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  • Bedford, Francis Russell, 5th duke of (British politician)

    Francis Russell, 5th duke of Bedford, eldest son of Francis Russell (d. 1767), marquess of Tavistock, the eldest son of the 4th duke; he succeeded his grandfather as duke of Bedford in 1771. Regarding Charles James Fox as his political leader, he joined the Whigs in the House of Lords and became a

  • Bedford, Jasper Tudor, duke of (Welsh noble)

    Jasper Tudor, duke of Bedford, leader of the Lancastrians in Wales, uncle and guardian of Henry, earl of Richmond, afterward Henry VII of England. The second son of Owen Tudor, founder of the family’s fortunes, he was knighted in 1449 and created earl of Pembroke about 1452. Between 1456 and 1459

  • Bedford, John Plantagenet, duke of (English statesman)

    John Plantagenet, duke of Bedford, general and statesman who commanded England’s army during a critical period in the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453) with France. Despite his military and administrative talent, England’s position in France had irreversibly deteriorated by the time he died. The third

  • Bedford, John Robert Russell, 13th Duke of (British noble)

    John Robert Russell, 13th duke of Bedford, elder son of the 12th duke (Hastings William Sackville Russell), succeeding to the title in 1953. Faced with paying heavy death duties on his father’s estate, including Woburn Abbey, the 13th duke developed to the full the commercial possibilities inherent

  • Bedford, John Russell, 1st earl of (British noble)

    John Russell, 1st earl of Bedford, founder of the wealth and greatness of the house of Russell, who was a favourite of England’s Henry VIII and was created earl of Bedford during the reign of Edward VI. He was with Henry VIII at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 and, returning to military service

  • Bedford, John Russell, 4th duke of (British noble)

    John Russell, 4th duke of Bedford, leader of the “Bedford Whigs,” a major parliamentary force in the third quarter of the 18th century in England. Brother of the 3rd Duke (Wriothesley Russell), he joined the opposition to Sir Robert Walpole and in November 1744 became first lord of the Admiralty in

  • Bedford, William Russell, 1st duke and 5th earl of (British noble)

    William Russell, 1st duke and 5th earl of Bedford, eldest son of the 4th earl, who fought first on the side of Parliament and then on the side of Charles I during the English Civil War. In general, he played a minor part in politics. His son Lord William Russell (1639–83) was involved in the

  • Bedford, William Russell, Lord (British noble)

    William Russell, 1st duke and 5th earl of Bedford: His son Lord William Russell (1639–83) was involved in the opposition to Charles II, led by Lord Shaftesbury, and was executed for treason in 1683. It was partly because of his son’s fame as patriot-martyr that the 5th earl was granted a dukedom in 1694. He was…

  • Bedford-Stuyvesant (community, New York City, New York, United States)

    New York City: Brooklyn: Bedford-Stuyvesant and Brownsville have some of the worst slums in New York, with blocks of burned-out and abandoned buildings. Tensions between African Americans and Hasidic Jews in the biracial area of Crown Heights led to a prolonged conflict in the 1990s, and their relationship has…

  • Bedfordshire (county, England, United Kingdom)

    Bedfordshire, geographic and historic county and former administrative county of the southeastern Midlands of England. The administrative county was abolished in 2009, with two of its three former districts—Mid Bedfordshire and South Bedfordshire—reconstituted as the new unitary authority of

  • Bedi, Kiran (Indian activist)

    Kiran Bedi, Indian social activist who was the first woman to join the Indian Police Service (IPS) and who was instrumental in introducing prison reform in India. Bedi was the second of four daughters. Her education included an undergraduate degree in English (1968), a master’s degree in political

  • Bédié, Henri (president of C?te d’Ivoire)

    C?te d'Ivoire: Houphou?t-Boigny’s rule: …president of the National Assembly, Henri Konan Bédié, who was, like his predecessor, a member of the Baule ethnic group and the PDCI.

  • Bédié, Henri Konan (president of C?te d’Ivoire)

    C?te d'Ivoire: Houphou?t-Boigny’s rule: …president of the National Assembly, Henri Konan Bédié, who was, like his predecessor, a member of the Baule ethnic group and the PDCI.

