from one of its obscure members, Praise-God Barbon. After Cromwell expelled the Rump Parliament

  • Barebones, Praise-God (English preacher)

    Praise-God Barbon, English sectarian preacher from whom the Cromwellian Barebones Parliament derived its nickname. By 1634 Barbon was becoming a prosperous leather seller and was attracting attention as the minister of a congregation that assembled at his own house, the “Lock and Key,” on Fleet

  • Barebones, PraiseGod (English preacher)

    Praise-God Barbon, English sectarian preacher from whom the Cromwellian Barebones Parliament derived its nickname. By 1634 Barbon was becoming a prosperous leather seller and was attracting attention as the minister of a congregation that assembled at his own house, the “Lock and Key,” on Fleet

  • Barefoot Boy with Cheek (novel by Shulman)

    Max Shulman: His first novel, Barefoot Boy with Cheek (1943), was a best seller and was regarded as a classic of campus humour. While serving in the army during World War II, he wrote The Feather Merchants (1944) and The Zebra Derby (1946); the latter poked fun at anxious civilians…

  • Barefoot Contessa, The (film by Mankiewicz [1954])

    Joseph L. Mankiewicz: Films of the 1950s: The Barefoot Contessa (1954) was another notable drama, a caustic dissection of Hollywood mythmaking, with Humphrey Bogart as a cynical director who makes a star out of a naive Spanish dancer (Ava Gardner) with the help of an unscrupulous press agent (Edmond O’Brien, who won…

  • Barefoot in the Head (work by Aldiss)

    Michael Moorcock: …their intelligence; and Brian Aldiss’s Barefoot in the Head (1969), about the aftermath of a war in which Europe had been bombarded with psychedelic drugs.

  • Barefoot in the Park (play by Simon)

    Mike Nichols: Early life and stage work: …highly praised Neil Simon comedy Barefoot in the Park, for which he won a Tony Award. For his next two stage productions, Luv (1964–67) and Simon’s The Odd Couple (1965–67), Nichols won another Tony.

  • Barefooted Trinitarians (religious order)

    Trinitarian: …1597 a reform called the Barefooted (Discalced) Trinitarians was initiated in Spain by Juan Bautista of the Immaculate Conception; this became a distinct order and is the only surviving branch of the Trinitarians.

  • Bareilly (India)

    Bareilly, city, northwest-central Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is situated just east of the Ramganga River (a tributary of the Ganges [Ganga] River), about 130 miles (210 km) east-southeast of Delhi. The city, founded in 1537, was built largely by the Mughal governor Makrand Ray. It

  • bareknuckle boxing

    boxing: The bare-knuckle era: Boxing history picks up again with a formal bout recorded in Britain in 1681, and by 1698 regular pugilistic contests were being held in the Royal Theatre of London. The fighters performed for whatever purses were agreed upon plus stakes (side bets), and…

  • Barelwi school (Islamic college, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: Religion: …in northern India—the Deoband and Barelwi schools—are likewise widespread in Pakistan. Differences between the two movements over a variety of theological issues are significant to the point that violence often has erupted between them. Another group, Tablīghī Jamā?at (founded 1926), headquartered in Raiwind, near Lahore, is a lay ministry group…

  • Baren (Chinese author and critic)

    Baren, Chinese prose writer and critic who was the first Chinese literary theorist to promote the Marxist point of view. After graduating from primary school, Wang entered the Fourth Normal School in Ningpo. In 1920 Wang completed his studies and began his career as a teacher. His interest in the

  • Barenboim, Daniel (Israeli musician and conductor)

    Daniel Barenboim, Israeli pianist and conductor who was noted for—apart from his musical talents—his bold efforts to promote peace through music in the Middle East. As a pianist, Barenboim was admired particularly for his artistic interpretations of the works of Mozart and Beethoven. As a

  • Barends, Barend (South African chief)

    South Africa: British occupation of the Cape: …Andries Waterboer, Adam Kok, and Barend Barends captured more Africans from among people such as the Hurutshe, Rolong, and Kwena. Other people, such as those known as the Mantatees, were forced to become farmworkers, mainly in the eastern Cape. European farmers also raided for labour north of the Orange River.

