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  • Bassanowicz, Jonas (Lithuanian physician)

    Jonas Basanavi?ius, physician, folklorist, and a leader of the Lithuanian national movement. In 1873 Basanavi?ius went to Moscow to study history and archaeology but after a year changed to medicine. He was graduated in 1879 and spent most of the next 25 years practicing medicine in Bulgaria. He

  • Bassar (Togo)

    Bassar, town, north-central Togo. The town lies in a major cotton growing area about 30 miles (50 km) northwest of Sokodé, Togo’s second largest town. Bassar serves as an important centre for commercial trade. It has road links with Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) to the north and the national

  • Bassari (Togo)

    Bassar, town, north-central Togo. The town lies in a major cotton growing area about 30 miles (50 km) northwest of Sokodé, Togo’s second largest town. Bassar serves as an important centre for commercial trade. It has road links with Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) to the north and the national

  • Bassari (people)

    Senegal: Ethnic groups: …often wealthy landowners; and the Basari, an ancient people who are found in the rocky highlands of Fouta Djallon.

  • Bassaricyon (mammal)

    Olingo, (genus Bassaricyon), any of six species of small arboreal carnivores of the raccoon family, Procyonidae, found in the jungles of Central and northern South America. Olingos are slender, grayish brown animals 35–50 cm (14–20 inches) long, excluding the bushy, faintly ringed tail, which

  • Bassaricyon neblina (mammal)

    olingo: The olinguito (Bassaricyon neblina), first described in 2013, can be distinguished from other olingos by its habitat and appearance. Olinguitos are residents of the cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador and make their homes at altitudes between 1,530 and 2,740 metres (approximately 5,000 and 9,000 feet),…

  • Bassariscus (mammal)

    Cacomistle, (Bassariscus), either of two species of large-eyed, long-tailed carnivores related to the raccoon (family Procyonidae). Cacomistles are grayish brown with lighter underparts and white patches over their eyes. The total length is about 60–100 cm (24–40 inches), about half of which is

  • Bassariscus astutus (mammal)

    Miner’s cat, carnivorous mammal, a species of cacomistle

  • Bassariscus sumichrasti (mammal)

    cacomistle: (formerly Jentinkia) sumichrasti ranges in forests from Central America to Peru. Larger, darker-furred, and more arboreal than the ringtail, it has pointed ears and nonretractile claws.

  • basse danse (dance)

    Basse danse, (French: “low dance”), courtly dance for couples, originating in 14th-century Italy and fashionable in many varieties for two centuries. Its name is attributed both to its possible origin as a peasant, or “low,” dance and to its style of small gliding steps in which the feet remain

  • Basse Santa Su (The Gambia)

    Basse Santa Su, town and port, eastern Gambia, on the south bank of the Gambia River. The town is a branch banking centre; a market centre for peanuts (groundnuts), rice, and cattle among the Fulani, Malinke, and Wolof peoples; and the last port of call for the government steamer from Banjul, 244

  • basse-lisse (weaving)

    tapestry: Techniques: …haute-lisse in French) or a horizontal loom (low-warp, or basse-lisse). In early high-warp looms the warps were attached to a beam at the top, and groups of warp threads were weighted at the bottom. The weft was beaten up (i.e., pushed) toward the top as the weaving progressed. High-warp looms…

  • Basse-Normandie (former region, France)

    Basse-Normandie, former région of France. As a région, it encompassed the northwestern départements of Orne, Calvados, and Manche. The northern and western shores of the region are washed by the English Channel. In 2016 the Basse-Normandie région was joined with the région of Haute-Normandie to

  • basse-taille (enamelware)

    Basse-taille, (French: “low-cut”), an enameling technique in which a metal surface, usually gold or silver, is engraved or carved in low relief and then covered with translucent vitreous enamel. This technique dramatizes the play of light and shade over the low-cut design and also gives the object

  • Basse-Terre (island, Guadeloupe)

    Basse-Terre, island in the eastern Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. Along with Grande-Terre, its twin to the east, the islands constitute the core of the French overseas département of Guadeloupe. The two islands are separated by a narrow channel called the Salée River. The island is the site

  • Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe)

    Basse-Terre, administrative capital of Guadeloupe (an overseas département of France), on the eastern Caribbean island of Basse-Terre. The town, dating from 1643, is situated on the southwestern coast of the island between the sea and the 4,813-foot (1,467-metre) peak of Soufrière and is some 4

