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  • Baroghil Pass (mountain pass, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Physiography: …the passes of Karambar and Baroghil (Barowghīl; 12,480 feet [3,804 metres]), the eastern Hindu Kush is not very high and has mountains that often take the form of rounded domes. Farther to the west the main ridge rises rapidly to Baba Tangi (21,368 feet [6,513 metres]) and becomes rugged, after…

  • barograph (measurement instrument)

    barometer: …over time is called a barograph. Though mercury barographs have been made, aneroid barographs are much more common. The motion of the aneroid capsule is magnified through levers to drive a recording pen. The pen traces a line on a graph that is usually wrapped around a cylinder driven by…

  • Baroja y Nessi, Pío (Spanish writer)

    Pío Baroja, Basque writer who is considered to be the foremost Spanish novelist of his generation. After receiving his medical degree, Baroja practiced medicine for a short time in a village in northern Spain, later returning to Madrid to work in the family bakery. As a member of the Generation of

  • Baroja, Pío (Spanish writer)

    Pío Baroja, Basque writer who is considered to be the foremost Spanish novelist of his generation. After receiving his medical degree, Baroja practiced medicine for a short time in a village in northern Spain, later returning to Madrid to work in the family bakery. As a member of the Generation of

  • Barom Reachea I (king of Cambodia)

    Chan I: …the reign of his son, Barom Reachea I (1566–76). In 1553 Chan built a new palace at Lovek and was crowned again. Under his leadership, Cambodian forces attacked the Thai capital region during the period 1559–64; from then until his death there was an interlude of peace.

  • barometer

    Barometer, device used to measure atmospheric pressure. Because atmospheric pressure changes with distance above or below sea level, a barometer can also be used to measure altitude. There are two main types of barometers: mercury and aneroid. In the mercury barometer, atmospheric pressure balances

  • Barometer Rising (novel by MacLennan)

    Hugh MacLennan: MacLennan’s first novel, Barometer Rising (1941), is a moral fable that uses as a background the actual explosion of a munitions ship that partly destroyed the city of Halifax in 1917. His later novels include Two Solitudes (1945), which explores Anglo-French relations in Canada; The Precipice (1948), a…

  • barometric light

    Barometric light, luminous glow appearing in the vacuum above the mercury in a barometer tube when the tube is shaken, first noticed in 1675 by a French astronomer, Jean Picard. The electrical discharge takes place with a variety of rarefied gases trapped in the tube (neon glows with its

  • barometric pressure

    Atmospheric pressure, force per unit area exerted by an atmospheric column (that is, the entire body of air above the specified area). Atmospheric pressure can be measured with a mercury barometer (hence the commonly used synonym barometric pressure), which indicates the height of a column of

  • Barometric Pressure: Researches in Experimental Physiology (work by Bert)

    Paul Bert: …recherches de physiologie expérimentale (1878; Barometric Pressure: Researches in Experimental Physiology, 1943) was of fundamental importance to aviation medicine during World War II and to aerospace research in general.

  • baron (title)

    Baron, title of nobility, ranking below a viscount (or below a count in countries without viscounts). In the feudal system of Europe, a baron was a “man” who pledged his loyalty and service to his superior in return for land that he could pass to his heirs. The superior, sovereign in his

  • Baron Bliss Day (festival, Belize)

    Belize: Daily life and social customs: Baron Bliss Day (March 9) is a national festival honouring a British resident who died while on vacation in Belize and donated his fortune to the construction of local libraries, schools, and other institutions (including the Baron Bliss Institute). St. George’s Cay Day (September 10)…

  • Baron Cohen, Sacha (British actor)

    Sacha Baron Cohen, British actor and comedian best known for his politically incorrect social satire. Baron Cohen was born into a devout Jewish family, and he studied history at the University of Cambridge. After deciding to pursue a career in entertainment, in 1998 he joined the television comedy

  • Baron Cohen, Sacha Noam (British actor)

    Sacha Baron Cohen, British actor and comedian best known for his politically incorrect social satire. Baron Cohen was born into a devout Jewish family, and he studied history at the University of Cambridge. After deciding to pursue a career in entertainment, in 1998 he joined the television comedy

  • Baron de Hirsch Fund

    Maurice, baron de Hirsch: …Hirsch founded and endowed the Baron de Hirsch fund in the United States, principally to help Jewish immigrants there to learn a trade. In the late 20th century the fund continued to support the Jewish Agricultural Society, which lent money to farmers and settled displaced persons on farms in various…

