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  • Barker, Harley Granville (British author and producer)

    Harley Granville-Barker, English dramatist, producer, and critic whose repertoire seasons and Shakespeare criticism profoundly influenced 20th-century theatre. Barker began his stage training at 13 years of age and first appeared on the London stage two years later. He preferred work with William

  • Barker, Herman (American criminal)

    Ma Barker: …her sons the “Bloody Barkers”—Herman (1894–1927), Arthur, known as “Doc” (1899–1939), and Fred (1902–35)—ranged throughout the Midwestern United States from Minnesota to Texas. All met violent deaths. Ma Barker and Fred were killed at a Florida resort in a gun battle with the FBI, Arthur was killed in an…

  • Barker, Kate (American criminal)

    Ma Barker, matriarch of an outlaw gang of brothers and allies engaged in kidnapping and in payroll, post-office, and bank robberies in the 1920s and ’30s. The activities of the gang, which included her sons the “Bloody Barkers”—Herman (1894–1927), Arthur, known as “Doc” (1899–1939), and Fred

  • Barker, Lady Mary Anne (British author)

    Lady Mary Anne Barker, writer best known for her book Station Life in New Zealand (1870), a lively account of life in colonial New Zealand. Stewart was educated in England, and at age 21 she married George R. Barker, then a captain of the Royal Artillery. He was knighted for his military service in

  • Barker, Lloyd (American criminal)

    Ma Barker: A fourth brother, Lloyd (1896–1949), a loner, spent 25 years in Leavenworth prison (1922–47) and, after release, was killed by his wife. (The father of the Barker boys, George Barker, was never a gang member and was abandoned by Ma Barker in 1927.)

  • Barker, Louisa Dupont (American singer)

    Louisa Dupont Barker, American blues singer whose trademark style combined her innocent girlish voice with bawdy songs (b. Nov. 13, 1913, New Orleans, La.--d. May 7, 1998, New

  • Barker, Ma (American criminal)

    Ma Barker, matriarch of an outlaw gang of brothers and allies engaged in kidnapping and in payroll, post-office, and bank robberies in the 1920s and ’30s. The activities of the gang, which included her sons the “Bloody Barkers”—Herman (1894–1927), Arthur, known as “Doc” (1899–1939), and Fred

  • Barker, Robert (Scottish artist)

    panorama: …executed by the Scottish painter Robert Barker, who exhibited in Edinburgh in 1788 a view of that city, followed by panoramas of London and battle scenes from the Napoleonic Wars. Another early panorama painter, the American John Vanderlyn, painted in 1816–19 The Palace and Gardens of Versailles (preserved in the…

  • Barker, Robert William (American game show host)

    Bob Barker, American game show host and animal rights activist who was best known for hosting The Price Is Right (1972–2007). During World War II, Barker trained as a U.S. Navy fighter pilot. After graduating from Drury College (now Drury University; B.A., 1947) in Springfield, Mo., he focused on a

  • Barker, Ronald William George (British comedian, writer, and actor)

    Ronnie Barker, (Ronald William George Barker), British television comedian, writer, and actor (born Sept. 25, 1929, Bedford, Bedfordshire, Eng.—died Oct. 3, 2005, Adderbury, Oxfordshire, Eng.), gained international recognition as the costar, with Ronnie Corbett, of the TV comedy-sketch program T

  • Barker, Ronnie (British comedian, writer, and actor)

    Ronnie Barker, (Ronald William George Barker), British television comedian, writer, and actor (born Sept. 25, 1929, Bedford, Bedfordshire, Eng.—died Oct. 3, 2005, Adderbury, Oxfordshire, Eng.), gained international recognition as the costar, with Ronnie Corbett, of the TV comedy-sketch program T

  • Barker, William (Canadian fighter pilot)

    William Barker, Canadian World War I fighter pilot who was the most-decorated war hero in Canadian history. The eldest son of a farmer who was also a blacksmith and sawmill operator, Barker grew up on the frontier in Manitoba, where he became proficient at riding horses and shooting. Although he