  • Bassein (India)

    Vasai-Virar, city (municipal corporation), western Maharashtra state, western India. It lies on the Arabian Sea coast north of Mumbai (Bombay). Bassein (Vasai) town was part of the territory of the Hindu Devagiri Yadavas until 1317, and it later became a seaport for the Gujarat Muslim kings. In

  • Bassein (Myanmar)

    Pathein, city, southern Myanmar (Burma). It lies on the Bassein River, which is the westernmost distributary of the Irrawaddy River and is navigable by ships up to 10,000 tons. The city is a deepwater port and has several rice mills; rice is exported from there. It also has sawmills and machine

  • Bassein River (river, Myanmar)

    Irrawaddy River: Physiography: …of the delta is the Bassein (Pathein) River, while the easternmost stream is the Yangon River, on the left bank of which stands Myanmar’s largest city, Yangon (Rangoon). Because the Yangon River is only a minor channel, the flow of water is insufficient to prevent Yangon Harbour from silting up,…

  • Bassein, Treaty of (United Kingdom-Bājī Rāo II [1802])

    Treaty of Bassein, (Dec. 31, 1802), pact between Baji Rao II, the Maratha peshwa of Poona (now Pune) in India, and the British. It was a decisive step in the breakup of the Maratha confederacy. The pact led directly to the East India Company’s annexation of the peshwa’s territories in western India

  • Bassermann, Albert (German actor)

    Albert Bassermann, stage and screen actor known as one of the finest German interpreters of Henrik Ibsen. Bassermann began his career in Mannheim in 1887 and during engagements in several cities established himself in character roles from the works of William Shakespeare, Friedrich von Schiller,

  • Bassermann, Ernst (German politician)

    Ernst Bassermann, German politician, leader of the National Liberal Party through the last years of imperial Germany. After achieving financial independence as a legal counsel and through other business interests, Bassermann joined the German National Liberal Party and in 1893 was elected to the

  • Basses-Alpes (department, France)

    Provence–Alpes–C?te d'Azur: of Alpes-Maritimes, Hautes-Alpes, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Var, Bouches-du-Rh?ne, and Vaucluse. Provence–Alpes–C?te d’Azur is bounded by the régions of Occitanie to the west and Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes to the north. Other boundaries include Italy to the east and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

  • Basses-Pyrénées (department, France)

    Aquitaine: Geography: The Basque coast in Pyrénées-Atlantique experienced a major development of leisure activity, centred on the towns of Saint-Jean-de-Luz and, especially, Biarritz. A number of small winter-sports resorts have been developed in the Pyrenees. In Dordogne many visitors travel to the valley of Vézère, one of the earliest known cradles…

  • basset horn (musical instrument)

    Basset horn, clarinet pitched a fourth lower than the ordinary B? clarinet, probably invented in the 1760s by Anton and Michael Mayrhofer of Passau, Bavaria. The name derives from its basset (“small bass”) pitch and its original curved horn shape (later supplanted by an angular form). Its bore is

  • basset hound (breed of dog)

    Basset hound, breed of dog developed centuries ago in France and long maintained, chiefly in France and Belgium, as a hunting dog of the aristocracy. Originally used to trail hares, rabbits, and deer, it has also been used in hunting birds, foxes, and other game. It is characterized as a slow,

  • Basseterre (national capital, Saint Kitts and Nevis)

    Basseterre, chief town of St. Kitts (St. Christopher) island and capital of St. Kitts and Nevis, a parliamentary federated state located in the eastern Caribbean. It lies on the island’s southwestern coast, 60 miles (100 km) west of St. John’s, Antigua. Founded in 1627 and rebuilt after being

  • Bassetlaw (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Bassetlaw, district, administrative and historic county of Nottinghamshire, England. The district occupies the northern quarter of the county. The name Bassetlaw previously applied to the parliamentary constituency that covers much the same area and earlier still was the name of one of the English

  • Bassett, John Spencer (American historian)

    John Spencer Bassett, American historian and founder of the South Atlantic Quarterly, influential in the development of historiography in the American South. A graduate of Trinity College (now Duke University), Durham, N.C., in 1888, he received a doctorate in 1894 from Johns Hopkins University,

  • Bassett, John White Hughes (Canadian journalist and broadcasting executive)

    John White Hughes Bassett, Canadian journalist and broadcasting executive who at various times owned the Toronto Telegram, was part owner of the Toronto Maple Leafs hockey team and the Toronto Argonauts football team, and was granted Canada’s first license for a privately owned television station,

