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  • Barrage contre le Pacifique, Un (work by Duras)

    Marguerite Duras: …Barrage contre le Pacifique (1950; The Sea Wall), her third published novel and first success, dealt semiautobiographically with a poor French family in Indochina. Her next successes, Le Marin de Gibraltar (1952; The Sailor from Gibraltar) and Moderato cantabile (1958), were more lyrical and complex and more given to dialogue.

  • barrage rocket (weapon)

    rocket and missile system: Barrage rockets: The Germans began the war with a lead in this category of weapon, and their 150-millimetre and 210-millimetre bombardment rockets were highly effective. These were fired from a variety of towed and vehicle-mounted multitube launchers, from launching rails on the sides of armoured…

  • Barraigh (island, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Barra, Atlantic island of the Outer Hebrides group, Western Isles council area, historic county of Inverness-shire, Scotland, about 5 miles (8 km) southwest of the neighbouring island of South Uist. Formed of gneiss, it is about 10 miles (16 km) long and, with its neighbouring islets, covers about

  • Barrakee Mystery, The (novel by Upfield)

    Arthur William Upfield: …the colourful Australian landscape, include The Barrakee Mystery (1929), in which Bonaparte first appeared; Murder Down Under (1943); and The Body at Madman’s Bend (1963). Upfield also wrote serious newspaper and magazine articles on Australian topography and history, as well as short stories.

  • Barrakunda Falls (waterfalls, The Gambia-Senegal)

    Barra Kunda Falls, waterfalls located 300 miles (480 km) upstream from the mouth of the Gambia River, on the northeastern border of The Gambia and Senegal. They are formed by a ledge of rock stretching 200 feet (60 metres) across the river. The river is tidal up to the rapids, which are navigable

  • Barran, John (British inventor)

    clothing and footwear industry: History: It was invented by John Barran of Leeds, the founder of the Leeds clothing industry, who substituted a knife edge for the saw edge of a woodworking machine. The resulting increased cutting productivity motivated the development of spreading machines to spread fabric from long bolts in lays composed of…

  • barranca (geology)

    Mexico: Physiographic regions: …a series of gorges, or barrancas, the most spectacular of which is the complex known as Copper Canyon (Barranca del Cobre) in southwestern Chihuahua state.

  • Barranca de Cobre (canyon, Mexico)

    Chihuahua: Copper Canyon (Barranca del Cobre), in the western part of the state, reaches depths of 4,600 feet (1,400 metres) in places. It is larger and more spectacular than the Grand Canyon but is virtually inaccessible, though a railway traverses part of it. Among the other…

  • Barrancabermeja (Colombia)

    Barrancabermeja, city, Santander departamento, north-central Colombia, on the Magdalena River. In 1536 a Spanish conquistador, Gonzalo Jiménez de Quezada, discovered the wooden-stockaded Indian settlement of La Tora. The Spaniards eventually renamed it Barrancas-Bermejas (Reddish Cliffs) after the

  • Barranco (Peru)

    Barranco, city in the southern portion of the Lima–Callao metropolitan area, Peru. It lies along the Pacific coast at an elevation of 213 feet (65 m) above sea level. Founded as a village beach resort in 1874, it became a town in 1893 and a city in 1901. In 1881, during the War of the Pacific, it

  • Barrande, Joachim (French geologist)

    Joachim Barrande, geologist and paleontologist whose studies of the fossil strata of Bohemia revealed the abundance and rich variety of life in the Early Paleozoic era (the Paleozoic lasted from 540 million to 245 million years ago). The tutor of the grandson of Charles X, the king of France, he

  • Barranquilla (Colombia)

    Barranquilla, capital of Atlántico departamento, northwestern Colombia. It is situated in the Caribbean lowlands, 15 miles (24 km) upstream from the mouth of the Magdalena River, and is Colombia’s largest port along the Caribbean Sea. Founded in 1629, it remained unimportant until the construction

  • Barraqué, Jean (French composer)

    Jean Barraqué, French composer. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire with Jean Langlais (1907–91) and Olivier Messiaen. His major work, employing a radically nonrepetitive style, was a planned five-part reflection on Hermann Broch’s novel The Death of Virgil, of which he completed three parts— . .

