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  • Bartoletti, Bruno (Italian maestro)

    Bruno Bartoletti, Italian maestro (born June 10, 1926, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy—died June 9, 2013, Florence, Italy), took Lyric Opera of Chicago to new heights as its brilliant and innovative artistic director. Bartoletti’s sensitivity and musicality, combined with his appreciation for contemporary

  • Bartoli, Cecilia (Italian singer)

    Cecilia Bartoli, Italian operatic mezzo-soprano who achieved global stardom with her outstanding vocal skills and captivating stage presence. Both of Bartoli’s parents were members of the Rome Opera chorus, and she joked that when she was a child, her babysitters were the likes of Rossini and

  • Bartoli, Daniello (Italian historian)

    Daniello Bartoli, Jesuit historian and humanist who ranked among classic Italian writers. Bartoli entered the Society of Jesus in 1623 and wrote the well-known and frequently translated L’uomo di lettere difeso ed emendato (1645; The Learned Man Defended and Reformed). In addition to writing a

  • Bartoli, Matteo Giulio (Italian linguist)

    Matteo Giulio Bartoli, linguist who emphasized the geographic spread of linguistic changes and their interpretation in terms of history and culture. Having obtained his doctorate at the University of Vienna, Bartoli in 1907 became professor at the University of Turin, where he remained until his

  • Bartolini, Lorenzo (Italian sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Relation to the Baroque and the Rococo: The Tuscan sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini executed some important Napoleonic commissions. The “Charity” (Pitti Palace, Florence) is one of the more famous examples of his later Neoclassicism. It should be noted, however, that he did not see himself as a Neoclassical artist and that he challenged the idealism that…

  • Bartolo da Sassoferrato (Italian jurist)

    Bartolus of Saxoferrato, lawyer, law teacher at Perugia, and chief among the postglossators, or commentators, a group of northern Italian jurists who, from the mid-14th century, wrote on the Roman (civil) law. Their predecessors, the glossators, had worked at Bologna from about 1125. Bartolus

  • Bartolo, Andrea di (Italian painter)

    Andrea del Castagno, one of the most influential 15th-century Italian Renaissance painters, best known for the emotional power and naturalistic treatment of figures in his work. Little is known of Castagno’s early life, and it is also difficult to ascertain the stages of his artistic development

  • Bartolomeo della Porta (Italian painter)

    Fra Bartolommeo, painter who was a prominent exponent in early 16th-century Florence of the High Renaissance style. Bartolommeo served as an apprentice in the workshop of Cosimo Rosselli and then formed a workshop with the painter Mariotto Albertinelli. His early works, such as the Annunciation

  • Bartolomeo, Fra (Italian painter)

    Fra Bartolommeo, painter who was a prominent exponent in early 16th-century Florence of the High Renaissance style. Bartolommeo served as an apprentice in the workshop of Cosimo Rosselli and then formed a workshop with the painter Mariotto Albertinelli. His early works, such as the Annunciation

  • Bartolommeo, Fra (Italian painter)

    Fra Bartolommeo, painter who was a prominent exponent in early 16th-century Florence of the High Renaissance style. Bartolommeo served as an apprentice in the workshop of Cosimo Rosselli and then formed a workshop with the painter Mariotto Albertinelli. His early works, such as the Annunciation

  • Bartolommeo, Michelozzo di (Italian artist)

    Michelozzo, architect and sculptor, notable in the development of Florentine Renaissance architecture. Michelozzo studied with the celebrated sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti, in whose workshop he acquired the skills of a bronze founder. After 1420 they collaborated on the “St. Matthew” for the church of

  • Bartolozzi, Francesco (Italian engraver)

    Francesco Bartolozzi, Florentine engraver in the service of George III of England. Bartolozzi, the son of a goldsmith, studied painting in Florence, trained as an engraver in Venice, and began his career in Rome. In 1764 he was invited to London, where he remained for 40 years. For his patron,

  • Bartolozzi, Lucia Elizabetta (British actress and manager)

    Madame Vestris, British actress, opera singer, and manager who inaugurated tasteful and beautiful stage decor and set a standard in stage costumes. After a brief unsuccessful marriage to Auguste-Armand Vestris, a ballet dancer, Mme Vestris first appeared in Italian opera in 1815 and enjoyed

  • Bartolus of Saxoferrato (Italian jurist)

    Bartolus of Saxoferrato, lawyer, law teacher at Perugia, and chief among the postglossators, or commentators, a group of northern Italian jurists who, from the mid-14th century, wrote on the Roman (civil) law. Their predecessors, the glossators, had worked at Bologna from about 1125. Bartolus

  • Barton Aqueduct (aqueduct, England, United Kingdom)

    James Brindley: …into the mines, and the Barton Aqueduct, which carried the canal over the River Irwell.