  • Bassett, Leslie (American composer)

    Leslie Bassett, (Leslie Raymond Bassett), American composer (born Jan. 22, 1923, Hanford, Calif.—died Feb. 4, 2016, Oakwood, Ga.), created densely textured compositions at the boundary between tonality and atonality for symphony orchestra, chamber and choral ensembles, and solo instruments. He won

  • Bassett, Leslie Raymond (American composer)

    Leslie Bassett, (Leslie Raymond Bassett), American composer (born Jan. 22, 1923, Hanford, Calif.—died Feb. 4, 2016, Oakwood, Ga.), created densely textured compositions at the boundary between tonality and atonality for symphony orchestra, chamber and choral ensembles, and solo instruments. He won

  • Bassett-town (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Washington, city, seat (1781) of Washington county, southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies 28 miles (45 km) southwest of Pittsburgh. Prior to the American Revolution the area was the centre of a land dispute with Virginia. Pennsylvania’s claim was finally validated by the Virginia constitution of

  • Bassey, Dame Shirley Veronica (Welsh singer)

    Shirley Bassey, glamorous Welsh singer who was renowned for her strident sultry voice, sequined gowns, and lavish jewelry. She was a forerunner of the score of pop music divas who emerged in the last decades of the 20th century. Bassey was also one of the first black British entertainers to gain

  • Bassey, Shirley (Welsh singer)

    Shirley Bassey, glamorous Welsh singer who was renowned for her strident sultry voice, sequined gowns, and lavish jewelry. She was a forerunner of the score of pop music divas who emerged in the last decades of the 20th century. Bassey was also one of the first black British entertainers to gain

  • Bassi, Agostino (Italian bacteriologist)

    Agostino Bassi, pioneer Italian bacteriologist, who anticipated the work of Louis Pasteur by 10 years in discovering that numerous diseases are caused by microorganisms. In 1807 he began an investigation of the silkworm disease mal de segno (commonly known as muscardine), which was causing serious

  • Bassi, Laura (Italian scientist)

    Laura Bassi, Italian scientist who was the first woman to become a physics professor at a European university. Bassi was a child prodigy and studied Latin and French. When she was 13, physician Gaetano Tacconi, who was the Bassi family doctor and a professor of medicine and philosophy at the

  • Bassi, Laura Maria Catarina (Italian scientist)

    Laura Bassi, Italian scientist who was the first woman to become a physics professor at a European university. Bassi was a child prodigy and studied Latin and French. When she was 13, physician Gaetano Tacconi, who was the Bassi family doctor and a professor of medicine and philosophy at the

  • Bassi, Matteo di (Italian friar and preacher)

    Matteo (serafini) Da Bascio, founder of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, commonly called Capuchins, the chief order of friars among the permanent offshoots of the Franciscans. After entering the Observant Franciscans about 1511 at Montefalcone, Matteo was ordained priest about 1520. Eager to r

  • Bassi, Ugo (Italian priest)

    Ugo Bassi, Italian priest and patriot, who was a follower of Giuseppe Garibaldi in his fight for Italian independence. Educated at Bologna, he became a novice in the Barnabite order at age 18, and, after studying in Rome, he entered the ministry in 1833. He gained fame as a preacher with eloquent

  • Bassia (plant genus)

    Bassia, genus of about 10 species of annual plants in the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae), native primarily to Eurasia. Many Bassia species can tolerate saline soil conditions and can be poisonous to grazing animals, particularly sheep. Several are considered invasive species in areas outside their

  • Bassia scoparia (plant)

    burning bush: Red summer cypress, or firebush (Bassia scoparia), is also called burning bush (see Bassia), as is Combretum microphyllum, the flame creeper of Mozambique, a rambling shrub with scarlet flower spikes.

  • Bassianus (Roman emperor)

    Caracalla, Roman emperor, ruling jointly with his father, Septimius Severus, from 198 to 211 and then alone from 211 until his assassination in 217. His principal achievements were his colossal baths in Rome and his edict of 212, giving Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire.