  • Barker, William George (Canadian fighter pilot)

    William Barker, Canadian World War I fighter pilot who was the most-decorated war hero in Canadian history. The eldest son of a farmer who was also a blacksmith and sawmill operator, Barker grew up on the frontier in Manitoba, where he became proficient at riding horses and shooting. Although he

  • Barkerville (historical town, British Columbia, Canada)

    Barkerville, restored mining town, east-central British Columbia, Canada. It lies in the western foothills of the Cariboo Mountains, just west of Bowron Lake Provincial Park and 55 miles (88 km) east of Quesnel. Once a boomtown of nearly 10,000 inhabitants, it sprang up during the Cariboo gold rush

  • barkhan (sand dune)

    Barchan, crescent-shaped sand dune produced by the action of wind predominately from one direction. One of the commonest types of dunes, it occurs in sandy deserts all over the world. Barchans are convex facing the wind, with the horns of the crescent pointing downwind and marking the lateral

  • Barkhausen effect

    Barkhausen effect, series of sudden changes in the size and orientation of ferromagnetic domains, or microscopic clusters of aligned atomic magnets, that occurs during a continuous process of magnetization or demagnetization. The Barkhausen effect offered direct evidence for the existence of

  • Barkhausen, Heinrich Georg (German physicist)

    Heinrich Georg Barkhausen, German physicist who discovered the Barkhausen effect, a principle concerning changes in the magnetic properties of metal. Barkhausen attended the universities of Munich and Berlin before earning his doctorate in 1907 from G?ttingen. After working for the Siemens & Halske

  • Barkhausen–Kurz oscillator (instrument)

    Heinrich Georg Barkhausen: …developed, with Karl Kurz, the Barkhausen-Kurz oscillator for ultrahigh frequencies (a forerunner of the microwave tube), which led to the understanding of the principle of velocity modulation. He is also known for experiments on shortwave radio transmissions.

  • barking (vocalization)

    dog: Barking: Both dogs and wolves have a repertoire of barks, growls, and howls that are identifiable among themselves and to humans who have studied their vocabulary. Dog owners can determine by certain sounds whether their pet is playful, warning of a stranger nearby, fearful, or…

  • Barking Abbey (abbey, Barking and Dagenham, London, United Kingdom)

    Barking and Dagenham: …the area was centred on Barking Abbey (founded c. 666), which, before the dissolution of monastic institutions in the 1530s, was the preeminent Benedictine nunnery in England. William the Conqueror stayed at Barking Abbey during the construction of the Norman keep (the White Tower of the Tower of London). The…

  • Barking and Dagenham (borough, London, United Kingdom)

    Barking and Dagenham, outer borough of London, England, on the eastern perimeter of the metropolis. It is part of the historic county of Essex, on the north bank of the River Thames. The borough was formed in 1965 by the amalgamation of the greater parts of the boroughs Dagenham and Barking,

  • barking bird dog (breed of dog)

    Finnish spitz, breed of dog native to Finland, where a breed standard has existed since 1812. It is nicknamed the “barking bird dog” for its habit of “yodeling,” or barking continuously, to alert the hunter to the location of game birds. The breed continues to be a sporting dog in Finland but

  • barking deer (mammal)

    Muntjac, any of about seven species of small- to medium-sized Asiatic deer that make up the genus Muntiacus in the family Cervidae (order Artiodactyla). Called barking deer because of their cry, muntjacs are solitary and nocturnal, and they usually live in areas of thick vegetation. They are native

  • barking tree frog (amphibian)

    tree frog: …species; better-known representatives include the barking tree frog (H. gratiosa), the European green tree frog (H. arborea), whose range extends across Asia and into Japan, the gray tree frog (H. versicolor), the green frog (H. cinerea), and the Pacific tree frog (H. regilla). The smallest is the little grass frog…