  • Barras, Paul-Fran?ois-Jean-Nicolas, vicomte de (French revolutionary)

    Paul-Fran?ois-Jean-Nicolas, vicomte de Barras, one of the most powerful members of the Directory during the French Revolution. A Proven?al nobleman, Barras volunteered as gentleman cadet in the regiment of Languedoc at the age of 16 and from 1776 to 1783 served in India. A period of unemployment in

  • Barrasso, John (United States senator)

    John Barrasso, American politician who was appointed as a Republican to the U.S. Senate from Wyoming in 2007 and won a special election to that body the following year. Barrasso attended Georgetown University, from which he earned a Bachelor of Science degree (1974) and a doctorate in medicine

  • Barrault, Jean-Louis (French actor and director)

    Jean-Louis Barrault, French actor, director, and producer whose work with both avant-garde and classic plays helped revive French theatre after World War II. Barrault, a student of Charles Dullin, first appeared on the stage as a servant in Dullin’s production of Volpone (1931). Barrault also

  • barre (plateau region)

    Benin: Relief: …the coastal region extends the barre country—the word being a French adaptation of the Portuguese word barro (“clay”). A fertile plateau, the barre region contains the Lama Marsh, a vast swampy area stretching from Abomey to Allada. The landscape is generally flat, although occasional hills occur, rising to about 1,300…

  • barre (ballet)

    Barre, in ballet, the horizontal handrail, usually wooden, that is fixed to the walls of a ballet studio approximately 3.5 feet (1 m) from the floor. It is used by dancers as an aid to confidence and as a point of support during the preliminary exercises (“barre work”) that have been an essential

  • Barre (Vermont, United States)

    Barre, city, Washington county, central Vermont, U.S. It lies just southeast of Montpelier, the state capital. The area, settled about 1788, was organized as a town (township) in 1793 under the name of Wildersburgh but was soon renamed for Barre, Massachusetts. The city was set off and incorporated

  • Barre des écrins (mountain, France)

    écrins National Park: …encompasses the Alpine peaks of Barre des écrins (13,457 feet [4,102 m]), La Meije (13,067 feet [3,983 m]), Ailefroide, and Pelvoux, as well as numerous lakes, cirques, and gorges. Forests of larch cover the park. Rarer plants include lady’s slipper orchids, orange lilies, and martagon lilies. Mountain hares and foxes,…

  • Barre, Maxamed Siyaad (president of Somalia)

    Mohamed Siad Barre, president of Somalia who held dictatorial rule over the country from October 1969, when he led a bloodless military coup against the elected government, until January 1991, when he was overthrown in a bloody civil war. Siad was born about 1919 (or earlier) into a nomadic family

  • Barre, Raymond (prime minister of France)

    Raymond Barre, economist and politician who served as prime minister of France (1976–81). Barre completed his early schooling in Réunion and then moved to Paris, where he studied law, economics, and politics at the faculty of law of the University of Paris and at the Institut d’études Politiques

  • Barré-Sinoussi, Fran?oise (French virologist)

    Fran?oise Barré-Sinoussi, French virologist who was a corecipient, with Luc Montagnier and Harald zur Hausen, of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. She and Montagnier shared half the prize for their work in identifying the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired

  • barred button quail (bird)

    button quail: In the barred, or common, button quail (T. suscitator) of India and eastward, females are black-throated in breeding season. The northernmost species, ranging from India to Manchuria, is T. tanki, called yellow-legged, Indian, or Chinese button quail.

  • barred owl (bird)

    wood owl: The barred owl (Strix varia) of eastern North America has an overall barred pattern in brown and white. It is about 40 to 50 cm (1.3 to 1.7 feet) long.

  • barred pickerel (fish)

    pickerel: The species E. americanus consists of two subspecies: the redfin pickerel (E. americanus americanus) and the grass pickerel (E. americanus vermiculatus). This species reaches a maximum weight of about 0.5 kg (1.1 pounds). See also pike.

  • barred Spanish mackerel (fish)

    mackerel: …several species, among them: the barred Spanish mackerel (S. commerson), an Indo-Pacific fish said to weigh up to 45 kg (100 pounds); the king mackerel, or kingfish (S. cavalla), a western Atlantic fish about 170 cm long and weighing 36 kg or more; and the cero, or painted mackerel (S.…

  • barred spiral galaxy (astronomy)

    galaxy: SB galaxies: …spectra, and distributions of the barred spirals tend to be indistinguishable from those of normal spirals. The subclasses of SB systems exist in parallel sequence to those of the latter.