  • Bédier, Charles-Marie-Joseph (French scholar)

    Joseph Bédier, scholar whose work on the Tristan and Isolde and the Roland epics made invaluable contributions to the study of medieval French literature. He was appointed to the Collège de France in 1903. His reputation as a writer was established with the publication of Le Roman de Tristan et

  • Bédier, Joseph (French scholar)

    Joseph Bédier, scholar whose work on the Tristan and Isolde and the Roland epics made invaluable contributions to the study of medieval French literature. He was appointed to the Collège de France in 1903. His reputation as a writer was established with the publication of Le Roman de Tristan et

  • Bēdil, Mīrzā (Muslim poet)

    South Asian arts: Persian: …the Indian style, however, was ?Abdul Qādir Bēdil, born in 1644 in Patna, of Uzbek descent. He came early under the influence of the ?ūfīs, refused to be attached to any court, and travelled widely throughout India during his long life. Bēdil’s 16 books of poetry contain nearly 147,000 verses…

  • Bēdil, ?Abdul Qādir (Muslim poet)

    South Asian arts: Persian: …the Indian style, however, was ?Abdul Qādir Bēdil, born in 1644 in Patna, of Uzbek descent. He came early under the influence of the ?ūfīs, refused to be attached to any court, and travelled widely throughout India during his long life. Bēdil’s 16 books of poetry contain nearly 147,000 verses…

  • bediqat ?ametz (Judaism)

    Judaism: Pilgrim Festivals: …any trace of leaven (bediqat ?ametz). The following morning the remaining particles of leaven are destroyed by fire (bi?ur ?ametz). From then until after Pesa?, no leaven is consumed. Many Jews sell their more valuable leaven products to non-Jews before Passover (mekhirat ?ametz), repurchasing the foodstuffs immediately after the…

  • Bedknobs and Broomsticks (film by Stevenson [1971])

    Robert Stevenson: Films for Disney: Bedknobs and Broomsticks (1971) was also quite popular, with Angela Lansbury as a witch who tries to help the Allied cause during World War II. Herbie Rides Again (1974) was one of sequels inspired by The Love Bug, and The Island at the Top of…

  • Bedlam (hospital, Beckenham, England, United Kingdom)

    Bedlam, the first asylum for the mentally ill in England. It is currently located in Beckenham, Kent. The word bedlam came to be used generically for all psychiatric hospitals and sometimes is used colloquially for an uproar. In 1247 the asylum was founded at Bishopsgate, just outside the London

  • Bedlington (England, United Kingdom)

    Bedlington, town, unitary authority and historic county of Northumberland, England. It is adjacent to the North Sea port of Blyth. The town’s population grew rapidly with the expansion of coal mining north of the River Blyth in the 19th century. Ironworks flourished until the 1860s. Mining declined

  • Bedlington terrier (breed of dog)

    Bedlington terrier, breed of dog developed in the 1800s in Northumberland, England, and named for Bedlingtonshire, a mining district in the area. The breed, which established itself locally as a fighting dog and a courageous hunter of badgers and other vermin, was later popular as a pet. Lamblike

  • Bedlingtonshire (England, United Kingdom)

    Bedlington, town, unitary authority and historic county of Northumberland, England. It is adjacent to the North Sea port of Blyth. The town’s population grew rapidly with the expansion of coal mining north of the River Blyth in the 19th century. Ironworks flourished until the 1860s. Mining declined

  • Bedloe’s Island (island, New York, United States)

    Liberty Island, island, off the southern tip of Manhattan Island, New York, New York, U.S., in Upper New York Bay. It has an area of about 12 acres (5 hectares) and is the site of French sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi’s “Liberty Enlightening the World” (the Statue of Liberty). The island and

  • Bedmar, Alonso de la Cueva, marqués de (Spanish diplomat)

    Alonso de la Cueva, marqués de Bedmar, Spanish diplomat who was allegedly responsible for the “conspiracy of Venice” in 1618. Nominated by Philip III of Spain as ambassador to the Venetian Republic (1607), he was made marqués de Bedmar in 1614. He used his diplomatic privileges to promote the plans

  • Bednarik, Charles Phillip (American football player)

    Chuck Bednarik, American professional gridiron football player who, as a linebacker and centre for the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League (NFL) in the 1950s and early ’60s, was the last player in league history to regularly participate in every play of an NFL game. Bednarik won two

  • Bednarik, Chuck (American football player)

    Chuck Bednarik, American professional gridiron football player who, as a linebacker and centre for the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League (NFL) in the 1950s and early ’60s, was the last player in league history to regularly participate in every play of an NFL game. Bednarik won two

  • Bednaya Liza (short story by Karamzin)

    Nikolay Mikhaylovich Karamzin: Karamzin’s tale “Bednaya Liza” (1792; “Poor Liza”), about a village girl who commits suicide after a tragic love affair, soon became the most celebrated work of the Russian sentimental school.