  • Bassianus Alexianus, Gessius (Roman emperor)

    Severus Alexander, Roman emperor from ad 222 to 235, whose weak rule collapsed in the civil strife that engulfed the empire for the next 50 years. His maternal grandmother, Julia Maesa, was a sister-in-law of the emperor Septimius Severus (reigned 193–211). In 218 the legions in Syria proclaimed as

  • Bassianus, Varius Avitus (Roman emperor)

    Elagabalus, Roman emperor from 218 to 222, notable chiefly for his eccentric behaviour. The family of his mother, Julia Soaemias, were hereditary high priests of the god Baal at Emesa (in ancient Syria), worshiped in that locality under the name Elah-Gabal (thus Elagabalus). The emperor Caracalla

  • Bassil, Gebran (Lebanese politician)

    Michel Aoun: Presidency: …brunt of the frustration was Gebran Bassil—Aoun’s son-in-law, the current foreign minister, and the leader of FPM since 2015.

  • Bassin (United States Virgin Islands)

    Christiansted, chief town and port of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, on the northeastern coast of the island. Exports are mainly watches and rum. It was formerly the capital of the Danish West Indies and was a boyhood residence (1765) of the American statesman Alexander Hamilton. Pop. (2000)

  • Bassini, Edoardo (Italian surgeon)

    Giulio Bizzozero: …worked in his laboratory were Edoardo Bassini, the surgeon who perfected the operation for inguinal hernia (Bassini’s operation); Carlo Forlanini, who introduced therapeutic pneumothorax in treating pulmonary tuberculosis; and Antonio Carle and Giorgio Rattone, who demonstrated the transmissibility of tetanus.

  • Bassman, Lillian Violet (American photographer)

    Lillian Violet Bassman, American photographer (born June 15, 1917, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Feb. 13, 2012, New York, N.Y.), took the fashion world by storm in the 1940s and ’50s with her elegant photographs featuring artfully positioned long-necked models in high-contrast black-and-white. In addition,

  • basso continuo (music)

    Basso continuo, in music, a system of partially improvised accompaniment played on a bass line, usually on a keyboard instrument. The use of basso continuo was customary during the 17th and 18th centuries, when only the bass line was written out, or “thorough” (archaic spelling of “through”),

  • basso ostinato (music)

    Ground bass, in music, a short, recurring melodic pattern in the bass part of a composition that serves as the principal structural element. Prototypical instances are found in 13th-century French vocal motets as well as in 15th-century European dances, where a recurrent melody served as a cantus

  • basso-relievo (sculpture)

    South Asian arts: Indian sculpture in the 2nd and 1st centuries bce: relief sculpture of western India: …earliest works are undoubtedly the bas-reliefs on a side wall of the porch of a small monastery at Bhaja. They are commonly interpreted as depicting the god Indra on his elephant and the sun god Surya on his chariot but are more probably illustrations of the adventures of the mythical…

  • Bassompierre, Fran?ois de (French soldier and diplomat)

    Fran?ois de Bassompierre, French soldier and diplomat who left an influential autobiography, Le Journal de ma vie (1665; The Journal of My Life). Bassompierre was descended from an old family that had for generations served the dukes of Burgundy and Lorraine, and, after being educated with his

  • basson (musical instrument)

    Bassoon, the principal bass instrument of the orchestral woodwind family. The bassoon’s reed is made by bending double a shaped strip of cane. Its narrow conical bore leads from the curved metal crook, onto which the double reed is placed, downward through the wing, or tenor, joint (on which are

  • bassoon (musical instrument)

    Bassoon, the principal bass instrument of the orchestral woodwind family. The bassoon’s reed is made by bending double a shaped strip of cane. Its narrow conical bore leads from the curved metal crook, onto which the double reed is placed, downward through the wing, or tenor, joint (on which are

  • Bassus, Aufidius (Roman historian)

    Tacitus: First literary works: …imperial Rome before Tacitus, notably Aufidius Bassus, who recorded events from the rise of Augustus to the reign of Claudius, and Pliny the Elder, who continued this work (a fine Aufidii Bassi) to the time of Vespasian. In taking up history Tacitus joined the line of succession of those who…

  • Bassville, Nicolas-Jean Hugou de (French journalist and diplomat)

    Nicolas-Jean Hugou de Bassville, French journalist and diplomat whose death in Rome at the hands of a mob was exploited by the French Revolutionary governments as a grievance against the papacy. Bassville was at first employed as a tutor and wrote two educational works. At the outbreak of the

  • Bassvilliana (work by Monti)