  • barred surfperch (fish)

    surfperch: The barred surfperch (Amphistichus argenteus), marked with yellow stripes, is one of several species favoured by anglers.

  • barred woodcreeper (bird)

    woodcreeper: A typical form is the barred woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes certhia), of southern Mexico to northern Brazil; it is 28 cm (11 inches) long, is heavy-billed, and has scalloped black markings. Xiphorhynchus woodcreepers, such as the ivory-billed woodcreeper (X. flavigaster) of Central America, are among the more prominently streaked woodcreepers. Like others…

  • barred wren-warbler (bird)

    wren-warbler: An example is the barred wren-warbler (C. fasciolatus) of south-central Africa, which sews its nest like a tailorbird.

  • Barreda, Gabino (Mexican educational reformer)

    Mexico: The restored republic: …a national educational system to Gabino Barreda, a follower of the French thinker Auguste Comte, who had said that the human mind and society passed through three successive stages—religious, metaphysical, and positive. Known as positivists, Barreda and his followers contended that La Reforma, by displacing the church and militarism, had…

  • barrel (metallurgy)

    iron processing: Structure: …short vertical section called the bosh parallel, or the barrel, connects the bosh to the truncated upright cone that is the stack. Finally, the fifth and topmost section, through which the charge enters the furnace, is the throat. The lining in the bosh and hearth, where the highest temperatures occur,…

  • barrel (measurement)

    Barrel, unit of both liquid and dry measure in the British Imperial and United States Customary systems, ranging from 31.5 to 42 gallons for liquids and fixed at 7,056 cubic inches (105 dry quarts, or 115.63 litres) for most fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities. The cranberry barrel,

  • barrel (firearms)

    rifle: …spiral grooves cut inside the barrel to impart a spin to the projectile, thus stabilizing it in flight. A rifled barrel imparts much greater accuracy to a projectile, as compared with a smoothbore barrel. The name rifle, most often applied to a weapon fired from the shoulder, may also denote…

  • barrel (container)

    Barrel, large, bulging cylindrical container of sturdy construction traditionally made from wooden staves and wooden or metal hoops. The term is also a unit of volume measure, specifically 31 gallons of a fermented or distilled beverage, or 42 gallons of a petroleum product. According to the

  • barrel (clothing)

    dress: Europe, 1500–1800: …as a bum roll or barrel, which was tied around the waist under the skirt. Later the French introduced the wheel farthingale, which was drum-shaped with radiating spokes on top. The gown neckline became very décolleté, almost displaying the breasts. From the 1570s to the 1770s a stomacher—a stiff, V-…

  • barrel cactus (plant)

    Barrel cactus, name for a group of more or less barrel-shaped cacti (family Cactaceae) native to North and South America. It is most often used for two large-stemmed North American genera, Ferocactus and Echinocactus. Various other barrel cacti include members of the genera Astrophytum, Echinopsis,

  • barrel distortion (optics)

    aberration: …be present in a lens: barrel distortion, in which magnification decreases with distance from the axis, and pincushion distortion, in which magnification increases with distance from the axis.

  • barrel drum (musical instrument)

    drum: Barrel and shallow-nailed drums are particularly associated with India and East Asia; notable are the taiko drums of Japan, made in various sizes and with nailed or rope-lashed heads.

  • Barrel Fever (work by Sedaris)

    David Sedaris: His first book, Barrel Fever, which included “The SantaLand Diaries,” was published in 1994. Naked (1997) included a portrait of his wisecracking perspicacious mother. In Me Talk Pretty One Day (2000), Sedaris anatomized failed attempts at communication. In 2001 he was awarded the Thurber Prize for American Humor.