  • Barkinzade Süleyman Pa?a (Turkish general)

    Tirana: …century by a Turkish general, Barkinzade Süleyman Pa?a, who is said to have built a mosque, a bathhouse, and a bakery in order to attract settlement. The town gradually became a trading centre at a junction of roads and caravan trails. It was chosen to be the capital of Albania…

  • Barkis, Mr. (fictional character)

    Mr. Barkis, fictional character, a stagecoach driver in the novel David Copperfield (1849–50) by Charles Dickens. Barkis is persistent in his courtship of Clara Peggotty, Copperfield’s childhood nurse, and is known for the hopeful often-repeated phrase “Barkis is

  • Barkla, Charles Glover (British physicist)

    Charles Glover Barkla, British physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1917 for his work on X-ray scattering, which occurs when X-rays pass through a material and are deflected by the atomic electrons. This technique proved to be particularly useful in the study of atomic

  • Barkley, Alben W. (vice president of United States)

    Alben W. Barkley, 35th vice president of the United States (1949–53) in the Democratic administration of President Harry S. Truman. He was one of the chief architects of the New Deal in the 1930s and a major symbol of Democratic Party continuity as a member of Congress for almost 40 years. Barkley

  • Barkley, Alben William (vice president of United States)

    Alben W. Barkley, 35th vice president of the United States (1949–53) in the Democratic administration of President Harry S. Truman. He was one of the chief architects of the New Deal in the 1930s and a major symbol of Democratic Party continuity as a member of Congress for almost 40 years. Barkley

  • Barkley, Charles (American basketball player)

    Charles Barkley, American professional basketball player and television personality whose larger-than-life character made him one of the most popular figures in National Basketball Association (NBA) history. Over the course of his 16-year NBA career, he became the fourth player to amass 20,000

  • Barkley, Charles Wade (American basketball player)

    Charles Barkley, American professional basketball player and television personality whose larger-than-life character made him one of the most popular figures in National Basketball Association (NBA) history. Over the course of his 16-year NBA career, he became the fourth player to amass 20,000

  • Barkley, Lake (lake, United States)

    Kentucky Lake: Lake Barkley, another huge TVA reservoir that has an approximately 1,000-mile (1,600-km) shoreline and is impounded on the Cumberland River by Barkley Dam, lies east of Kentucky Lake. A wooded isthmus of about 265 square miles (690 square km) between the two lakes known as…

  • Barkleys of Broadway, The (film by Walters [1949])

    Charles Walters: …slated to return for Walters’s The Barkleys of Broadway (1949), about a husband-and-wife musical comedy team. However, an unstable Garland was forced to leave the project, which led to the reuniting of Astaire and Ginger Rogers, who had not performed together in a decade. Despite being a box-office success, it…

  • barklouse (insect)

    psocid: …majority of psocids, usually called barklice, generally have four membranous wings that are held rooflike over the body when at rest. They are found on tree bark and foliage, under stones, or in ground litter.

  • Barkly Tableland (region, Australia)

    Barkly Tableland, region of Australia, south of the Gulf of Carpentaria and extending southeastward about 350 miles (560 km) from Newcastle Creek, Northern Territory, to Camooweal, Queen. A grassy, undulating upland (average altitude 1,000 feet [300 metres]), nourished by subartesian water and

  • Barkly, Sir Henry (British colonial administrator)

    Sir Henry Barkly, British colonial administrator who played a major role in the establishment of responsible governments in Jamaica, Victoria (Australia), and Cape Colony (South Africa). Barkly was the son of a merchant. He was a member of Parliament for Leominster from 1845 to 1848. He then served

  • Barks, Carl (American artist)

    comic strip: Institutionalization: …Disney artists of them all, Carl Barks, sole creator of more than 500 of the best Donald Duck and other stories, was rescued from the oblivion to which the Disney policy of anonymity would consign him to become a cult figure. His Collected Works ran to 30 luxurious folio volumes.…