  • Baron in the Trees, The (work by Calvino)

    Italo Calvino: …fantasy, Il barone rampante (1957; The Baron in the Trees), is a whimsical tale of a 19th-century nobleman who one day decides to climb into the trees and who never sets foot on the ground again. From the trees he does, however, participate fully in the affairs of his fellow…

  • Baron Munchausen’s Narratives of His Marvelous Travels and Campaigns in Russia (German literature)

    tall tale: …found in the German collection Baron Munchausen’s Narratives of His Marvelous Travels and Campaigns in Russia (1785); it includes such humorous tales as one about the soldier who loaded his rifle with a cherry pit, fired it into the head of a stag, and later found a cherry tree rooted…

  • Baron of Bluegrass Country (American coach)

    Adolph Rupp, American collegiate basketball coach at the University of Kentucky (1930–72). He retired as the most successful coach in collegiate basketball, with 876 wins (surpassed in 1997 by Dean Smith). Rupp’s teams won more than 82 percent of their games. Rupp grew up on a Kansas farm and was

  • Baron Samedi (Vodou)

    Bawon Samdi, in Vodou, the father of the spirits (lwa) of the dead. Bawon Samdi is considered to be wise because he holds knowledge of the dead and the outer world. The first male buried in a cemetery is said to become the manifestation of Bawon Samdi, guardian of the cemetery; the first female

  • Baron Wilmot of Adderbury (English nobleman)

    Henry Wilmot Richmond, 1st Earl of Richmond, leading Royalist during the English Civil Wars, a principal adviser to the Prince of Wales, later Charles II. Wilmot was the son of Charles Wilmot (c. 1570–1644), the 1st earl of Athlone in the Irish peerage. Having fought against the Scots at Newburn

  • Baron, Michel (French actor)

    Michel Baron, French actor, from 1670 until his retirement in 1691 the undisputed master of the French stage. The child of theatrical parents, he was orphaned at a young age and joined the company of children known as the Petits Comédiens du Dauphin. He joined Molière’s company in 1670 and was

  • Baron, Salo Wittmayer (American historian)

    Salo Wittmayer Baron, Austrian-born American historian who spent much of his life compiling the multivolume magnum opus A Social and Religious History of the Jews (1937), originally published in three volumes but later revised and expanded into 18 volumes. Baron, who was ordained a rabbi at the

  • barone rampante, Il (work by Calvino)

    Italo Calvino: …fantasy, Il barone rampante (1957; The Baron in the Trees), is a whimsical tale of a 19th-century nobleman who one day decides to climb into the trees and who never sets foot on the ground again. From the trees he does, however, participate fully in the affairs of his fellow…

  • Barone, Enrico (Italian economist)

    Enrico Barone, Italian mathematical economist who expanded on the concepts of general equilibrium previously formulated by French economist Léon Walras. Barone spent much of his life as an army officer, resigning in 1907 only after obtaining a professorship at the University of Rome. His most

  • baroness (title)

    Baron, title of nobility, ranking below a viscount (or below a count in countries without viscounts). In the feudal system of Europe, a baron was a “man” who pledged his loyalty and service to his superior in return for land that he could pass to his heirs. The superior, sovereign in his

  • baronet (title)

    Baronet, British hereditary dignity, first created by King James I of England in May 1611. The baronetage is not part of the peerage, nor is it an order of knighthood. A baronet ranks below barons but above all knights except, in England, Knights of the Garter and, in Scotland, Knights of the

  • Barong (Balinese mythology)

    Barong, masked figure, usually representing an unidentified creature called keket, who appears at times of celebration in Bali, Indonesia. For the Balinese, Barong is the symbol of health and good fortune, in opposition to the witch, Rangda (also known as Calonarang). During a dance-drama that

  • barong-barong (dwelling)

    Manila: Housing: …with common entrance; and the barong-barong, a makeshift shack built of salvaged materials (flattened tin cans, scrap lumber, cartons, or billboards) that is common in the poor areas.