    Vincenzo Monti: …morte di Ugo Bassville (1793; The Penance of Hugo), usually known as Bassvilliana, also praises the pope and warns of the dangers of the French Revolution. Then Napoleon invaded Italy, and his successes converted Monti, who moved to Milan, turned on the papacy, sang the praises of the conqueror, and…

  • basswood (tree)

    Basswood, any of certain species of linden common to North America, especially Tilia americana, of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), which is found in a vast area of eastern North America but centred in the Great Lakes region; and T. caroliniana and T. georgiana, which are found in the

  • bast (plant tissue)

    Phloem, tissues in plants that conduct foods made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant. Phloem is composed of various specialized cells called sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres, and phloem parenchyma cells. Primary phloem is formed by the apical meristems (zones of new cell

  • Bast (Egyptian goddess)

    Bastet, ancient Egyptian goddess worshiped in the form of a lioness and later a cat. The daughter of Re, the sun god, Bastet was an ancient deity whose ferocious nature was ameliorated after the domestication of the cat around 1500 bce. She was native to Bubastis in the Nile River delta but also

  • bast fibre

    Bast fibre, soft, woody fibre obtained from stems of dicotyledonous plants (flowering plants with net-veined leaves) and used for textiles and cordage. Such fibres, usually characterized by fineness and flexibility, are also known as “soft” fibres, distinguishing them from the coarser, less

  • Basta, George (Habsburg military official)

    Hungary: Royal Hungary and the rise of Transylvania: …entered Transylvania, and their commander, George Basta, behaved there (and in northern Hungary) with such insane cruelty toward the Hungarian Protestants that a Transylvanian general, István Bocskay, formerly a Habsburg supporter, revolted. His army of wild freebooters (hajdúk) drove out Basta, and in June 1606 Bocskay settled with Rudolf the…

  • Bastaard (people)

    Baster, (from Afrikaans baster, “bastard,” or “half-breed”), member of an ethnically mixed group in Namibia and northwestern South Africa, most of whom are descendants of 17th- and 18th-century Dutch and French men and indigenous Nama (Khoekhoe) women of southwestern Africa. They speak a language

  • Bastable, Charles (Irish economist)

    government budget: Growth of public expenditure: …in 1890, the Irish economist Charles Bastable observed that “in nearly all modern States outlay is steadily increasing,” and “the older doctrines of economy and frugality have disappeared.” He was referring to doctrines that had developed in the latter part of the 18th century, particularly in connection with the Industrial…

  • Bastah (Spain)

    Baza, city, Granada provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain, at the foot of the Sierra de Baza, northeast of Granada city. The city contains the ruins of a Moorish fort (alcazaba), and the Gothic collegiate church of Santa María is on the

  • Bas?ām (Iran)

    Bas?ām, small historic town, northern Iran. It lies just south of the Elburz Mountains in a well-watered plain. Clustered around the tomb of the poet and mystic Abū Yazīd al-Bis?āmī (d. 874) are a mausoleum, a 12th-century minaret and mosque wall, a superb portal (1313), and a 15th-century college.

  • bastard feudalism (economic system)

    United Kingdom: The beginning of the Wars of the Roses: …what is known as “bastard feudalism,” the system that allowed magnates to retain men in their service by granting them fees and livery and made possible the recruiting of private armies. Yet this system can be seen as promoting stability in periods of strong rule as well as undermining…

  • Bastard of Orleans, the (French military commander)

    Jean d’Orléans, comte de Dunois, French military commander and diplomat, important in France’s final victory over England in the Hundred Years’ War. Jean was the natural son of Louis, duc d’Orléans, by his liaison with Mariette d’Enghien. Jean entered the service of his cousin the dauphin, the

  • Bastard out of Carolina (film by A. Huston [1996])

    Anjelica Huston: In 1996 she directed Bastard out of Carolina, a film that eventually aired on the cable network Showtime after its direct treatment of sexual abuse led producers to pass it over for a feature release. She assumed the wicked stepmother mantle in Ever After: A Cinderella Story (1998) before…

  • bastard toadflax (plant)

    Bastard toadflax, any of several small annual or perennial herbs of the sandalwood family (Santalaceae) that have narrow leaves resembling those of true toadflax (Linaria). In North America, bastard toadflax refers to plants of the genus Comandra. They are sometimes parasitic on the roots of other

  • Bastarnae (people)

    Bastarnae, in Hellenistic and Roman times, large tribe settled in Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains from the upper valley of the Dniester River to the Danube River delta. The Bastarnae were used by the Macedonian kings Philip V and Perseus against their Thracian enemies and by Mithradates of