  • bednet (protective netting)

    malaria: Vaccines and other forms of prevention: …Southeast Asia is the insecticide-treated bed net, which has reduced mortality significantly in some areas. For example, in western Kenya the use of bed nets reduced mortality among children by 25 percent. Bed nets can be washed but must be re-treated with insecticide about every 6–12 months, depending on the…

  • Bednorz, J. Georg (German physicist)

    J. Georg Bednorz, German physicist who, along with Karl Alex Müller (q.v.), was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics for their joint discovery of superconductivity in certain substances at temperatures higher than had previously been thought attainable. Bednorz graduated from the University of

  • Bednorz, Johannes Georg (German physicist)

    J. Georg Bednorz, German physicist who, along with Karl Alex Müller (q.v.), was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics for their joint discovery of superconductivity in certain substances at temperatures higher than had previously been thought attainable. Bednorz graduated from the University of

  • Bedny, Demyan (Soviet poet)

    Demyan Bedny, Soviet poet known both for his verses glorifying the Revolution of 1917 and for his satirical fables. The natural son of a grand duke, Pridvorov began contributing to the socialist press before the Revolution, adopting the name Demyan Bedny (“Demyan the Poor”). In 1912 his satires

  • Bednyye lyudi (novella by Dostoyevsky)

    Fyodor Dostoyevsky: Early works: …first novella, Bednyye lyudi (1846; Poor Folk), than he was hailed as the great new talent of Russian literature by the most influential critic of his day, the “furious” Vissarion Belinsky.

  • Bedouin (people)

    Bedouin, Arabic-speaking nomadic peoples of the Middle Eastern deserts, especially of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Israel, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan. Most Bedouins are animal herders who migrate into the desert during the rainy winter season and move back toward the cultivated land in

  • bedquilt (soft furnishing)

    bedspread: …French word contrepoinct, meaning “stitched quilt,” was probably made of patched or applied pieces, quilted together. The quilts, or quilted bedspreads, in both appliqué and patchwork, that were made in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries have come to be considered an important type of American folk…

  • Bedraja (king of Ayutthaya)

    Phetracha, king of the Tai kingdom of Ayutthaya, or Siam (ruled 1688–1703), whose policies reduced European trade and influence in the country and helped preserve its independence. Phetracha was the foster brother of King Narai, whose patronage helped him rise to become head of the Elephant

  • Bedreddin (Ottoman theologian)

    Bedreddin, Ottoman theologian, jurist, and mystic whose social doctrines of communal ownership of property led to a large-scale popular uprising. A convert to ?ūfism (Islāmic mysticism), in 1383 Bedreddin undertook the pilgrimage to Mecca, and, upon his return to Cairo, he was appointed tutor to t

  • bedrock (geology)

    Bedrock, a deposit of solid rock that is typically buried beneath soil and other broken or unconsolidated material (regolith). Bedrock is made up of igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rock, and it often serves as the parent material (the source of rock and mineral fragments) for regolith and

  • Bedser, Sir Alec Victor (English cricketer)

    Sir Alec Victor Bedser, English cricketer (born July 4, 1918, Reading, Berkshire, Eng.—died April 4, 2010, Woking, Surrey, Eng.), was one of the all-time greatest of English fast-medium bowlers and the mainstay of the England attack during the post-World War II years; his 236 Test wickets stood as

  • Bedsonia (microorganism)

    Chlamydia, a genus of bacterial parasites that cause several different diseases in humans. The genus is composed of three species: C. psittaci, which causes psittacosis; Chlamydia trachomatis, various strains of which cause chlamydia, trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum, and conjunctivitis; and C.