  • barrel organ (musical instrument)

    Barrel organ, musical instrument in which a pinned barrel turned by a handle raises levers, admitting wind to one or more ranks of organ pipes; the handle simultaneously actuates the bellows. Ten or more tunes can be set on one barrel. Barrel organs are valuable because they preserve old styles of

  • barrel piano (musical instrument)

    Barrel piano, stringed musical instrument (chordophone) in which a simple pianoforte action is worked by a pinned barrel turned with a crank, rather than by a keyboard mechanism. It is associated primarily with street musicians and is believed to have been developed in London early in the 19th

  • barrel vault (architecture)

    Barrel vault, ceiling or roof consisting of a series of semicylindrical arches. See

  • barrel-eye (fish)

    Spookfish, any of about 11 species of small marine fishes constituting the family Opisthoproctidae (order Salmoniformes), with representatives in each of the major oceans. The name spookfish, or barreleye, as they are sometimes called, originates from their unusual eyes, which are pointed upward

  • barrel-eye fish (fish)

    Spookfish, any of about 11 species of small marine fishes constituting the family Opisthoproctidae (order Salmoniformes), with representatives in each of the major oceans. The name spookfish, or barreleye, as they are sometimes called, originates from their unusual eyes, which are pointed upward

  • barrel-eye fish (fish)

    spookfish: The barreleye (Macropinna microstoma), a spookfish of the Pacific, occurs along the North American coast. It is less than 10 cm (4 inches) in length and brownish in colour.

  • barreleye (fish)

    spookfish: The barreleye (Macropinna microstoma), a spookfish of the Pacific, occurs along the North American coast. It is less than 10 cm (4 inches) in length and brownish in colour.

  • Barrell, Joseph (American geologist)

    Joseph Barrell, geologist who proposed that sedimentary rocks were produced by the action of rivers, winds, and ice (continental), as well as by marine sedimentation. Barrell worked with the United States Geological Survey in 1901 in Montana, where he conducted studies of the Marysville mining

  • Barremian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Barremian Stage, fourth of six main divisions (in ascending order) in the Lower Cretaceous Series, representing rocks deposited worldwide during the Barremian Age, which occurred 129.4 million to 125 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period. Rocks of the Barremian Stage overlie those of the

  • Barren Ground (work by Glasgow)

    Ellen Glasgow: Genuine critical success came with Barren Ground (1925), which had a grimly tragic theme set in rural Virginia, as did the later Vein of Iron (1935). With a brilliant and increasingly ironic treatment, Glasgow examined the decay of Southern aristocracy and the trauma of the encroachment of modern industrial civilization…

  • Barren Grounds (region, Canada)

    Barren Grounds, vast subarctic prairie (tundra) region of northern mainland Canada, lying principally in the territory of Nunavut but also including the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. It extends westward from Hudson Bay to the Great Slave and Great Bear lakes, northward to the Arctic

  • Barren Lands (region, Canada)

    Barren Grounds, vast subarctic prairie (tundra) region of northern mainland Canada, lying principally in the territory of Nunavut but also including the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. It extends westward from Hudson Bay to the Great Slave and Great Bear lakes, northward to the Arctic

  • Barren Lives (novel by Ramos)

    Graciliano Ramos: …read novel, Vidas sêcas (Barren Lives), a story of a peasant family’s flight from drought. His Memórias do cárcere (1953; “Prison Memoirs”) was published posthumously.

  • barrens (regional habitat, Illinois, United States)

    conservation: Habitat restoration: The original habitats locally called barrens constituted a visually striking and ecologically special habitat. Restoring them was a particular challenge, and the main conservation problem was finding the right mix of species. One recommendation was to use remnant barrens as models, but the North Branch volunteers rejected them as being…

  • Barrens, the (region, Kentucky, United States)

    Kentucky: Relief: …an area once known as the Barrens—in reference to a condition caused by the continuous burning off of forest cover by the local population to make grasslands for deer and buffalo. Most notably, it is a region of caves. Abundant waters, both surface and underground, and the limestones deposited during…

  • Barrera, Carlos Arniches y (Spanish dramatist)

    Carlos Arniches, popular Spanish dramatist of the early 20th century, best known for works in the género chico (“lesser genre”): the one-act zarzuela (musical comedy) and the one-act sainete (sketch). These plays were based upon direct observation of the customs and speech of the lower-class people

  • Barrera, Marco Antonio (Mexican boxer)

    Manny Pacquiao: …defenses, he knocked out Mexico’s Marco Antonio Barrera on November 15, 2003, to become The Ring magazine featherweight champion.