  • Barton Beds (geological feature, Great Britain, United Kingdom)

    Bartonian Stage: …stage is derived from the Barton Beds found between Highcliffe and Milford-on-Sea in Hampshire, England. The Bartonian is underlain by the Lutetian Stage and overlain by the Priabonian Stage.

  • Barton Fink (film by Joel and Ethan Coen [1991])

    Coen brothers: Barton Fink, about an edgy, neurotic would-be writer, claimed the best picture, best director, and best actor awards at the 1991 Cannes film festival, the first such sweep in the event’s history.

  • Barton reaction (chemical reaction)

    Sir Derek H.R. Barton: Conformational analysis: …is now known as the Barton reaction, a photochemical process that provided an easier means of synthesizing aldosterone. The project was a tremendous success, and Barton maintained a consulting relationship with Schering for the next 40 years. Barton’s scientific work flourished, too, as he successfully expanded his research agenda in…

  • Barton, Blanche (American religious leader)

    Church of Satan: In 1997, following LaVey’s death, Blanche Barton became the leader of the church.

  • Barton, Clara (American humanitarian)

    Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross. Barton was educated at home and began teaching at age 15. She attended the Liberal Institute at Clinton, N.Y. (1850–51). In 1852 in Bordentown, N.J., she established a free school that soon became so large that the townsmen would no longer allow a

  • Barton, Clarissa Harlowe (American humanitarian)

    Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross. Barton was educated at home and began teaching at age 15. She attended the Liberal Institute at Clinton, N.Y. (1850–51). In 1852 in Bordentown, N.J., she established a free school that soon became so large that the townsmen would no longer allow a

  • Barton, Elizabeth (English ecstatic)

    Elizabeth Barton, English ecstatic whose outspoken prophecies aroused public opinion over the matrimonial policy of King Henry VIII and led to her execution. A domestic servant on the estate of William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, she fell ill and about 1525 began to experience trances and to

  • Barton, Enos N. (American businessman)

    Western Electric Company Inc.: …the founders, Elisha Gray and Enos N. Barton, moved the firm to Chicago. By 1872, when it was incorporated as the Western Electric Manufacturing Company, it was beginning its successful career of manufacturing a number of new inventions, including the world’s first commercial typewriters and incandescent lamps.

  • Barton, Frances (British actress)

    Fanny Abington, English actress admired both for her craft and for her leadership in fashion. She was at first a flower girl, hence her later nickname, Nosegay Fan, and a street singer. Employment by a French milliner gave her taste in dress and a knowledge of French that she later found useful.

  • Barton, Otis (American oceanic explorer and engineer)

    William Beebe: …abroad and in 1934 with Otis Barton descended in his bathysphere to a then record depth of 3,028 feet (923 metres) in Bermuda waters. A noted lecturer, he received numerous prizes and honours for scientific research and for his books, both technical and popular. His books include Jungle Days (1925),…

  • Barton, Richard N. (American entrepreneur)

    Richard Barton, American entrepreneur who created the do-it-yourself websites Expedia.com and Zillow.com. Barton graduated from Stanford University in 1989 with a degree in industrial design. In 1991 he joined Microsoft, Inc., where he served as a product manager for MS-DOS and, later, the Windows

  • Barton, Sir Derek H. R. (British chemist)

    Sir Derek H.R. Barton, joint recipient, with Odd Hassel of Norway, of the 1969 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on “conformational analysis,” the study of the three-dimensional geometric structure of complex molecules, now an essential part of organic chemistry. The son and grandson of

  • Barton, Sir Derek Harold Richard (British chemist)

    Sir Derek H.R. Barton, joint recipient, with Odd Hassel of Norway, of the 1969 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on “conformational analysis,” the study of the three-dimensional geometric structure of complex molecules, now an essential part of organic chemistry. The son and grandson of

  • Barton, Sir Edmund (Australian statesman)