  • bedsore (ulceration)

    Bedsore, an ulceration of skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure that limits the blood supply to the affected area. As the name indicates, bedsores are a particular affliction for persons who have been bedridden for a long time. The interference with normal blood flow is caused by the

  • bedspread (soft furnishing)

    Bedspread, top cover of a bed, put on for tidiness or display rather than warmth. Use of a bedspread is an extremely ancient custom, referred to in the earliest written sources, for example, the Bible: “I have decked my bed with coverings of tapestry” (Proverbs 7:16). The first bedcovers were

  • bedstraw (plant)

    Bedstraw, (genus Galium), plant genus of about 400 species of low-growing annual or perennial herbs in the madder family (Rubiaceae). They can be found in damp woods and swamps and along stream banks and shores throughout the world. Bedstraw plants are characterized by finely toothed, often

  • Bedtime for Bonzo (film by de Cordova [1951])

    Ronald Reagan: Governorship of California: …the public, Reagan was making Bedtime for Bonzo, a 1951 movie in which Reagan starred with a chimpanzee. But Reagan turned this apparent liability into an asset by portraying himself as an ordinary citizen who was fed up with a state government that had become inefficient and unaccountable. The public…

  • Beduin (people)

    Bedouin, Arabic-speaking nomadic peoples of the Middle Eastern deserts, especially of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Israel, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan. Most Bedouins are animal herders who migrate into the desert during the rainy winter season and move back toward the cultivated land in

  • Bedwell, H. G. (American racehorse trainer)

    Sir Barton: Breeding and early years: With him was his trainer, H.G. Bedwell, a former cowboy who had a reputation for restoring broken-down horses to winning form. Ross paid $10,000 and went home with Sir Barton.

  • Bedworth (England, United Kingdom)

    Bedworth, town, Nuneaton and Bedworth borough, administrative and historic county of Warwickshire, central England. It is situated just to the north of Coventry. Bedworth and neighbouring Nuneaton have merged. Coal mining, from two local pits, was important until it ceased at the end of the 20th

  • B?dzin (Poland)

    B?dzin, city, ?l?skie województwo (province), southern Poland, just northeast of Katowice, near the Czarna Przemsza River. Located on the trade route between Wroc?aw and Kraków, it is one of the oldest towns in the Upper Silesia coal-mining region; it developed as a centre of mining and heavy

  • BEE (South African law)

    Patrice Tlhopane Motsepe: …to benefit from the country’s Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) laws, which required companies to have a minimum 26 percent black ownership before a mining license would be granted. In 1994 Motsepe founded a mine services company, Future Mining, and applied all of his life experience—knowledge of the mining trade and…

  • bee (insect)

    Bee, (superfamily Apoidea), any of more than 20,000 species of insects in the suborder Apocrita (order Hymenoptera), including the familiar honeybee (Apis) and bumblebee (Bombus and Psithyrus) as well as thousands more wasplike and flylike bees. Adults range in size from about 2 mm to 4 cm (about

  • Bee (British periodical)

    Eustace Budgell: …founded his own weekly, the Bee (1733–35), which ran to 100 numbers, many filled with vainglorious self-justification. Disliked by many, Budgell was criticized by Alexander Pope in the Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot and in The Dunciad. His last years were spent in litigation concerning a will that he may have…

  • bee balm (herb)

    Monarda: The more sharply scented Oswego tea (M. didyma), shorter and with scarlet flowers, is native in eastern North America but is widely cultivated elsewhere.

  • bee bird (bird)

    kingbird: The eastern kingbird (T. tyrannus) ranges from the east coast of the United States to eastern Washington and Oregon in the United States and British Columbia and the Northwest Territories in Canada; it is dark slate gray above and white below, with a white tail tip.…

  • bee bread (zoology)

    honeybee: Hives: …honey, plant nectar, and so-called bee bread, made from pollen, is stored in the cells. Honey, which the bees produce from the nectar of flowers, was virtually the only form of sugar readily available to humans until modern times. For this reason, honeybees have been domesticated by humans for centuries.…

  • bee flower (plant)

    angiosperm: Pollination: Flowers pollinated by bees commonly have a zygomorphic, or bilaterally symmetrical, corolla with a lower lip providing a landing platform for the bee (see photograph). Nectar is commonly produced either at the base of the corolla tube or in extensions of the corolla base. The…

  • bee fly (insect)

    Bee fly, any insect of the family Bombyliidae (order Diptera). Many resemble bees, and most have long proboscises (feeding organs) that are used to obtain nectar from flowers. Their metallic brown, black, or yellow colour is attributable to a covering of dense hair; in many species the body and

  • Bee Gees, the (British-Australian pop-rock group)

    The Bee Gees, English-Australian pop-rock band that embodied the disco era of the late 1970s. In becoming one of the best-selling recording acts of all time, the Bee Gees (short for the Brothers Gibb) adapted to changing musical styles while maintaining the high harmonies, elaborate melodies, and

  • bee hive (beekeeping)

    lepidopteran: Importance: …mellonella) causes considerable damage in beehives.