  • Baronius, Caesar (Italian historian)

    Caesar Baronius, ecclesiastical historian and apologist for the Roman Catholic Church. He joined the Oratory in Rome in 1557, eventually succeeding Philip Neri as superior in 1593. Clement VIII, whose confessor he was, made him cardinal in 1596, and in the following year he became Vatican

  • Baronova, Irina (Russian-born ballerina)

    Irina Baronova, Russian-born ballerina (born March 13, 1919, Petrograd [now St. Petersburg], Russia—died June 28, 2008, Byron Bay, N.S.W., Australia), was the youngest and most graceful of the “baby ballerinas,” a trio of teenage dancers who in the 1930s captured public attention and attracted

  • Barons’ War (English history)

    Barons’ War, (1264–67), in English history, the civil war caused by baronial opposition to the costly and inept policies of Henry III. The barons in 1258 had attempted to achieve reform by forcing Henry to abide by the Provisions of Oxford (see Oxford, Provisions of). When, by the Mise of Amiens

  • Barons, Articles of the (English history)

    John: Baronial rebellion and the Magna Carta: …a document known as the Articles of the Barons. On June 19, after further revisions of the document, the king and the barons accepted the Magna Carta, which ensured feudal rights and restated English law. This settlement was soon rendered unworkable by the more intransigent barons and John’s almost immediate…

  • barophile (biology)

    extremophile: …below 0 °C [32 °F]); piezophilic, or barophilic (optimal growth at high hydrostatic pressure); oligotrophic (growth in nutritionally limited environments); endolithic (growth within rock or within pores of mineral grains); and xerophilic (growth in dry conditions, with low water availability). Some extremophiles are adapted simultaneously to multiple stresses (polyextremophile); common…

  • barophilic organism (biology)

    extremophile: …below 0 °C [32 °F]); piezophilic, or barophilic (optimal growth at high hydrostatic pressure); oligotrophic (growth in nutritionally limited environments); endolithic (growth within rock or within pores of mineral grains); and xerophilic (growth in dry conditions, with low water availability). Some extremophiles are adapted simultaneously to multiple stresses (polyextremophile); common…

  • Baroque architecture

    Baroque architecture, architectural style originating in late 16th-century Italy and lasting in some regions, notably Germany and colonial South America, until the 18th century. It had its origins in the Counter-Reformation, when the Catholic Church launched an overtly emotional and sensory appeal

  • Baroque art and architecture

    Baroque art and architecture, the visual arts and building design and construction produced during the era in the history of Western art that roughly coincides with the 17th century. The earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, date from the latter decades of the 16th century, while in

  • Baroque music

    Baroque music, a style of music that prevailed during the period from about 1600 to about 1750, known for its grandiose, dramatic, and energetic spirit but also for its stylistic diversity. One of the most dramatic turning points in the history of music occurred at the beginning of the 17th

  • Baroque of the Indies (art)

    Latin American literature: The Barroco de Indias: In poetry, the Barroco de Indias begins with a gleeful acceptance of the manner originated by Luis de Góngora y Argote, the great Spanish Baroque poet, who had brought about a veritable revolution in poetic language. Góngora’s poetry is difficult, laden with…

  • baroque pearl (gemstone)

    Baroque pearl, pearl that is irregularly or oddly shaped. Pearl formation does not always occur in soft-tissue areas, where the expanding pearl sac grows regularly because it encounters no appreciable resistance. Pearl cysts are sometimes lodged in muscular tissue, for example, where, unable to

  • Baroque period

    Baroque art and architecture, the visual arts and building design and construction produced during the era in the history of Western art that roughly coincides with the 17th century. The earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, date from the latter decades of the 16th century, while in

  • Baroque pitch (music)

    pitch: …new, or Baroque, pitch, called Kammerton (“chamber pitch”) in Germany, was one tone below the old Renaissance woodwind pitch, or Chorton (“choir pitch”).

  • baroque theology (religion)

    Yves Congar: Theology: …he and Chenu termed “baroque theology.” This theology, which had dominated Catholic ecclesiology since the Protestant Reformation, limited theology to a deductive logical exercise, emphasized submission to authority, and conceived the church in strictly juridical and hierarchical terms. In response, Congar aspired to develop an ecclesiology that would help…

  • baroreception (physiology)

    shock: Pressure receptors, or baroreceptors, in the walls of the aorta and carotid arteries trigger physiological reflexes to protect the central circulation, increasing heart rate to boost cardiac output and constricting small blood vessels to direct blood flow to essential organs. If the blood losses continue, even these mechanisms…

  • baroreceptor (physiology)

    Bainbridge reflex: Special pressure sensors called baroreceptors (or venoatrial stretch receptors) located in the right atrium of the heart detect increases in the volume and pressure of blood returned to the heart. These receptors transmit information along the vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve) to the central nervous system. This response results…