    Sir Edmund Barton, statesman who guided the Australian federation movement to a successful conclusion and became the first prime minister of the resulting commonwealth in 1901. Barton in 1879 entered the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, where he served as speaker (1883–87); he was attorney

  • Barton, William (American heraldist)

    Great Seal of the United States: Origin of the Great Seal: This committee sought help from William Barton, a young Philadelphian accomplished in heraldry and drawing. Barton prepared two complicated designs, the second of which the committee reported to Congress on May 9, 1782. In this design the “eagle displayed” appeared on the obverse, and the pyramid on the reverse, with…

  • Bartonella henselae (bacterium)

    cat scratch disease: …in human beings caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by a cat bite or scratch. Transmission of the bacterium from cat to cat is thought to be by the cat flea. The clinical syndrome in the infected person is usually a self-limiting enlargement of the lymph nodes not requiring…

  • bartonellosis (pathology)

    Carrión disease, rickettsial infection limited to South America, caused by the bacterium Bartonella bacilliformis of the order Rickettsiales. Carrión disease is characterized by two distinctive clinical stages: Oroya fever, an acute febrile anemia of rapid onset, bone and joint pains, a high

  • Bartonian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Bartonian Stage, third of the four divisions (in ascending order) of Eocene rocks, representing all rocks deposited worldwide during the Bartonian Age (41.3 million to 38 million years ago) of the Paleogene Period (66 million to 23 million years ago). The name of the stage is derived from the

  • Bartow (Florida, United States)

    Bartow, city, seat (1861) of Polk county, central Florida, U.S. It lies near the Peace River and Lake Hancock, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Lakeland. In 1851 the Readding Blount family built a stockade community known as Fort Blount on the site of an earlier settlement (Peas Creek). It was later

  • Bartram’s sandpiper (bird)

    sandpiper: The upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), also called Bartram’s sandpiper and, mistakenly, the upland plover, is an American bird of open fields. It is a slender, gray-streaked bird almost 30 cm long that feeds on grasshoppers and other insects.

  • Bartram, John (American naturalist)

    John Bartram, naturalist and explorer considered the “father of American botany.” Largely self-educated, Bartram was a friend of Benjamin Franklin and an original member of the American Philosophical Society. He was botanist for the American colonies to King George III. Bartram was the first North

  • Bartram, William (American naturalist, botanist, and artist)

    William Bartram, American naturalist, botanist, and artist. The son of naturalist John Bartram, he described the abundant river swamps of the southeastern United States in their primeval condition in his Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida (1791). The book was

  • Bartramia longicauda (bird)

    sandpiper: The upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), also called Bartram’s sandpiper and, mistakenly, the upland plover, is an American bird of open fields. It is a slender, gray-streaked bird almost 30 cm long that feeds on grasshoppers and other insects.

  • Bartramia pomiformis (plant)

    Apple moss, (Bartramia pomiformis), moss of the family Bartramiaceae that has apple-shaped capsules (spore cases) and forms wide deep cushions in moist rocky woods throughout the Northern Hemisphere. It is one of some 70 species in the genus Bartramia; more than 10 are found in North America. An

  • Bartter syndrome (pathology)

    Bartter syndrome, any of several rare disorders affecting the kidneys and characterized primarily by the excessive excretion of potassium in the urine. Bartter syndrome is named after American endocrinologist Frederic Bartter, who described the primary characteristics of the disorder in the early

  • Bartter, Frederic (American endocrinologist)

    Bartter syndrome: Discovery of Bartter syndrome: …is named after American endocrinologist Frederic Bartter, who described the primary characteristics of the disorder in the early 1960s. Bartter examined two patients, both of whom had potassium deficiency (hypokalemia); abnormal increases in the number of cells (hyperplasia) of the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys; and high serum concentrations of…

  • Barú (volcano, Panama)

    Panama: Relief: …peak is an inactive volcano, Barú (Chiriquí), which reaches an elevation of 11,401 feet (3,475 metres).

  • bāru (Mesopotamian priest)

    astrology: Significance of astral omens: The bāru (the official prognosticator), who observed and interpreted the celestial omina, was thus in a position to advise his royal employer on the means of avoiding misfortunes; the omens provided a basis for intelligent action rather than an indication of an inexorable fate.