  • bee hummingbird (bird)

    hummingbird: The smallest species, the bee hummingbird (Mellisuga, sometimes Calypte, helenae) of Cuba and the Isle of Pines, measures slightly more than 5.5 cm, of which the bill and tail make up about half. Weighing about 2 g, this species is the smallest living bird and ranks with the pygmy…

  • bee killer (insect)

    assassin bug: Predatory behaviour: …commonly as bee assassins or bee killers, is among the largest genera in family Reduviidae. Species of Apiomerus frequent flowering plants, where they coat their legs with sticky plant resins and wait for their prey. The sticky resins allow the assassins to readily capture other insects, particularly bees. Plant resins…

  • bee louse (insect)

    beekeeping: Pests: The bee louse, Braula caeca, is a tiny, wingless member of the fly family that is occasionally found on bees. It feeds on nectar or honey from the mouthparts of its host. Its larvae burrow in the cappings of honey combs.

  • bee milk (bee food)

    Royal jelly, thick, white, nutritious substance fed to bee larvae. Secreted from glands in the heads of worker bees, it is fed to worker and drone larvae until the third day of life and to queen bee larvae throughout the larval period. Its components include water, proteins, carbohydrates, and

  • bee moth (insect)

    pyralid moth: Other interesting pyralids include the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), also known as bee-moth, or honeycomb moth. The larvae usually live in beehives and feed on wax and young bees and fill the tunnels of the hive with silken threads. The larvae are particularly destructive to old or unguarded colonies…

  • Bee Movie (film by Hickner and Smith [2007])

    Kathy Bates: Films: …classic story Charlotte’s Web (2006), Bee Movie (2007), and The Golden Compass (2007).

  • bee orchid (plant, Ophrys apifera)

    Ophrys: …orchid (Ophrys insectifera) and the bee orchid (O. apifera) are common European species. Some species of Ophrys are known as spider orchids because their flower lips resemble the bodies of spiders.

  • bee sting

    beekeeping: Bee stings: The worker bee sting is barbed, and in the act of stinging it is torn from the bee. It has a venom-filled poison sac and muscles attached that continue to work the sting deeper into the flesh for several minutes and increase the…

  • bee wolf (insect)

    animal behaviour: Instinctive learning: …female digger wasp called the bee wolf (Philanthus triangulum) who has finished excavating a tunnel in a sandy bank. She then digs a small outpocket where one of her young will develop, and she stocks this cell with worker honeybees (Apis mellifera), which she has paralyzed by stinging and which…

  • Bee, Frederick (American attorney, entrepreneur, and diplomat)

    Frederick Bee, American attorney, entrepreneur, and diplomat who was one of the principal advocates for the civil rights of Chinese immigrants in the United States in the 1870s and ’80s. Bee—whose father was an English immigrant, tailor, and Mason—spent his early life in New York state. In 1849 he

  • Bee, Frederick Alonzo (American attorney, entrepreneur, and diplomat)

    Frederick Bee, American attorney, entrepreneur, and diplomat who was one of the principal advocates for the civil rights of Chinese immigrants in the United States in the 1870s and ’80s. Bee—whose father was an English immigrant, tailor, and Mason—spent his early life in New York state. In 1849 he

  • bee-eater (bird)

    Bee-eater, any of about 25 species of brightly coloured birds of the family Meropidea (order Coraciiformes). Found throughout tropical and subtropical Eurasia, Africa, and Australasia (one species, Merops apiaster, occasionally reaches the British Isles), bee-eaters range in length from 15 to 35 cm

  • bee-martin (bird)

    kingbird: The eastern kingbird (T. tyrannus) ranges from the east coast of the United States to eastern Washington and Oregon in the United States and British Columbia and the Northwest Territories in Canada; it is dark slate gray above and white below, with a white tail tip.…