  • Baster (people)

    Baster, (from Afrikaans baster, “bastard,” or “half-breed”), member of an ethnically mixed group in Namibia and northwestern South Africa, most of whom are descendants of 17th- and 18th-century Dutch and French men and indigenous Nama (Khoekhoe) women of southwestern Africa. They speak a language

  • Bastet (Egyptian goddess)

    Bastet, ancient Egyptian goddess worshiped in the form of a lioness and later a cat. The daughter of Re, the sun god, Bastet was an ancient deity whose ferocious nature was ameliorated after the domestication of the cat around 1500 bce. She was native to Bubastis in the Nile River delta but also

  • Bastetani (people)

    Iberian: …mentioned by classical authors, the Bastetani were territorially the most important and occupied the Almería region and mountainous Granada region. The tribes to the west of the Bastetani are usually grouped together as “Tartessian,” after the name Tartessos given to the region by the Greeks. The Turdetani of the Guadalquivir…

  • basti (type of shantytown)

    Kolkata: Housing: A basti (also spelled busti or bustee) is officially defined as “a collection of huts standing on a plot of land of at least one-sixth of an acre.” There also are bastis built on less than one-sixth of an acre (one-fifteenth of a hectare). The majority…

  • Basti (India)

    Basti, city, eastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies about 35 miles (55 km) east of Faizabad on the Kuwana River, a tributary of the Ghaghara River. Basti is located on a national highway and a major rail line and is an agricultural trade centre with some industry at nearby villages.

  • Basti (Spain)

    Baza, city, Granada provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain, at the foot of the Sierra de Baza, northeast of Granada city. The city contains the ruins of a Moorish fort (alcazaba), and the Gothic collegiate church of Santa María is on the

  • Bastia (France)

    Bastia, city, capital of Haute-Corse département, Corse région, France. It lies on the northeastern coast of Corsica, 22 miles (35 km) south of the island’s northernmost point, the tip of Cape Corse. It is close to the Italian mainland (73 miles [117 km] from Livorno), and across the Tyrrhenian Sea

  • Bastian, Adolf (German ethnologist)

    Adolf Bastian, ethnologist who theorized that there is a general psychic unity of humankind that is responsible for certain elementary ideas common to all peoples. Bastian proposed that cultural traits, folklore, myths, and beliefs of various ethnic groups originate within each group according to

  • Bastianich, Joe (restaurateur)

    Mario Batali: …a fruitful partnership with restaurateur Joe Bastianich (with whom Batali would later open more than a dozen additional restaurants around the world as part of the Batali &amp; Bastianich Hospitality Group [B&amp;BHG]) when the two opened New York City’s Babbo Ristorante e Enoteca, Batali’s signature restaurant; the James Beard Foundation…

  • Bastiat, Claude-Frédéric (French economist)

    Frédéric Bastiat, French economist, best known for his journalistic writing in favour of free trade and the economics of Adam Smith. In 1846 he founded the Associations for Free Trade and used its journal, Le Libre-échange (“Free Trade”), to advance his antiprotectionist views. In a well-known

  • Bastiat, Frédéric (French economist)

    Frédéric Bastiat, French economist, best known for his journalistic writing in favour of free trade and the economics of Adam Smith. In 1846 he founded the Associations for Free Trade and used its journal, Le Libre-échange (“Free Trade”), to advance his antiprotectionist views. In a well-known

  • Bastidas, Rodrigo de (Colombian explorer)

    Central America: The Spanish conquest: Rodrigo de Bastidas was first to establish Spain’s claim to the isthmus, sailing along the Darién coast in March 1501, but he made no settlement. A year later Christopher Columbus, on his fourth voyage, sailed along the Caribbean coast from the Bay of Honduras to…

  • bastide (town)

    Bastide, type of village or town built largely in the 13th and 14th centuries in England and Gascony and laid out according to a definite geometric plan. It is thought by some to have been an influence on English colonists when building such New World settlements as New Haven, Conn. Edward I of

  • Bastien and Bastienne (work by Mozart)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Early life and works: wrote a one-act German singspiel, Bastien und Bastienne, which was given privately. Greater hopes were attached to his prospect of having an Italian opera buffa, La finta semplice (“The Feigned Simpleton”), done at the court theatre—hopes that were, however, frustrated, much to Leopold’s indignation. But a substantial, festal mass setting…