  • Barua, Hemchandra (Indian playwright and lexicographer)

    Assamese literature: …language was playwright and lexicographer Hemchandra Barua’s Kaniyar Kirtan (1861; “The Revels of an Opium Eater”), about opium addiction. His plays chiefly addressed social issues. Barua also wrote Bahire Rongsong Bhitare Kowabhaturi (1861; Fair Outside and Foul Within). Probably the most outstanding among the early modern writers was Lakshminath Bezbarua…

  • Baruch (Israelite scribe)

    Jeremiah: Life and times: …soon dictated to his scribe, Baruch, a scroll containing all of the messages he had delivered to this time. The scroll was read by Baruch in the Temple. Subsequently it was read before King Jehoiakim, who cut it into pieces and burned it. Jeremiah went into hiding and dictated another…

  • Baruch Plan (United States arms control plan)

    20th-century international relations: Atomic energy: Truman entrusted the diplomatic task to Baruch, who insisted that nations not be allowed to employ their Security Council veto in atomic matters. He then appealed to the UN on June 14, 1946: “We are here to make a choice between the quick and the dead.” The Soviet plan,…

  • Baruch, Apocalypse of (pseudepigraphal work)

    Apocalypse of Baruch, a pseudepigraphal work (not in any canon of scripture), whose primary theme is whether or not God’s relationship with man is just. The book is also called The Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch because it was preserved only in the 6th-century Syriac Vulgate. It was originally

  • Baruch, Bernard (United States government official)

    Bernard Baruch, American financier who was an adviser to U.S. presidents. After graduating from the College of the City of New York in 1889, Baruch worked as an office boy in a linen business and later in Wall Street brokerage houses. Over the years he amassed a fortune as a stock market

  • Baruch, Bernard Mannes (United States government official)

    Bernard Baruch, American financier who was an adviser to U.S. presidents. After graduating from the College of the City of New York in 1889, Baruch worked as an office boy in a linen business and later in Wall Street brokerage houses. Over the years he amassed a fortune as a stock market

  • Baruch, Book of (ancient text)

    Book of Baruch, ancient text purportedly written by Baruch, secretary and friend of Jeremiah, the Old Testament prophet. The text is still extant in Greek and in several translations from Greek into Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and other languages. The Book of Baruch is apocryphal to the Hebrew

  • Baruch, Moses (German novelist)

    Berthold Auerbach, German novelist noted chiefly for his tales of village life. Auerbach prepared for the rabbinate, but, estranged from Jewish orthodoxy by the study of the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Benedict de Spinoza, he turned instead to literature. Spinoza’s life formed the basis of his

  • Baruch, Moyses (German novelist)

    Berthold Auerbach, German novelist noted chiefly for his tales of village life. Auerbach prepared for the rabbinate, but, estranged from Jewish orthodoxy by the study of the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Benedict de Spinoza, he turned instead to literature. Spinoza’s life formed the basis of his

  • Barūjird (Iran)

    Borūjerd, chief town, Borūjerd shahrestān (county), Lorestān ostān (province), western Iran. Borūjerd is situated 5,500 feet (1,700 metres) above sea level, below high mountains, in a wide, fertile valley. It is a flourishing regional centre on the main highway from the Persian Gulf and Khūzestān

  • Baruni (India)

    Baruni, town, central Bihar state, northeastern India. It lies north of the Ganges (Ganga) River and is part of the Begusarai urban agglomeration. Baruni, formerly called Jhuldabhaj, merged with Phulwaria township in 1961. It has major highway, rail, and ferry connections and is an agricultural

  • Barusco, Pedro (Brazilian business executive)

    Petrobras scandal: Pedro Barusco, a third-tier executive who reported to Renato Duque, Petrobras’s director for engineering and services, agreed to return $100 million he had stolen from the company and deposited in foreign bank accounts. The company’s former director of refining and supply, Paulo Roberto Costa, confessed…

  • Baruta (Venezuela)

    Baruta, city, northwestern Miranda estado (state), northern Venezuela. It is located in the central highlands. Formerly a commercial centre in a fertile agricultural area producing coffee, cacao, and sugarcane, the city has become a residential suburb in the Caracas metropolitan area. An expressway

  • Baruwa, Hemchandra (Indian writer)

    South Asian arts: Assamese: Assamese literature began with Hemchandra Baruwa, a satirist and playwright, author of the play Bahiri-Rang-Chang Bhitare Kowabhaturi (1861; “All That Glitters Is Not Gold”). The most outstanding among the early modern writers was Lakshminath Bezbaruwa, who founded a literary monthly, Jōnāki (“Moonlight”), in 1889, and was responsible for infusing…