  • bee-skep (basketry)

    basketry: Sewed coiling: …the foundation or not (bee-skep variety) or goes through the centre of the corresponding stitch on the preceding coil (split stitch, or furcate). This sewed type of coiled ware has a very wide distribution: it is almost the exclusive form in many regions of North and West Africa; it…

  • Beebe, Charles William (American biologist and explorer)

    William Beebe, American biologist, explorer, and writer on natural history who combined careful biological research with a rare literary skill. He was the coinventor of the bathysphere. Beebe was curator of ornithology at the New York Zoological Gardens from 1899 and director of the department of

  • Beebe, Dion (Australian-born cinematographer)
  • Beebe, William (American biologist and explorer)

    William Beebe, American biologist, explorer, and writer on natural history who combined careful biological research with a rare literary skill. He was the coinventor of the bathysphere. Beebe was curator of ornithology at the New York Zoological Gardens from 1899 and director of the department of

  • beech (plant)

    Beech, (genus Fagus), genus of about 10 species of deciduous ornamental and timber trees in the family Fagaceae native to temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The pale red-brown wood is durable underwater and is valued for indoor use, tool handles, and shipping containers.

  • Beech Aircraft Corporation (American corporation)

    Olive Ann Beech: …of the board (1950–82) of Beech Aircraft Corporation, a leading manufacturer of business and military airplanes founded by her and her husband, Walter H. Beech.

  • beech family (tree family)

    beech: …timber trees in the family Fagaceae native to temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The pale red-brown wood is durable underwater and is valued for indoor use, tool handles, and shipping containers. The nuts provide forage for game animals, are used in fattening poultry, and yield an edible…

  • beech marten (mammal)

    marten: The stone marten, or beech marten (M. foina), inhabits wooded country in Eurasia. It has grayish brown fur with a divided white throat bib. It weighs 1–2.5 kg (about 2–5.5 pounds), is 42–48 cm (16.5–19 inches) long, and is 12 cm (roughly 5 inches) high at…

  • beech order (plant order)

    Fagales, beech order of dicotyledonous woody flowering plants, comprising nearly 1,900 species in 55 genera. Members of Fagales represent some of the most important temperate deciduous or evergreen trees of both hemispheres, including oaks, beeches, walnuts, hickories, and birches. Because of the

  • Beech, J. Walter (American engineer)

    military aircraft: Civilian design improvements: …Travel Air “R” designed by J. Walter Beech. Powered by the Wright Cyclone, a 400-horsepower radial engine with a streamlined NACA cowling that contributed 40 miles (65 km) to its maximum speed of 235 miles (375 km) per hour, the “R” handily defeated the far more powerful Curtiss biplanes flown…

  • Beech, Olive Ann (American businesswoman)

    Olive Ann Beech, American businesswoman who served first as secretary-treasurer (1932–50) and then as president (1950–68) and chairman of the board (1950–82) of Beech Aircraft Corporation, a leading manufacturer of business and military airplanes founded by her and her husband, Walter H. Beech.

  • Beecham, Sir Thomas, 2nd Baronet (British conductor)

    Sir Thomas Beecham, 2nd Baronet, conductor and impresario who founded and led several major orchestras and used his personal fortune for the improvement of orchestral and operatic performances in England. Beecham was the grandson of the founder of the “Beecham’s pills” business, which provided him

  • Beechcraft (aircraft manufacturer)

    history of flight: General aviation: Cessna and Beechcraft still used radial-piston engines, but Piper relied on a horizontally opposed four-cylinder engine that allowed engineers to design a more streamlined engine nacelle. This type of engine became the preferred style for modern light-plane designs.

  • Beechcraft Model 18 (airplane)

    history of flight: General aviation: …the seven to nine passenger Beechcraft Model 18, powered by two 450-horsepower engines that enabled a cruising speed of about 220 miles (350 km) per hour. Cessna and Beechcraft still used radial-piston engines, but Piper relied on a horizontally opposed four-cylinder engine that allowed engineers to design a more streamlined…

  • Beechcraft Model 35 Bonanza (airplane)

    Richard Ten Eyck: …team that designed the famous Beechcraft Model 35 Bonanza (first flown 1945); with its many variations, this airplane has one of the longest periods of continuous production in aviation history. Ten Eyck also designed the Vornado fan for the O.A. Sutton Corporation in Wichita (c. 1945–59), with later reincarnations by…