  • Barents Sea (sea, Arctic Ocean)

    Barents Sea, outlying portion of the Arctic Ocean 800 miles (1,300 km) long and 650 miles (1,050 km) wide and covering 542,000 square miles (1,405,000 square km). Its average depth is 750 feet (229 m), plunging to a maximum of 2,000 feet (600 m) in the major Bear Island Trench. It is bounded by

  • Barents, Willem (Dutch navigator)

    Willem Barents, Dutch navigator who searched for a northeast passage from Europe to Asia and for whom the Barents Sea was named. Because of his extensive voyages, accurate charting, and the valuable meteorological data he collected, he is regarded as one of the most important early Arctic

  • Barentsevo More (sea, Arctic Ocean)

    Barents Sea, outlying portion of the Arctic Ocean 800 miles (1,300 km) long and 650 miles (1,050 km) wide and covering 542,000 square miles (1,405,000 square km). Its average depth is 750 feet (229 m), plunging to a maximum of 2,000 feet (600 m) in the major Bear Island Trench. It is bounded by

  • Barentshavet (sea, Arctic Ocean)

    Barents Sea, outlying portion of the Arctic Ocean 800 miles (1,300 km) long and 650 miles (1,050 km) wide and covering 542,000 square miles (1,405,000 square km). Its average depth is 750 feet (229 m), plunging to a maximum of 2,000 feet (600 m) in the major Bear Island Trench. It is bounded by

  • Barentsia (paleocontinent)

    Silurian Period: Laurentia: The microcontinent of Barentsia, which included Norway’s island of Svalbard, was likely appended to Laurentia off eastern Greenland. Island arcs and highland areas, such as Taconica (a landmass that would become part of eastern North America) and Pearya (a landmass that would become the northern part of Ellesmere…

  • Barère de Vieuzac, Bertrand (French revolutionary)

    Bertrand Barère, a leading member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled Revolutionary France during the period of the Jacobin dictatorship (1793–94); his stringent policies against those suspected of royalist tendencies made him one of the most feared revolutionaries. Reared in a

  • Barère, Bertrand (French revolutionary)

    Bertrand Barère, a leading member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled Revolutionary France during the period of the Jacobin dictatorship (1793–94); his stringent policies against those suspected of royalist tendencies made him one of the most feared revolutionaries. Reared in a

  • bareshnum (religion)

    Zoroastrianism: Ceremonies: …nahn, or bath; and the bareshnum, a complicated ritual performed at special places with the participation of a dog—whose left ear is touched by the candidate and whose gaze puts the evil spirits to flight—and lasting several days.

  • baresnum (religion)

    Zoroastrianism: Ceremonies: …nahn, or bath; and the bareshnum, a complicated ritual performed at special places with the participation of a dog—whose left ear is touched by the candidate and whose gaze puts the evil spirits to flight—and lasting several days.

  • Baret, John (English lexicographer)

    dictionary: From Classical times to 1604: …number of languages, such as John Baret’s work of 1573, An Alveary, or Triple Dictionary, in English, Latin, and French. In his preface Baret acknowledged that the work was brought together by his students in the course of their exercises, and the title Alveary was to commemorate their “beehive” of…

  • Baretti, Giuseppe (Italian author)

    Italian literature: The Enlightenment (Illuminismo): Giuseppe Baretti—an extremely controversial figure who published a critical journal called La Frusta Letteraria (“The Literary Whip”), in which he castigated “bad authors”—had learned much through a lengthy sojourn in England, where his friendship with Samuel Johnson helped to give independence and vigour, if not…

  • Barezzi, Antonio (Italian merchant)

    Giuseppe Verdi: Early years: One of Busseto’s leading citizens, Antonio Barezzi, a merchant and fanatical music enthusiast, became a second father to the young prodigy, taking him into his home, sending him to study in Milan, and in 1836 giving him his daughter Margherita in marriage. Refused by the Milan Conservatory—he was past the…

  • Barfield, Julia (British architect)

    London Eye: …submitted by David Marks and Julia Barfield of Marks Barfield Architects in 1993 to a competition, sponsored by The Sunday Times and Great Britain’s Architecture Foundation, for a new landmark to commemorate the millennium in London. Although no winner was declared, Marks and Barfield undertook the development of the project…

  • Barfly (film by Schroeder [1987])

    Charles Bukowski: …of the 1987 motion picture Barfly, a semiautobiographical comedy about alcoholic lovers on skid row for which Bukowski wrote the screenplay (published 1984). The novel Pulp was published posthumously in 1994.