  • Barwa-Sāgar (temple site, India)

    South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: North Indian style of central India: …an unidentified mother goddess at Barwa-Sāgar. The period appears to have been one of experimentation, a variety of plans and spires having been tried. The Mālā-de temple is an early example of the ?ekharī type in its formative stages; the Indore temple has a star-shaped plan; and the Barwa-Sāgar example…

  • B?rwalde, Treaty of (Europe [1631])

    France: Louis XIII: …whom he concluded the subsidy Treaty of B?rwalde in 1631, agreeing to pay the Swedish king one million livres per year to continue the war; with Gustav’s successor, Greve (count) Axel Oxenstierna; and with Bernhard, duke of Saxe-Weimar. Eventually, in 1635, Richelieu committed France to direct conflict with the Habsburgs;…

  • Barwani (India)

    Barwani, town, southwestern Madhya Pradesh state, west-central India. It is situated just south of the Narmada River, about 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Indore. Founded about 1650, the town served as capital of Barwani princely state, which merged with Madhya Bharat (now mostly in Madhya Pradesh)

  • Barwick, Sir Garfield Edward John (Australian government official)

    Sir Garfield Edward John Barwick, Australian barrister who was highly regarded for his service to the Australian government as attorney general, foreign minister, and chief justice of the High Court but whose reputation was clouded by the controversy that ensued when his advice led the

  • Bary, Heinrich Anton de (German botanist)

    Heinrich Anton de Bary, German botanist whose researches into the roles of fungi and other agents in causing plant diseases earned him distinction as a founder of modern mycology and plant pathology. A professor of botany at the universities of Freiburg im Breisgau (1855–66), Halle (1867–72), and

  • barycentre (mechanics)

    Moon: Principal characteristics of the Earth-Moon system: Called the barycentre, this point lies inside Earth about 4,700 km (2,900 miles) from its centre. Also more accurately, it is the barycentre, rather than the centre of Earth, that follows an elliptical path around the Sun in accord with Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The orbital…

  • Barycentric Dynamical Time (chronology)

    dynamical time: Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB) is a dynamical timescale whose use the IAU permits where necessary for user convenience. TDB differs from TT only by periodic terms related to the Earth’s orbit, but it is applied to a reference system at rest with respect to the…

  • barycentrische Calkul, Der (work by M?bius)

    August Ferdinand M?bius: …methods laid down in his Der barycentrische Calkul (1827; “The Calculus of Centres of Gravity”). In this work he introduced homogeneous coordinates (essentially, the extension of coordinates to include a “point at infinity”) into analytic geometry and also dealt with geometric transformations, in particular projective transformations that later played an…

  • Barye, Antoine-Louis (French sculptor, painter, and printmaker)

    Antoine-Louis Barye, prolific French sculptor, painter, and printmaker whose subject was primarily animals. He is known as the father of the modern Animalier school. Scholarship in the late 20th century revised Barye’s year of birth from 1796 to 1795 after adjusting for the shift in year according

  • Baryka, Piotr (Polish author)

    Polish literature: Other literary forms: Piotr Baryka is one of the few of these playwrights whose names are known. He wrote a carnival comedy, Z ch?opa król (1637; “From Peasant to King”), which, as its title indicates, carried a motif made popular in the introduction to Shakespeare’s The Taming of…

  • Barylambda (fossil mammal genus)

    Barylambda, extinct genus of unusual and aberrant mammals found as fossils in deposits in North America in the late Paleocene Epoch (58.7 to 55.8 million years ago). Barylambda was a relatively large animal, 2.5 metres (about 8 feet) long, with an unusually massive body and legs. The very thick

  • baryon (subatomic particle)

    Baryon, any member of one of two classes of hadrons (particles built from quarks and thus experiencing the strong nuclear force). Baryons are heavy subatomic particles that are made up of three quarks. Both protons and neutrons, as well as other particles, are baryons. (The other class of hadronic

  • baryon acoustic oscillation (astronomy)

    Rashid Sunyaev: …Zeldovich predicted the existence of baryon acoustic oscillations, regions of dense gas where galaxies would have formed in the early universe and that would appear as brightness fluctuations in the CMB. These oscillations were first observed in 2001 by balloon-based microwave detectors. In 1972 Sunyaev and Zeldovich described the SZ…