  • Beecher, Catharine (American educator and author)

    Catharine Beecher, American educator and author who popularized and shaped a conservative ideological movement to both elevate and entrench women’s place in the domestic sphere of American culture. Beecher was the eldest daughter in one of the most remarkable families of the 19th century. She was

  • Beecher, Catharine Esther (American educator and author)

    Catharine Beecher, American educator and author who popularized and shaped a conservative ideological movement to both elevate and entrench women’s place in the domestic sphere of American culture. Beecher was the eldest daughter in one of the most remarkable families of the 19th century. She was

  • Beecher, Harriet Elizabeth (American writer and educator)

    Harriet Beecher Stowe, American writer and philanthropist, the author of the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which contributed so much to popular feeling against slavery that it is cited among the causes of the American Civil War. Harriet Beecher was a member of one of the 19th century’s most remarkable

  • Beecher, Henry Knowles (American anesthesiologist and researcher)

    Henry Knowles Beecher, American anesthesiologist and researcher who was an outspoken advocate of ethical standards in human-subjects research and a pioneer in the study of pain, analgesia, and clinical trials that took into account the placebo effect. He also was influential in the growth of

  • Beecher, Henry Ward (American minister)

    Henry Ward Beecher, liberal U.S. Congregational minister whose oratorical skill and social concern made him one of the most influential Protestant spokesmen of his time. He was the eighth of the Rev. Lyman Beecher’s 13 children and showed little promise at various schools until he went to Amherst

  • Beecher, Isabella (American suffragist)

    Isabella Beecher Hooker, American suffragist prominent in the fight for women’s rights in the mid- to late 19th century. Isabella Beecher was a daughter of the Reverend Lyman Beecher and a half sister of Henry Ward Beecher, Catharine Beecher, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. She was educated mainly in

  • Beecher, Lyman (American minister)

    Lyman Beecher, U.S. Presbyterian clergyman in the revivalist tradition. A graduate of Yale in 1797, he held pastorates at Litchfield, Conn., and at Boston, during which he opposed rationalism, Catholicism, and the liquor traffic. Turning his attention to evangelizing the West, he became president

  • Beeching, Richard Beeching, Baron (English jurist)

    Crown Court: …royal commission chaired by Richard Beeching, Baron Beeching, studied the feasibility of converting all the existing assizes and quarter sessions courts into a system of Crown Courts to meet the growing case loads across the nation, and the commission’s recommendations became the Courts Act of 1971.

  • Beechworth (Victoria, Australia)

    Beechworth, town, northeastern Victoria, Australia, at the foot of the Victorian Alps. The original settlement (c. 1839), called Mayday Hills, was renamed for a place in England. It was proclaimed a town in 1856, a borough in 1863, and a shire in 1865. During the mid-19th century it was a centre of

  • Beeckman, Isaac (Dutch philosopher)

    René Descartes: Early life and education: …and mathematics by the physicist Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637), for whom he wrote the Compendium of Music (written 1618, published 1650), his first surviving work.

  • Beecroft, John (British explorer and diplomat)

    John Beecroft, adventurer, trader, explorer, and as British consul (1849–54) for the Bights of Benin and Biafra (the coastal area from present-day Benin to Cameroon), a forerunner of British imperial expansion in West Africa, both in his personal enthusiasm and in his systematic intervention in

  • Beed (India)

    Bid, city, central Maharashtra state, western India, on a tributary of the Krishna River near a gap in a range of low hills. Bid was known earlier as Champavatinagar. Its other name, Bir or Bhir, probably was derived from the Persian bhir (“water”). In its early history it belonged to the Chalukya

  • Beedle, William Franklin, Jr. (American actor)

    William Holden, American film star who perfected the role of the cynic who acts heroically in spite of his scorn or pessimism. Beedle grew up in South Pasadena, California. While attending Pasadena Junior College, he acted in local radio plays and became involved with the Pasadena Playhouse. He was

  • beef (meat)

    Beef, flesh of mature cattle, as distinguished from veal, the flesh of calves. The best beef is obtained from early maturing, special beef breeds. High-quality beef has firm, velvety, fine-grained lean, bright red in colour and well-marbled. The fat is smooth, creamy white, and well distributed. In

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