  • Bastien-Lepage, Jules (French painter)

    Jules Bastien-Lepage, French painter of rustic outdoor genre scenes widely imitated in France and England. Bastien-Lepage studied under Alexandre Cabanel, first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1870, and won a medal at the Salon of 1874 for Spring Song, which stylistically owes a little to édouard

  • Bastille (historical prison, Paris, France)

    Bastille, medieval fortress on the east side of Paris that became, in the 17th and 18th centuries, a French state prison and a place of detention for important persons charged with various offenses. The Bastille, stormed by an armed mob of Parisians in the opening days of the French Revolution, was

  • Bastille Day (French holiday)

    Bastille Day, in France and its overseas départements and territories, holiday marking the anniversary of the fall on July 14, 1789, of the Bastille, in Paris. Originally built as a medieval fortress, the Bastille eventually came to be used as a state prison. Political prisoners were often held

  • Bastille Opera (Paris, France)

    Daniel Barenboim: …artistic director of the new Bastille Opera in Paris, but he fell into disputes with representatives of the socialist government in Paris and was dismissed (in January 1989) before the first season was to commence, in 1990. Almost immediately, in January 1989, he accepted the post of music director of…

  • Bastille, Place de la (square, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Bastille: …?le Saint-Louis leads to the Place de la Bastille on the Right Bank. From the river to the place runs a canal, the Arsenal Basin, which formerly supplied water to the moat around the Bastille fortress. At the Place de la Bastille the waterway goes underground for almost 1 mile…

  • bastinado (punishment)

    flogging: …type of flogging was the bastinado, generally used in Asia, which involved blows delivered to the soles of the feet with a light rod, knotted cord, or lash. Flogging was formerly executed with great brutality. The backs of the condemned were frequently lacerated, and salt was poured into the wounds…

  • Bastion (fort, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada)

    Nanaimo: …ancient rock carvings, and the Bastion, part of a fort built by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1853 to protect the miners and settlers. The city is host to a unique sporting event—the annual mid-July Bathtub Race across the strait to Vancouver. Inc. city, 1874. Pop. (2006) 78,692; (2011) 83,810.

  • bastion (fortification)

    Bastion, element of fortification that remained dominant for about 300 years before becoming obsolete in the 19th century. A projecting work consisting of two flanks and two faces terminating in a salient angle, it permitted defensive fire in front of neighbouring bastions and along the curtain

  • bastioned trace (warfare)

    military technology: The bastioned trace: The sunken profile was only half the story of early modern fortress design; the other half was the trace, the outline of the fortress as viewed from above. The new science of trace design was based, in its early stages, on the bastion,…

  • Bastions de l’Est, Les (works by Barrès)

    Maurice Barrès: …series of novels entitled “Les Bastions de l’Est” (Au service de l’Allemagne, 1905 [“In the Service of Germany”]; Colette Baudoche, 1909) earned success as French propaganda during World War I. La Colline inspirée (1913; The Sacred Hill) is a mystical novel that urges a return to Christianity for social and…

  • bastnaesite (mineral)

    Bastnaesite, a cerium fluoride carbonate, CeCO3(OH,F), found in contact metamorphic zones and pegmatites; cerium is commonly substituted by light rare earths, lanthanum, yttrium, and thorium. It ranges in colour from wax-yellow to reddish-brown. Bastnaesite is commonly associated with other

  • bastn?site (mineral)

    Bastnaesite, a cerium fluoride carbonate, CeCO3(OH,F), found in contact metamorphic zones and pegmatites; cerium is commonly substituted by light rare earths, lanthanum, yttrium, and thorium. It ranges in colour from wax-yellow to reddish-brown. Bastnaesite is commonly associated with other

  • Bastrop (Louisiana, United States)

    Bastrop, city, Morehouse parish, northeastern Louisiana, U.S., 24 miles (38 km) northeast of Monroe. Settlement of the area began after a Dutch nobleman, Baron de Bastrop, was given a large land grant by the Spanish in 1796. The baron subsequently sold much of his land to Abram Morehouse, a settler

  • Bastwick, John (English religious zealot)

    John Bastwick, English religious zealot who, in the reign of Charles I, opposed the liturgical and ecclesial reforms introduced by Archbishop William Laud into the Church of England, reforms that Bastwick believed to represent a return to “popery.” After a brief education at Cambridge, he wandered

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