  • Barksdale, James L. (American businessman)

    Netscape Communications Corp.: Money pours in: …January 1995 the company recruited James L. Barksdale, an executive experienced with raising capital for new companies in the telecommunications and overnight-delivery industries, to be its president and chief executive officer. (See photograph of Barksdale, Andreessen, and Clark.) In August 1995 Netscape’s initial public stock offering created a sensation in…

  • Barkskins (novel by Proulx)

    E. Annie Proulx: The novel Barkskins (2016) charted the wide-reaching ramifications of deforestation through the story of two Frenchmen who arrive in New France (now in Canada) in 1693 and work as woodcutters in exchange for land. The novels traces their vicissitudes and those of their descendants, many of who…

  • Barlaam and Josaphat (Christian romance)

    Judaism: Jewish contributions to diffusion of folktales: The renowned romance of Barlaam and Josaphat—a Christian adaptation of tales about the Buddha—found its Jewish counterpart in a compilation titled The Prince and the Dervish, adapted from an Arabic text by Abraham ben Samuel ibn ?isdai, a leader of Spanish Jewry in the 13th century.

  • Barlaam the Calabrian (Christian bishop)

    Nicephorus Gregoras: …polemical tracts, against the monk Barlaam of Calabria, an outspoken Aristotelian scholastic, and was recognized as Constantinople’s leading academician. A theological controversy with deep political ramifications followed, in which Gregoras contended with the doctrine of Hesychasm. After the accession of the emperor John VI Cantacuzenus (1347), the Hesychast party, led…

  • Barlach, Ernst (German sculptor)

    Ernst Barlach, outstanding sculptor of the Expressionist movement whose style has often been called “modern Gothic.” Barlach also experimented with graphic art and playwriting, and his work in all media is notable for its preoccupation with the sufferings of humanity. Barlach studied art in

  • Barlad (Romania)

    Barlad, town, Vaslui jude? (county), eastern Romania. The town served as the residence of the princes of Moldavia in the 14th century, and ruins from that period remain popular tourist attractions. The Royal Church, first erected during the reign of Basil, has been rebuilt and restored numerous

  • Barlavento Islands (islands, Cabo Verde)

    Barlavento Islands, island group in the Atlantic Ocean off the West African coast and the northern of two island groups that make up Cape Verde. The archipelago consists of the islands of Boa Vista, Sal, Santa Luzia, Santo Ant?o, S?o Nicolau, and S?o Vicente, as well as the islets of Raso and

  • Barlavento, Ilhas do (islands, Cabo Verde)

    Barlavento Islands, island group in the Atlantic Ocean off the West African coast and the northern of two island groups that make up Cape Verde. The archipelago consists of the islands of Boa Vista, Sal, Santa Luzia, Santo Ant?o, S?o Nicolau, and S?o Vicente, as well as the islets of Raso and

  • Barleria (plant genus)

    Acanthaceae: (355), Stobilanthes (350), Barleria (300), Aphelandra (170), Staurogyne (140), Dicliptera (150), Blepharis (130), Lepidagathis (100), Hygrophila (100), Thunbergia (90), and Dyschoriste (80). The small genus

  • Barletta (Italy)

    Barletta, city, Puglia (Apulia) region, southeastern Italy, and port and resort on the Adriatic Sea, northwest of Bari. Originating as the ancient Barduli, it served as the port and bathing resort for Canusium (modern Canosa di Puglia; 14 miles [22 km] west-southwest) in Roman times. Captured by

  • barley (cereal)

    Barley, (Hordeum vulgare), cereal plant of the grass family Poaceae and its edible grain. Grown in a variety of environments, barley is the fourth largest grain crop globally, after wheat, rice, and corn. Barley is commonly used in breads, soups, stews, and health products, though it is primarily

  • Barley Mother (anthropologist)

    Rice Mother: …sheaf is designated Wheat Mother, Barley Mother, and other grain names).