  • barres (game)

    Prisoner’s base, children’s game in which players of one team seek to tag and imprison players of the other team who venture out of their home territory, or base. Under the name of barres, this game is mentioned in 14th-century French writings and may have been one of the most popular games in

  • Barrès, Auguste-Maurice (French author and politician)

    Maurice Barrès, French writer and politician, influential through his individualism and fervent nationalism. After completing his secondary studies at the Nancy lycée, Barrès went to Paris to study law but instead turned to literature. Then he embarked on a solitary project of self-analysis,

  • Barrès, Maurice (French author and politician)

    Maurice Barrès, French writer and politician, influential through his individualism and fervent nationalism. After completing his secondary studies at the Nancy lycée, Barrès went to Paris to study law but instead turned to literature. Then he embarked on a solitary project of self-analysis,

  • Barreto, Afonso Henriques de Lima (Brazilian author)

    Afonso Henriques de Lima Barreto, Brazilian novelist, journalist, short-story writer, and an aggressive social critic, who re-created in caricatural fashion the city and society of Rio de Janeiro at the turn of the century. Lima Barreto was an active journalist throughout his adult life. His often

  • Barreto, Francisco (Portuguese soldier)

    Francisco Barreto, Portuguese soldier and explorer. Barreto served in the East Indies, was governor of Portuguese India, and was probably instrumental in exiling Luís de Cam?es to Macau after the poet had published criticisms of Portuguese administration in India. In 1569 Barreto was entrusted by

  • Barretos (Brazil)

    Barretos, city, north-central S?o Paulo estado (state), Brazil. It lies near the Pardo River at 1,713 feet (522 metres) above sea level. Known at various times as Amaral dos Barretos, Espírito Santo de Barreto, and Espírito Santo dos Barretos, the settlement was given town status and was made the

  • Barrett Company (American company)

    AlliedSignal: …of several chemical manufacturers; the Barrett Company (founded 1903), supplying coal-tar chemicals and roofing; General Chemical Company (founded 1899), specializing in industrial acids; National Aniline &amp; Chemical Company (founded 1917), producing dyes; Semet-Solvay Company (founded 1894), manufacturing coke and its by-products; and Solvay Process Company (founded 1881),

  • Barrett esophagus (pathology)

    esophageal cancer: Causes and symptoms: …lead to a condition called Barrett’s esophagus, in which the normal squamous cells that line the esophagus are replaced with glandular cells; this condition increases cancer risk. Rare disorders such as tylosis, achalasia, and Plummer-Vinson syndrome are also risk factors.

  • Barrett’s esophagus (pathology)

    esophageal cancer: Causes and symptoms: …lead to a condition called Barrett’s esophagus, in which the normal squamous cells that line the esophagus are replaced with glandular cells; this condition increases cancer risk. Rare disorders such as tylosis, achalasia, and Plummer-Vinson syndrome are also risk factors.

  • Barrett, Colleen (American executive)

    Southwest Airlines Co.: …(2001) of a new president, Colleen Barrett, the first female to serve as president of a major airline; new initiatives such as self-service check-in kiosks (2002) and online boarding passes (2004); and cost-saving measures such as flight cuts and employee buyouts. The airline also participated in the television reality show…

  • Barrett, Craig (American businessman)

    Intel: Expansion and other developments: Craig Barrett, who succeeded Grove as Intel CEO in 1998, was able to close that gap. In 2005 Apple CEO Steven Jobs shocked the industry when he announced future Apple PCs would use Intel CPUs. Therefore, with the exception of some high-performance computers, called servers,…

  • Barrett, Elizabeth (English poet)

    Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet whose reputation rests chiefly upon her love poems, Sonnets from the Portuguese and Aurora Leigh, the latter now considered an early feminist text. Her husband was Robert Browning. Elizabeth was the eldest child of Edward Barrett Moulton (later Edward

  • Barrett, Janie Porter (American welfare worker and educator)

    Janie Porter Barrett, American welfare worker and educator who developed a school to rehabilitate previously incarcerated African-American girls by improving their self-reliance and discipline. The daughter of former slaves, Barrett grew up largely in the home of the cultured white family who

  • Barrett, Kate Harwood Waller (American physician)

    Kate Harwood Waller Barrett, American physician who directed the rescue-home movement for unwed mothers in the United States. Barrett became interested in the issue of prostitution while helping her husband, Robert S. Barrett, a minister whom she married in 1876. She earned an M.D. from the Women’s