  • baryon conservation, law of (physics)

    subatomic particle: Baryons and mesons: The empirical law of baryon conservation states that in any reaction the total number of baryons must remain constant. If any baryons are created, then so must be an equal number of antibaryons, which in principle negate the baryons. Conservation of baryon number explains the apparent stability…

  • baryon number (physics)

    baryon: Baryons are characterized by a baryon number, B, of 1. Their antiparticles, called antibaryons, have a baryon number of ?1. An atom containing, for example, one proton and one neutron (each with a baryon number of 1) has a baryon number of 2. In addition to their differences in composition,…

  • Barysaw (Belarus)

    Barysaw, city, Minsk oblast (region), Belarus, on the Berezina River at its confluence with the Skha. Founded in the 12th century, Barysaw has been at various times under Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian rule. Napoleon’s disastrous retreat across the Berezina River in 1812 took place north of the

  • Baryshnikov Arts Center (cultural center, New York City, New York, United States)

    Mikhail Baryshnikov: …years later he founded the Baryshnikov Arts Center in New York City, a creative space that supports multidisciplinary artists from around the world.

  • Baryshnikov, Mikhail (Russian-American dancer)

    Mikhail Baryshnikov, Soviet-born American actor and ballet dancer who was the preeminent male classical dancer of the 1970s and ’80s. He subsequently became a noted dance director. The son of Russian parents in Latvia, Baryshnikov entered Riga’s opera ballet school at age 12. The success that he

  • Baryshnikov, Mikhail Nikolayevich (Russian-American dancer)

    Mikhail Baryshnikov, Soviet-born American actor and ballet dancer who was the preeminent male classical dancer of the 1970s and ’80s. He subsequently became a noted dance director. The son of Russian parents in Latvia, Baryshnikov entered Riga’s opera ballet school at age 12. The success that he

  • barytes (mineral)

    Barite, the most common barium mineral, barium sulfate (BaSO4). Barite occurs in hydrothermal ore veins (particularly those containing lead and silver), in sedimentary rocks such as limestone, in clay deposits formed by the weathering of limestone, in marine deposits, and in cavities in igneous

  • baryton (musical instrument)

    Euphonium, brass wind instrument with valves, pitched in C or B? an octave below the trumpet; it is the leading instrument in the tenor-bass range in military bands. It was invented in 1843 by Sommer of Weimar and derived from the valved bugle (flügelhorn) and cornet. It has a wide conical bore

  • baryton (stringed musical instrument)

    Baryton, bowed, stringed musical instrument that enjoyed a certain vogue in the 18th century. It was related to the viol family, was about the size of a cello, and had six melody strings and a fretted fingerboard. Up to 40 sympathetically vibrating strings, some of which were plucked with the

  • Barzani, Masoud al- (Kurdish politician)

    Mustafa al-Barzani: …the KDP by his son, Masoud. Masoud became the president of the Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraq in 2005.

  • Barzani, Massoud al- (Kurdish politician)

    Mustafa al-Barzani: …the KDP by his son, Masoud. Masoud became the president of the Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraq in 2005.

  • Barzani, Mas?ud (Kurdish politician)

    Mustafa al-Barzani: …the KDP by his son, Masoud. Masoud became the president of the Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraq in 2005.

  • Barzani, Mustafa al- (Kurdish military leader)

    Mustafa al-Barzani, Kurdish military leader who for 50 years strove to create an independent nation for the millions of Kurds living on the borders of Iran, Iraq, and the Soviet Union. The son of a landlord, Barzani succeeded his elder brother, Sheikh Ahmed, who led the Kurdish national struggle

  • Barzas-Breiz; Chants Populaires de la Bretagne (anthology by Hersart de La Villamarqué)

    Barzaz Breiz, collection of folk songs and ballads purported to be survivals from ancient Breton folklore. The collection was made, supposedly from the oral literature of Breton peasants, by Théodore Hersart de La Villemarqué and was published in 1839. In the 1870s it was demonstrated that Barzaz

  • Barzaz Breiz (anthology by Hersart de La Villamarqué)

    Barzaz Breiz, collection of folk songs and ballads purported to be survivals from ancient Breton folklore. The collection was made, supposedly from the oral literature of Breton peasants, by Théodore Hersart de La Villemarqué and was published in 1839. In the 1870s it was demonstrated that Barzaz

  • barzish (Iranian religion)

    ancient Iranian religion: Cultic practices, worship, and festivals: …was called the barhish (Avestan barzish, “cushion”), while in Zoroastrianism a cognate word, Avestan bar?sman (Iranian barzman), is used for a bundle of sticks—later thin metal rods—that is manipulated by the priest.