  • barley wine (alcoholic beverage)

    beer: Types of beer: …of 4 percent, the so-called barley wines 8 to 10 percent. Diet beers or light beers are fully fermented, low-carbohydrate beers in which enzymes are used to convert normally unfermentable (and high-calorie) carbohydrates to fermentable form. In low-alcohol beers (0.5 to 2.0 percent alcohol) and “alcohol-free” beers (less than 0.1…

  • barley-sugar column (architecture)

    Salomónica, (Spanish: “Solomon-like”) in architecture, a twisted column, so called because, at the Apostle’s tomb in Old St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, there were similar columns, which, according to legend, had been imported from the Temple of Solomon in ancient Jerusalem. When Gian Lorenzo Bernini

  • Barleycorn, John (fictional character)

    John Barleycorn, fictional humorous personification of alcohol, first appearing about 1620. John Barleycorn was a figure in British and American folklore. British sources often refer to the character as Sir John Barleycorn, as in a 17th-century pamphlet, The Arraigning and Indicting of Sir John

  • Barlovento, Islas de (islands, West Indies)

    Windward Islands, a line of West Indian islands constituting the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles. They lie at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea, between latitudes 12° and 16° N and longitudes 60° and 62° W and include, from north to south, the English-speaking island of Dominica; the French

  • Barlow lens

    Peter Barlow: …(non-colour-distorting) telescope lenses known as Barlow lenses.

  • Barlow’s Tables (work by Barlow)

    Peter Barlow: …published numerous mathematical works, including New Mathematical Tables (1814). Later known as Barlow’s Tables, this compilation of factors and functions of all numbers from 1 to 10,000 was considered so accurate and so useful that it has been regularly reprinted ever since.

  • Barlow, Joel (American writer)

    Joel Barlow, public official, poet, and author of the mock-heroic poem The Hasty Pudding. A graduate of Yale, he was a chaplain for three years in the Revolutionary Army. In July 1784 he established at Hartford, Connecticut, a weekly paper, the American Mercury. In 1786 he was admitted to the bar.

  • Barlow, John Perry (American author, lyricist, and activist)

    John Perry Barlow, American author, lyricist, and cyberspace activist who cofounded (1990) the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), which sought to protect the rights and freedoms of individuals in the digital world. Barlow spent his childhood on his family’s cattle ranch in Wyoming, and he later

  • Barlow, Peter (English optician and mathematician)

    Peter Barlow, optician and mathematician who invented two varieties of achromatic (non-colour-distorting) telescope lenses known as Barlow lenses. Self-educated, he became assistant mathematics master at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, in 1801. He published numerous mathematical works,

  • Barlow, Peter W. (British engineer)

    James Henry Greathead: …with the noted civil engineer Peter W. Barlow between 1864 and 1867. The tunneling shield invented by Marc Isambard Brunel and used to build the Thames Tunnel was large and unwieldy. Barlow designed a smaller shield, circular in cross section, which Greathead modified to complete the Tower Subway (1869) under…

  • Barlow, William H. (British architect)

    Western architecture: Construction in iron and glass: Pancras, London (1864–68, by William H. Barlow), where the wrought-iron arches have a span of 243 feet (74 metres) and rise to a height of 100 feet (30 metres).

  • Barma (people)

    Chad: Ethnic groups: …semiarid tropical zone are the Barma of Bagirmi, the founders of the kingdom of the same name; they are surrounded by groups of Kanuri, Fulani, Hausa, and Arabs, many of whom have come from outside Chad itself. Along the lower courses of the Logone and Chari rivers are the

  • barmak (Buddhism)

    Barmakids: Their ancestor was a barmak, a title borne by the high priest in the Buddhist temple of Nawbahār. The Barmakids were also known for their patronage of literature, philosophy, and science and for their tolerant attitude toward various religious and philosophical issues. They promoted public works—such as canals, mosques,…

  • Barmakids (?Abbāsid viziers)