  • Barrett, Lawrence (American actor)

    Lawrence Barrett, one of the leading American actors of the 19th century, especially noted for his Shakespearean interpretations. He made his stage debut at age 15 in Detroit in J. Talbot Haines’s French Spy, and on Jan. 20, 1857, he first appeared in New York City at Burton’s Chambers Street

  • Barrett, Roger Keith (British musician)

    Syd Barrett, (Roger Keith Barrett), British singer-songwriter and guitarist (born Jan. 6, 1946, Cambridge, Eng.—died July 7, 2006, Cambridge), was the original creative force behind the rock group Pink Floyd. Barrett provided the band’s name (an amalgam of American bluesmen Pink Anderson and F

  • Barrett, Syd (British musician)

    Syd Barrett, (Roger Keith Barrett), British singer-songwriter and guitarist (born Jan. 6, 1946, Cambridge, Eng.—died July 7, 2006, Cambridge), was the original creative force behind the rock group Pink Floyd. Barrett provided the band’s name (an amalgam of American bluesmen Pink Anderson and F

  • Barretto, Ray (American percussionist and bandleader)

    Ray Barretto, (Raymond Barretto), American percussionist and bandleader (born April 29, 1929, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 17, 2006, Hackensack, N.J.), played conga drums on jazz albums and in Latin bands before he became one of the most popular bandleaders in salsa music. His strong sound and r

  • Barretto, Raymond (American percussionist and bandleader)

    Ray Barretto, (Raymond Barretto), American percussionist and bandleader (born April 29, 1929, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 17, 2006, Hackensack, N.J.), played conga drums on jazz albums and in Latin bands before he became one of the most popular bandleaders in salsa music. His strong sound and r

  • Barretts of Wimpole Street, The (film by Franklin [1934])

    Sidney Franklin: The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934) was a lavishly mounted account of the love affair between poets Elizabeth Barrett (Shearer, Academy Award-nominated) and Robert Browning (Fredric March). Less successful was The Dark Angel (1935), a love-triangle melodrama set during and after World War I.

  • Barri, Gerald de (Welsh clergyman)

    Giraldus Cambrensis, archdeacon of Brecknock, Brecknockshire (1175–1204), and historian, whose accounts of life in the late 12th century stand as a valuable historical source. His works contain vivid anecdotes about the Christian church, particularly in Wales, about the growing universities of

  • Barricades in West Hampstead (poetry by Kops)

    Bernard Kops: Barricades in West Hampstead (1988) and Love, Death and Other Joys (2018) were among Kops’s many collections of poetry.

  • Barricades, Day of the (French history)

    France: The Wars of Religion: …in 1588, on the famous Day of the Barricades (May 12), Henry III was driven from his own capital. In a welter of intrigue and murder, first the duc de Guise (December 1588) and his brother Louis II de Lorraine, 2e cardinal de Guise (December 1588), and then Henry III…

  • Barrie (Ontario, Canada)

    Barrie, city, seat (1837) of Simcoe county, southeastern Ontario, Canada. It lies along Kempenfelt Bay, an arm of Lake Simcoe, 55 miles (90 km) north-northwest of Toronto. In 1812 a storehouse was probably built on the site, which during the War of 1812 was the landing and starting point of the

  • Barrie, J. M. (Scottish author)

    J.M. Barrie, Scottish dramatist and novelist who is best known as the creator of Peter Pan, the boy who refused to grow up. The son of a weaver, Barrie never recovered from the shock he received at six from a brother’s death and its grievous effect on his mother, who dominated his childhood and

  • Barrie, Sir James Matthew, 1st Baronet (Scottish author)

    J.M. Barrie, Scottish dramatist and novelist who is best known as the creator of Peter Pan, the boy who refused to grow up. The son of a weaver, Barrie never recovered from the shock he received at six from a brother’s death and its grievous effect on his mother, who dominated his childhood and

  • Barrientos, René (Bolivian general)

    Bolivia: Return to military rule: …masses, the vice president, General René Barrientos, seized the government and proceeded to dissolve most of the organized labour opposition, marking the beginning of a string of military leaders. From 1964 until his death in 1969, Barrientos continued with the process of conservative economic reform and political retrenchment, and he…