  • baroreceptor reflex (physiology)

    human nervous system: Reflex pathways: …trigger what is called the baroreceptor reflex, which causes a decrease in the discharge of sympathetic vasomotor and cardiac outflows whenever an increase in blood pressure occurs. In addition, the baroreceptor reflex causes stimulation of vagal cardioinhibitory neurons, which produces a decrease in heart rate, a decrease in cardiac contractility,…

  • barosinusitis (pathology)

    Sinus squeeze, pain, inflammation, and possible bleeding of the membranes lining the sinus cavities in the head, caused by a difference between the pressure inside the sinuses and that outside. Sinus squeeze is a common malady of persons flying in unpressurized aircraft and of divers. The sinuses,

  • Barossa Valley (region, Australia)

    Barossa Valley, important wine-producing region of South Australia, located 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Adelaide in the Mount Lofty Ranges. The valley, drained by the North Para River, is about 19 miles (30 km) long and 5 miles (8 km) wide. It was named in 1837 by its surveyor for a battle fought

  • barotitis (physiology)

    Ear squeeze, effects of a difference in pressure between the internal ear spaces and the external ear canal. These effects may include severe pain, inflammation, bleeding, and rupture of the eardrum membrane. Underwater divers and airplane pilots are sometimes affected. The middle ear, the cavity

  • barotrauma (physiology)

    Barotrauma, any of several injuries arising from changes in pressure upon the body. Humans are adapted to live at an atmospheric pressure of 760 mm of mercury (the pressure at sea level), which differs from pressures experienced in underwater environments and in the upper atmospheres of space. Most

  • barotropic field of mass (oceanography)

    ocean current: Pressure gradients: …is referred to as the barotropic field of mass. The unchanged pressure gradient gives rise to a current speed independent of depth. The oceans of the world, however, are not homogeneous. Horizontal variations in temperature and salinity cause the horizontal pressure gradient to vary with depth. This is the baroclinic…

  • barotropic instability (meteorology)

    climate: Propagation and development of waves: …amplify through a process called barotropic instability. Barotropic instability, however, requires horizontal shear, not vertical shear; kinetic energy for the waves comes from the mean kinetic energy associated with the westerly wind current. The waves grow in amplitude at the expense of the mean flow. Barotropic instability can occur when…

  • Barotse (people)

    Lozi, a complex of about 25 peoples of about 6 cultural groups inhabiting western Zambia, the area formerly known as Barotseland in Zambia and speaking Benue-Congo languages of the Niger-Congo family. Formerly, the groups were all called Barotse as subjects of the paramount chief of the dominant

  • Barotse Flood Plain (physical feature, Zambia)

    Zambezi River: Physiography: …largest of which is the Barotse, or Zambezi, Plain. The region is inundated during the summer floods, when it receives fertile alluvial soils. The main tributaries intersecting the river along the plains are the Kabompo River from the east and the larger Lungué-Bungo (Lungwebungo) River from the west.

  • barouche (carriage)

    Calash, (from Czech kolesa: “wheels”), any of various open carriages, with facing passenger seats and an elevated coachman’s seat joined to the front of the shallow body, which somewhat resembled a small boat. A characteristic falling hood over the rear seat gave the name calash to any folding

  • Barowghīl Pass (mountain pass, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Physiography: …the passes of Karambar and Baroghil (Barowghīl; 12,480 feet [3,804 metres]), the eastern Hindu Kush is not very high and has mountains that often take the form of rounded domes. Farther to the west the main ridge rises rapidly to Baba Tangi (21,368 feet [6,513 metres]) and becomes rugged, after…

  • Barozio, Giacomo (Italian architect)

    Giacomo da Vignola, architect who, with Andrea Palladio and Giulio Romano, dominated Italian Mannerist architectural design and stylistically anticipated the Baroque. After studying in Bologna, Vignola went to Rome in the 1530s and made drawings of the antiquities for a projected edition of

  • Barozio, Giacomo (Italian architect)

    Giacomo da Vignola, architect who, with Andrea Palladio and Giulio Romano, dominated Italian Mannerist architectural design and stylistically anticipated the Baroque. After studying in Bologna, Vignola went to Rome in the 1530s and made drawings of the antiquities for a projected edition of

  • Barozzi, Giacomo (Italian architect)