    Barmakids, priestly family of Iranian origin, from the city of Balkh in Khorāsān, who achieved prominence in the 8th century as scribes and viziers to the early ?Abbāsid caliphs. Their ancestor was a barmak, a title borne by the high priest in the Buddhist temple of Nawbahār. The Barmakids were

  • B?rmann, Heinrich (German musician)

    Carl Maria von Weber: …friendship with the clarinet virtuoso Heinrich B?rmann led to the writing of the Concertino, Opus 26, and two brilliant, inventive clarinet concerti. In all, he was to write six clarinet works for B?rmann, with whom he also toured. The clarinet remained, with the horn, one of the favourite instruments of…

  • Barmecides (?Abbāsid viziers)

    Barmakids, priestly family of Iranian origin, from the city of Balkh in Khorāsān, who achieved prominence in the 8th century as scribes and viziers to the early ?Abbāsid caliphs. Their ancestor was a barmak, a title borne by the high priest in the Buddhist temple of Nawbahār. The Barmakids were

  • Barmen (Germany)

    Wuppertal: Formed as Barmen-Elberfeld in 1929 through the amalgamation of the towns of Barmen, Elberfeld, Beyenburg, Cronenberg, Ronsdorf, and Vohwinkel, the name was changed to Wuppertal (“Wupper Valley”) in 1930. Barmen and Elberfeld, mentioned in the 11th and 12th centuries, jointly received the monopoly for yarn bleaching for…

  • Barmen Confession of Faith (German religious history)

    Synod of Barmen: …Declaration of Barmen, or the Barmen Declaration, that defined the Christian opposition to any interpretation of Christianity based on racial theories. The major theological influence was that of Karl Barth. The declaration was cast in the classical form of the great confessions of faith, affirming major biblical teachings and condemning…

  • Barmen Declaration (German religious history)

    Synod of Barmen: …Declaration of Barmen, or the Barmen Declaration, that defined the Christian opposition to any interpretation of Christianity based on racial theories. The major theological influence was that of Karl Barth. The declaration was cast in the classical form of the great confessions of faith, affirming major biblical teachings and condemning…

  • Barmen, Synod of (German history)

    Synod of Barmen, meeting of German Protestant leaders at Barmen in the Ruhr, in May 1934, to organize Protestant opposition to the teachings of the so-called German Christians, who sought to reinterpret Christianity as an Aryan religion free from all Jewish influences. The German Christians were

  • Barmen-Elberfeld (Germany)

    Wuppertal, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), northwestern Germany. The city extends for 10 miles (16 km) along the steep banks of the Wupper River, a right-bank tributary of the Rhine, northeast of Düsseldorf. Formed as Barmen-Elberfeld in 1929 through the amalgamation of the towns of

  • Barmens lace

    textile: Net and lace making: Barmens lace has a fairly heavy texture and an angular pattern; flowing lines, heavy outline cords, and fine net backgrounds are not usually made on Barmens machines.

  • Barmens machine

    textile: Net and lace making: …spools; in another type, the Barmens machine, threads on king bobbins on carriers are plaited together, sometimes with warp threads.

  • Barmer (India)

    Barmer, town, western Rajasthan state, northwestern India. The town stands on a rocky hill crowned by a fort and is surrounded by an expanse of sandy plain forming part of the Great Indian (Thar) Desert. The town is said to have been founded in the 13th century, when it was named Bahadamer (“The

  • barn (farm building)

    Barn, in agriculture, farm building for sheltering animals, their feed and other supplies, farm machinery, and farm products. Barns are named according to their purpose, as hog barns, dairy barns, tobacco barns, and tractor barns. The principal type in the United States is the general-purpose

  • barn (measurement)

    Barn, unit of area used to measure the reaction cross section (generally different from the geometric cross section) of atomic nuclei and subatomic particles in the study of their interactions with other nuclei or particles. It is equal to 10?24 square cm. The name, coined by U.S. scientists, is

  • Barn (work by Demand)