  • Bārfurush (Iran)

    Bābol, city, northern Iran, on the Bābol River, about 15 miles (24 km) south of the Caspian Sea. Bābol gained importance during the reign (1797–1834) of Fat? ?Alī Shāh, though ?Abbās I (died 1629) had laid out a pleasure garden and summer palace there. The city has paved streets, large and crowded

  • bargaining

    law of war: Cessation of hostilities: Hostilities may be suspended pending negotiation between the parties. Negotiation may, or may not, be preceded by the display of a white flag, which merely means that one side wishes to enter into communication with the other. The parties may then enter into an armistice, and, when all matters are…

  • bargaining theory of wages

    wage and salary: Bargaining theory: The bargaining theory of wages holds that wages, hours, and working conditions are determined by the relative bargaining strength of the parties to the agreement. Smith hinted at such a theory when he noted that employers had greater bargaining strength than employees. Employers…

  • bargaining, collective (economics)

    Collective bargaining, the ongoing process of negotiation between representatives of workers and employers to establish the conditions of employment. The collectively determined agreement may cover not only wages but hiring practices, layoffs, promotions, job functions, working conditions and

  • barge (boat)

    coal mining: Barges: Rivers and lakes have long played a major role in the transport of bulk commodities like coal in Germany, The Netherlands, France, Belgium, Canada, and the United States. The costs of barge transport depend on the number of barges being towed by a single…

  • Barge Canal (canal system, New York, United States)

    New York State Canal System, system of state-owned, state-operated waterways, 524 miles (843 km) in length, linking the Hudson River with Lake Erie, with extensions to Lakes Ontario and Champlain and Cayuga and Seneca lakes (in the Finger Lakes region). It incorporates the Erie Canal, from Troy via

  • barge carrier (shipping)

    ship: Barge-carrying ships: An extension of the container ship concept is the barge-carrying ship. In this concept, the container is itself a floating vessel, usually about 60 feet long by about 30 feet wide, which is loaded aboard the ship in one of two ways: either…

  • barge-carrying ship (shipping)

    ship: Barge-carrying ships: An extension of the container ship concept is the barge-carrying ship. In this concept, the container is itself a floating vessel, usually about 60 feet long by about 30 feet wide, which is loaded aboard the ship in one of two ways: either…

  • bargeboard (architecture)

    Bargeboard, exposed board or false rafter running underneath the slopes of a projecting gable roof. Such a board is often richly decorated with carved, cut-out, or painted designs and patterns, particularly in late medieval Europe, in Tudor England, and in 19th-century Gothic Revival architecture

  • Bargeld, Blixa (German musician)

    Nick Cave: …and Einstürzende Neubauten front man Blixa Bargeld. The Bad Seeds combined the Birthday Party’s dark intensity with a passionate exploration of love and the pain it can bring. The band’s biggest commercial success was “Where the Wild Roses Grow,” a collaboration with the Australian singer Kylie Minogue, from the 1996…

  • Bargello Museum (museum, Florence, Italy)

    Bargello Museum, art museum housed in the Palazzo del Bargello (or del Podestà), Florence, which dates from the 13th and 14th centuries. The museum was established in 1865 and is especially famous for its collection of Renaissance sculpture, including works by Donatello, Michelangelo, Antonio del

  • bargello work

    Bargello work, kind of embroidery exemplified in the upholstery of a set of 17th-century Italian chairs at the Bargello Museum in Florence and practiced from the 17th century until modern times. It consists of flat vertical stitches laid parallel with the canvas weave rather than crossing the

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