  • barrier bar (geology)

    sandbar: Barrier bars or beaches are exposed sandbars that may have formed during the period of high-water level of a storm or during the high-tide season. During a period of lower mean sea level they become emergent and are built up by swash and wind-carried sand;…

  • barrier beach (geology)

    sandbar: Barrier bars or beaches are exposed sandbars that may have formed during the period of high-water level of a storm or during the high-tide season. During a period of lower mean sea level they become emergent and are built up by swash and wind-carried sand;…

  • barrier island (geology)

    coastal landforms: Barrier island/estuarine systems: …of the estuaries are elongate barrier islands that generally parallel the shore. Consisting mostly of sand, they are formed primarily by waves and longshore currents. These barrier islands are typically separated from the mainland and may have lagoons, which are long, narrow, coastal bodies of water situated between the barrier…

  • barrier island lagoon

    lagoon: Barrier island lagoons: Barrier island, or coastal, lagoons are characterized by quiet water conditions, fine-grained sedimentation, and, in many cases, brackish marshes. Water movements are related to discharge of river flow through the lagoon and to the regular influx and egress of tidal waters through…

  • barrier method, multiple sequential (waste disposal)

    materials science: Radioactive waste: …plan is to interpose three barriers between the waste and human beings by first encapsulating it in a solid material, putting that in a metal container, and finally burying that container in geologically stable formations. The first step requires an inert, stable material that will hold the radioactive atoms trapped…

  • barrier penetration (physics)

    Tunneling, in physics, passage of minute particles through seemingly impassable force barriers. The phenomenon first drew attention in the case of alpha decay, in which alpha particles (nuclei of helium atoms) escape from certain radioactive atomic nuclei. Because nuclear constituents are held

  • barrier reef (geology)

    Barrier reef, a coral reef (q.v.) roughly parallel to a shore and separated from it by a lagoon or other body of water. A barrier reef is usually pierced by several channels that give access to the lagoon and the island or continent beyond

  • barrier separation (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Separations based on rates: …used as the basis of separation. If a vessel is divided in half by a porous membrane, and a solution of different proteins is placed in one section and pure water in the other, some of the proteins will be able to diffuse freely through the membrane, while others will…

  • Barrier Treaties (European history)

    Barrier Treaties, three treaties negotiated between 1709 and 1715 granting the United Provinces of the Netherlands (the Dutch republic) the right to garrison and govern certain towns along the southern boundary of the Spanish (subsequently the Austrian) Netherlands as protection against attack by

  • Barrier, Fannie (American civic leader and lecturer)

    Fannie Barrier Williams, American social reformer, lecturer, clubwoman, and cofounder of the National League of Colored Women. Williams graduated from the local State Normal School (now the State University of New York College at Brockport) in 1870. Thereafter she taught in freedmen’s schools at

  • barrier-layer capacitor (electronics)

    capacitor dielectric and piezoelectric ceramics: Barrier-layer capacitors: Two other strategies to produce ceramic materials with high dielectric constants involve surface barrier layers or grain-boundary barrier layers; these are referred to as barrier-layer (BL) capacitors. In each case conductive films or grain cores are formed by donor doping or reduction firing…

  • Barrière de la Villette (building, Paris, France)

    Western architecture: France: The Barrière de la Villette, consisting of a tall cylinder rising out of a low square block with porticoes of heavy, square Doric piers, exhibits all the essentials of the style: megalomania, geometry, simplicity, antique detail, formalism, and stylophily (use of many columns). Even more inventive…

  • barriers to entry (economics)

    Barriers to entry, in economics, obstacles that make it difficult for a firm to enter a given market. They may arise naturally because of the characteristics of the market, or they may be artificially imposed by firms already operating in the market or by the government. Natural barriers to entry

  • Barriers, Treaty of the (Europe [1715])

    Austrian Netherlands: The Treaty of Antwerp (also known as the Treaty of the Barriers, 1715) further provided that the Austrian administration of the southern Low Countries would remain essentially unchanged from the Spanish rule; the official organ of the region was simply transferred from Madrid to Vienna. As…

  • Barrin, Roland-Michel (commandant-general of New France)

    Roland-Michel Barrin, marquis de La Galissonnière, mariner and commandant general of New France. La Galissonnière was the son of a naval lieutenant-general and studied at the College of Beauvais in Paris. He became a midshipman in the French navy in 1710 and, in the following year, made the first

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