    Giacomo da Vignola, architect who, with Andrea Palladio and Giulio Romano, dominated Italian Mannerist architectural design and stylistically anticipated the Baroque. After studying in Bologna, Vignola went to Rome in the 1530s and made drawings of the antiquities for a projected edition of

  • Barqah (historical region, North Africa)

    Cyrenaica, historic region of North Africa and until 1963 a province of the United Kingdom of Libya. As early as c. 631 bc Greek colonists settled the northern half of ancient Cyrenaica, known then as Pentapolis for the five major cities they established: Euhesperides (Banghāzī), Barce (al-Marj),

  • barque (sailing craft)

    Bark, sailing ship of three or more masts, the rear (mizzenmast) being rigged for a fore-and-aft rather than a square sail. Until fore-and-aft rigs were applied to large ships to reduce crew sizes, the term was often used for any small sailing vessel. In poetic use, a bark can be any sailing ship

  • Barque ‘Future,’ The (work by Lie)

    Jonas Lie: …eller liv nordp? (1872; The Barque “Future,” 1879), followed. Two novels from his Naturalistic period are Livsslaven (1883; “The Life Convict,” Eng. trans.One of Life’s Slaves, 1895), which tells of the social misfortunes of a boy born out of wedlock, and Familien paa Gilje (1883; The Family at Gilje, 1920),…

  • barquentine (ship)

    Barkentine, sailing ship of three or more masts having fore-and-aft sails on all but the front mast (foremast), which is square rigged. Because of the reduction of square sails, it required fewer crew members and was popular in the Pacific after its introduction about

  • Barquisimeto (Venezuela)

    Barquisimeto, city, capital of Lara estado (state), northwestern Venezuela. It is situated on a wide terrace of the Turbio River at 1,856 feet (566 metres) above sea level. Barquisimeto is swept by the drying trade winds but has a warm climate (mean average temperature 75 °F [24 °C]). One of

  • Barqūq (Mamlūk ruler of Egypt)

    Damanhūr: …14th century the Mamlūk caliph Barqūq restored its fortifications to thwart Bedouin incursions.

  • Barr body (genetics)

    sex chromosome: …as a small, dark-staining structure—the Barr body—in the cell nucleus.

  • Barr, Alfred H., Jr. (American museum curator)

    Alfred H. Barr, Jr., American museum curator who, as the enterprising first director (1929–43) of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City, expanded the realm of the traditional art museum to include departments of architecture, education, industrial design, and photography, as well as

  • Barr, Alfred Hamilton, Jr. (American museum curator)

    Alfred H. Barr, Jr., American museum curator who, as the enterprising first director (1929–43) of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City, expanded the realm of the traditional art museum to include departments of architecture, education, industrial design, and photography, as well as

  • Barr, Bob (American politician and attorney)

    Bob Barr, American politician and attorney who served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1995–2003). He was the Libertarian Party’s nominee for president in 2008. Barr, whose father was a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, lived in various cities throughout the

  • Barr, Byron Elsworth (American actor)

    Desk Set: Cast: Assorted Referencesdiscussed in biographyrole of

  • Barr, David G. (United States general)

    Battle of the Chosin Reservoir: Crossing into North Korea: David G. Barr), and the 3rd Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Robert H. Soule). The corps also had control of the Capital and 3rd divisions of the South Korean I Corps, which was already crossing the 38th parallel on the east coast highway.

  • Barr, Robert Laurence, Jr. (American politician and attorney)

    Bob Barr, American politician and attorney who served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1995–2003). He was the Libertarian Party’s nominee for president in 2008. Barr, whose father was a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, lived in various cities throughout the

  • Barr, Roseanne (American comedian and actress)

    Roseanne Barr, American comedian and actress who achieved stardom with the popular and innovative television situation comedy Roseanne (1988–97; 2018). After dropping out of high school in her native Salt Lake City, Utah, Barr lived for a time in an artists’ colony in Colorado before marrying and

  • Barr, Roseanne Cherrie (American comedian and actress)

    Roseanne Barr, American comedian and actress who achieved stardom with the popular and innovative television situation comedy Roseanne (1988–97; 2018). After dropping out of high school in her native Salt Lake City, Utah, Barr lived for a time in an artists’ colony in Colorado before marrying and

  • Barr, William (United States lawyer and government official)