    Thomas Demand: Barn (1997), one of a number of works evoking artists’ workshops, was inspired by a photo of the studio of American painter Jackson Pollock. The most prominent of Demand’s works are those based on media photographs representing politically charged or otherwise sensational events. Corridor (1995)…

  • Barn Blind (novel by Smiley)

    Jane Smiley: Her first novel, Barn Blind (1980), focuses on the relationships between a mother and her children. Duplicate Keys, a mystery novel, appeared in 1984. The Greenlanders (1988) is a sweeping epic centred on a 14th-century family, the Gunnarssons. A Thousand Acres (1991; film 1997), which won a Pulitzer…

  • barn grass (plant)

    Barnyard grass, (Echinochloa crus-galli), coarse tufted grass of the family Poaceae, a noxious agricultural weed. Although native to tropical Asia, barnyard grass can be found throughout the world, thriving in moist cultivated and waste areas. In many areas outside its native range, however, it is

  • barn owl (bird)

    Barn owl, any of several species of nocturnal birds of prey of the genus Tyto (family Tytonidae). Barn owls are sometimes called monkey-faced owls because of their heart-shaped facial disks and absence of ear tufts. They are about 30 to 40 cm (12 to 16 inches) long, white to gray or yellowish to

  • barn owl family (bird family)

    owl: Annotated classification: Family Tytonidae (barn owls, grass owls, and bay owls) 21 species in 2 genera found from tropical to temperate regions; body length 30–54 cm (12–21 inches); heart-shaped facial disk completely encircling face, bill comparatively long and slender; legs rather long; middle claw with comb. Family Strigidae

  • barn raising

    Amish: Beliefs and way of life: …Amish are famous for their barn raisings. These cooperative efforts often involve hundreds of men, as well as scores of women who feed the workers. These custom-made barns are a constant reminder of Amish tradition, community, industry, and craft. The hex signs that often adorn the barns—the round geometric emblems…

  • barn rat (rodent)

    rat: The brown rat, Rattus norvegicus (also called the Norway rat), and the house rat, R. rattus (also called the black rat, ship rat, or roof rat), live virtually everywhere that human populations have settled; the house rat is predominant in warmer climates, and the brown rat…

  • barn swallow (bird)

    swallow: The common swallow (Hirundo rustica) is almost worldwide in migration; an American species, called barn swallow, may summer in Canada and winter in Argentina. The 10 species of Petrochelidon, which make flask-shaped mud nests, include the cliff swallow (P. pyrrhonota), the bird of San Juan Capistrano…

  • barn-door skate (fish)

    conservation: Fishing: One species, the barn-door skate (Raja laevis), was an incidental catch of western North Atlantic fisheries in the second half of the 20th century. As the name suggests, this is a large fish, too big to go unrecorded. Its numbers fell every year, until by the 1990s none…

  • Barna fra Sukhavati (work by Gaarder)

    Jostein Gaarder: …those with two children’s books: Barna fra Sukhavati (“The Children from Sukhavati”) in 1987 and Froskeslottet (The Frog Castle) in 1988. In both books Gaarder set a fantasy world against the real world, giving the central characters the opportunity to explore and question ideas and values. In 1990 came Kabalmysteriet…

  • Barnabas, Letter of (work by Saint Barnabas)

    Letter of Barnabas, an early Christian work written in Greek by one of the so-called Apostolic Fathers, Greek Christian writers of the late 1st and early 2nd centuries. Ascribed by tradition to St. Barnabas, the Apostle, the writing dates possibly from as late as ad 130 and was the work of an

  • Barnabas, Saint (biblical figure)

    Saint Barnabas, ; feast day June 11), Apostolic Father, an important early Christian missionary. Barnabas was a hellenized Jew who joined the Jerusalem church soon after Christ’s crucifixion, sold his property, and gave the proceeds to the community (Acts 4:36–37). He was one of the Cypriots who

  • Barnabees Journal (work by Brathwait)

    Richard Brathwaite: He also wrote the lively Barnabee’s Journal (originally written in Latin rhymed verse under the pseudonym Corymbaeus; Eng. trans. 1638), containing amusing topographical information and unflagging gaiety.