  • Barzizza, Gasparino da (Italian educator)

    Gasparino da Barzizza, early Italian humanist teacher noted for his ability to convey Classical civilization to the Italy of his day. Barzizza studied grammar and rhetoric at Pavia, remaining there from 1407 to 1421 to lecture in the university and direct a grammar school. He moved to Venice and

  • barzman (Zoroastrianism)

    ancient Iran: Zoroastrianism: …carried in his hand the barsman (barsom), or bundle of sacred grass. His mouth was covered to prevent the sacred fire from being polluted by his breath. The practice of animal sacrifice, abhorred by the modern followers of Zoroaster, is attested for the Sāsānian period at least as late as…

  • Barzun, Jacques (American teacher, historian, and author)

    Jacques Barzun, French-born American teacher, historian, and author who influenced higher education in the United States by his insistence that undergraduates avoid early specialization and instead be given broad instruction in the humanities. Barzun moved to the United States in 1920. He became a

  • Barzun, Jacques Martin (American teacher, historian, and author)

    Jacques Barzun, French-born American teacher, historian, and author who influenced higher education in the United States by his insistence that undergraduates avoid early specialization and instead be given broad instruction in the humanities. Barzun moved to the United States in 1920. He became a

  • BAS

    ozone depletion: Antarctic ozone hole: …1985 in a paper by British Antarctic Survey (BAS) scientists Joseph C. Farman, Brian G. Gardiner, and Jonathan D. Shanklin. Beginning in the late 1970s, a large and rapid decrease in total ozone, often by more than 60 percent relative to the global average, has been observed in the springtime…

  • Bas endi! (poem by Cholpán)

    Uzbek literature: The Soviet period: The poem “Bas endi!” (“That’s Enough!”) in Uyghonish, for instance, expresses the first awakenings of revolt against the Russian occupation:

  • Bas Plateaus (region, Belgium)

    Belgium: Relief, drainage, and soils: …200 metres) in elevation, the Central Plateaus cover northern Hainaut, Walloon Brabant, southern Flemish Brabant, and the Hesbaye plateau region of Liège. The area is dissected by the Dender, Senne, Dijle, and other rivers that enter the Schelde (Escaut) River; it is bounded to the east by the Herve Plateau.…

  • Bas Poitou (region, France)

    Poitou: …of the Massif Armoricain and Bas (Low) Poitou about the periphery. The Vendée is a northern section of the region. Small farms predominate in the north; the population tends to be dispersed. The rural population in the south tends to cluster in small villages surrounded by open fields. The bourrine…

  • Bas v. Tingy (law case)

    Alfred Moore: Moore’s only opinion, Bas v. Tingy (1800), in which the court held that a “limited, partial war” existed with France, was welcomed by Federalists but criticized by Republicans. Moore retired in 1804 because of ill health.

  • bas-relief (sculpture)

    South Asian arts: Indian sculpture in the 2nd and 1st centuries bce: relief sculpture of western India: …earliest works are undoubtedly the bas-reliefs on a side wall of the porch of a small monastery at Bhaja. They are commonly interpreted as depicting the god Indra on his elephant and the sun god Surya on his chariot but are more probably illustrations of the adventures of the mythical…

  • basal asterid (plant group)

    angiosperm: Annotated classification: Basal asterids Order Cornales Families: Cornaceae, Curtisiaceae, Grubbiaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Hydrostachyaceae, Loasaceae, Nyssaceae. Order Ericales

  • basal body (biology)

    protist: Cilia and flagella:

  • basal cell carcinoma (pathology)

    epithelioma: Common epitheliomas include basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (cancerous epitheliomas are known as carcinomas), two types of skin cancer that involve the inner layers and scalelike outer cells of the skin, respectively; and parathyroid adenoma, a benign tumour of glandular tissue in the parathyroid gland that

  • basal core eudicot (plant group)

    angiosperm: Annotated classification: Non-rosid, non-asterid core eudicots The following 6 orders. Order Berberidopsidales Families: Aextoxicaceae, Berberidopsidaceae. Order Caryophyllales Families: Achatocarpaceae,

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