    William Barr, American lawyer and government official who served as attorney general of the United States during the administrations of Presidents George H.W. Bush (1991–93) and Donald Trump (2019– ). Barr was the second person in U.S. history to serve twice as attorney general (the first was John

  • Barr, William Pelham (United States lawyer and government official)

    William Barr, American lawyer and government official who served as attorney general of the United States during the administrations of Presidents George H.W. Bush (1991–93) and Donald Trump (2019– ). Barr was the second person in U.S. history to serve twice as attorney general (the first was John

  • Barra (island, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Barra, Atlantic island of the Outer Hebrides group, Western Isles council area, historic county of Inverness-shire, Scotland, about 5 miles (8 km) southwest of the neighbouring island of South Uist. Formed of gneiss, it is about 10 miles (16 km) long and, with its neighbouring islets, covers about

  • Barra do Rio Negro (Brazil)

    Manaus, city and river port, capital of Amazonas estado (state), northwestern Brazil. It lies along the north bank of the Negro River, 11 miles (18 km) above that river’s influx into the Amazon River. Manaus is situated in the heart of the Amazon Rainforest, 900 miles (1,450 km) inland from the

  • Barra Kunda Falls (waterfalls, The Gambia-Senegal)

    Barra Kunda Falls, waterfalls located 300 miles (480 km) upstream from the mouth of the Gambia River, on the northeastern border of The Gambia and Senegal. They are formed by a ledge of rock stretching 200 feet (60 metres) across the river. The river is tidal up to the rapids, which are navigable

  • Barra Mansa (Brazil)

    Barra Mansa, city, western Rio de Janeiro estado (state), eastern Brazil. It lies along the Paraíba do Sul River, at an elevation of 1,234 feet (376 metres) above sea level, immediately southwest of Volta Redonda. The largest of the city’s varied industries is the Nestlé food and chocolate complex.

  • Barra phase (Mesoamerican history)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Early village life: The Barra (c. 1800–1500 bce), Ocós (1500–1200 bce), and Cuadros (1100–900 bce) phases of the Pacific coasts of Chiapas and Guatemala are good examples of early village cultures. The Barra phase appears to have been transitional from earlier preagricultural phases and may not have been primarily…

  • Barra, Mary (American business executive)

    Mary Barra, On Jan. 15, 2014, Mary Barra, a longtime executive at General Motors (GM), was installed as the automobile company’s CEO, becoming the first woman in history to head one of the “Big Three” American automakers. Barra took over GM in the midst of the “Switchgate” scandal, a decadelong

  • barraca, La (work by Blasco Ibá?ez)

    Vicente Blasco Ibá?ez: …Mayflower, 1921), La barraca (1898; The Cabin, 1917), and Ca?as y barro (1902; Reeds and Mud, 1966), is marked by a vigorous and intense realism and considerable dramatic force in the depiction of the life of Valencia. Later novels, such as La bodega (1906; The Fruit of the Vine, 1919),…

  • Barraca, La (Spanish acting troupe)

    Federico García Lorca: Later poetry and plays: …a traveling student theatre group, La Barraca (the name of makeshift wooden stalls housing puppet shows and popular fairs in Spain), sponsored by the country’s progressive new Republican government.

  • Barracco di Scultura Antica, Museo (museum, Rome, Italy)

    Barracco Museum of Antique Sculpture, in Rome, museum devoted to ancient sculpture and comprising the collection formed by Giovanni Barracco (1829–1914). The collection was given to Rome in 1902. There are fine examples of Egyptian, Assyrian, and Phoenician art, including a bust from Roman Egypt of

  • Barracco Museum of Antique Sculpture (museum, Rome, Italy)

    Barracco Museum of Antique Sculpture, in Rome, museum devoted to ancient sculpture and comprising the collection formed by Giovanni Barracco (1829–1914). The collection was given to Rome in 1902. There are fine examples of Egyptian, Assyrian, and Phoenician art, including a bust from Roman Egypt of

  • Barrace, Cipriano (Spanish priest)

    Trinidad: …1686 Jesuits led by Father Cipriano Barrace founded a mission at the present site of the city, naming it Trinidad (“Trinity”) for the Feast of the Most Holy Trinity. During the annual celebration of the feast, residents wear elaborate feather headdresses and masks and partake in traditional dancing, accompanied by…

  • Barrack Hospital (hospital, Scutari, üsküdar)