  • Barnabites (Roman Catholic order)

    Saint Antonio Maria Zaccaria: …founder of the congregation of Clerks Regular of St. Paul, or Barnabites, a religious order devoted to the study of the Pauline Letters.

  • Barnabò delle montagne (work by Buzzati)

    Dino Buzzati: …the style of traditional realism, Barnabò delle montagne (1933; “Barnabus of the Mountains”) and Il segreto del bosco vecchio (1935; “The Secret of the Ancient Wood”), introduced the Kafkaesque surrealism, symbolism, and absurdity that suffused all of his writing.

  • Barnabok (book by Gyllensten)

    Lars Gyllensten: This theme is developed in Barnabok (1952; “Children’s Book”) against the background of a gradually dissolving marriage. In its sequel, Senilia (1956), the aging process has a similar function in relation to its main character, but this time the inner monologue finds a positive resolution. Sokrates d?d (1960; “The Death…

  • Barnaby Rudge (work by Dickens)

    Barnaby Rudge, historical novel by Charles Dickens, published serially and as a book in 1841. Barnaby Rudge was Dickens’s first attempt at a historical novel. It is set in the late 18th century and presents with great vigour and understanding (and some ambivalence of attitude) the spectacle of

  • Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of ’Eighty (work by Dickens)

    Barnaby Rudge, historical novel by Charles Dickens, published serially and as a book in 1841. Barnaby Rudge was Dickens’s first attempt at a historical novel. It is set in the late 18th century and presents with great vigour and understanding (and some ambivalence of attitude) the spectacle of

  • Barnack, Oskar (German photographer)

    Oskar Barnack, designer of the first precision miniature camera to become available commercially, the Leica I, which was introduced in 1924 by the Ernst Leitz optical firm at Wetzlar, Ger. Barnack was a master mechanic and inventor who joined the Leitz optical firm in 1911. Barnack had completed a

  • barnacle (crustacean)

    Barnacle, any of more than 1,000 predominantly marine crustaceans of the subclass Cirripedia highly modified for sedentary life. There are about 850 free-living species (all marine) and about 260 species that are internal parasites of crabs and other crustaceans. A brief treatment of cirripedes

  • barnacle goose (bird)

    Barnacle goose, (Branta leucopsis), water bird of the family Anatidae (order Anseriformes) that resembles a small Canada goose, with dark back, white face, and black neck and bib. It winters in the northern British Isles and on the coasts of Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands. During the

  • Barnacle, Nora (wife of James Joyce)

    James Joyce: Early life: Meanwhile, Joyce had met Nora Barnacle in June 1904; they probably had their first date, and first sexual encounter, on June 16, the day that he chose as what is known as “Bloomsday” (the day of his novel Ulysses). Eventually he persuaded her to leave Ireland with him, although…

  • Barnard Castle (England, United Kingdom)

    Barnard Castle, town, unitary authority and historic county of Durham, northern England. It lies on the northeast bank of the River Tees (there crossed by a medieval bridge). A settlement developed around a Norman castle built in 1178 by Bernard de Balliol, who gave the town its first charter. The

  • Barnard College (college, New York City, New York, United States)

    Barnard College, a private liberal arts college for women in the Morningside Heights neighbourhood of New York, New York, U.S. One of the Seven Sisters schools, it was founded in 1889 by Annie Nathan Meyer in honour of Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard, then president of Columbia University. Though

  • Barnard’s star (astronomy)

    Barnard’s star, second nearest star to the Sun (after the triple system of Proxima Centauri and Alpha Centauri’s A and B components considered together), at a distance of 5.95 light-years. It is named for Edward Emerson Barnard, the American astronomer who discovered it in 1916. Barnard’s star has

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