    Florence Nightingale: Nursing in peace and war: …arriving in Scutari at the Barrack Hospital on November 5. Not welcomed by the medical officers, Nightingale found conditions filthy, supplies inadequate, staff uncooperative, and overcrowding severe. Few nurses had access to the cholera wards, and Nightingale, who wanted to gain the confidence of army surgeons by waiting for official…

  • Barrack-Room Ballads (work by Kipling)

    Barrack-Room Ballads, collected poems by Rudyard Kipling, published in 1892 and subsequently republished in expanded form. Included were such well-known previously published verses as “Danny Deever,” “Gunga Din,” and “Mandalay.” The book was a popular success and made Kipling a power among

  • Barrackpore (India)

    Barrackpore, city, southeastern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It lies just east of the Hugli (Hooghly) River and is part of the Kolkata (Calcutta) urban agglomeration, lying 15 miles (24 km) north of Kolkata. The name Barrackpore is probably derived from there having been troops stationed

  • Barrackpore Mutiny (Anglo-Burmese War)

    Barrackpore Mutiny, (Nov. 2, 1824), incident during the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26), generally regarded as a dress rehearsal for the Indian Mutiny of 1857 because of its similar combination of Indian grievances against the British, caste feeling, and the ineptitude of its handling. During

  • Barrackpur (India)

    Barrackpore, city, southeastern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It lies just east of the Hugli (Hooghly) River and is part of the Kolkata (Calcutta) urban agglomeration, lying 15 miles (24 km) north of Kolkata. The name Barrackpore is probably derived from there having been troops stationed

  • Barrackpur Mutiny (Anglo-Burmese War)

    Barrackpore Mutiny, (Nov. 2, 1824), incident during the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26), generally regarded as a dress rehearsal for the Indian Mutiny of 1857 because of its similar combination of Indian grievances against the British, caste feeling, and the ineptitude of its handling. During

  • barracks (military housing)

    Barracks, military housing facility, usually spoken of, or written of, in the plural. Though permanent buildings had occasionally been used to house troops in earlier times, the custom of billeting in private houses, inns, and other existing facilities had taken hold by the 18th century, when such

  • Barracks Thief, The (novella by Wolff)

    Tobias Wolff: …PEN/Faulkner Award for the novella The Barracks Thief (1984), which follows the lives of three young paratroopers who are awaiting their orders to be shipped out to Vietnam. Wolff also won three O. Henry Awards (1980, 1981, and 1985). In 2015 he received the National Medal of Arts.

  • Barracks, The (work by McGahern)

    John McGahern: His first published novel, The Barracks (1963), tells of a terminally ill, unhappily married woman. Praised for its brilliant depiction of Irish life and for its sensitive portrayal of despair, the work won several awards. The Dark (1965) is a claustrophobic portrait of an adolescent trapped by predatory male…

  • barracuda (fish)

    Barracuda, any of about 20 species of predacious fishes of the family Sphyraenidae (order Perciformes). Barracudas are found in all warm and tropical regions; some also range into more temperate areas. Swift and powerful, they are slender in form, with small scales, two well-separated dorsal fins,

  • Barracuda (French submarine class)

    submarine: Attack submarines: …era with plans for the Barracuda class, six submarines displacing some 4,000 tons at the surface and carrying land-attack cruise missiles and advanced electronic surveillance equipment as well as the usual torpedoes and antiship Exocets. Construction of the first Barracuda submarine began in 2007.

  • barracudina (fish)

    Barracudina, any of about 50 species of marine fishes of the family Paralepididae, found almost worldwide in deep waters. Barracudinas are long-bodied, slender fishes with large eyes, pointed snouts, and large mouths provided with both small and larger, fanglike teeth. Barracudinas grow to about

  • Barragán, Luis (Mexican architect)

    Luis Barragán, Mexican engineer and architect whose serene and evocative houses, gardens, plazas, and fountains won him the Pritzker Prize in 1980. Barragán, who was born into a wealthy family, grew up on a ranch near Guadalajara, Mex. He attended the Escuela Libre de Ingenieros (Free School of

  • Barrage contre le Pacifique, Un (film by Panh [2008])

    Isabelle Huppert: Versatility in the 1990s and 2000s: …Barrage contre le Pacifique (2008; The Sea Wall), an adaptation of Marguerite Duras’s novel of the same name. She was at the centre of another exploration of colonialism’s effects in White Material (2009), in which she portrayed a French farmer defending her coffee plantation from rebels in an unnamed African…

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