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  • Belgium, flag of

    vertically striped black-yellow-red national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 13 to 15.A rampant lion appeared in the seal of Count Philip of Flanders as early as 1162, while its colours (a gold shield and a black lion) are known to have existed since 1171. In 1234 the gold lion on a black shield

  • Belgium, history of

    Belgium: History: This section surveys the history of the Belgian territories after 1579. For information concerning the period prior to that date, see Low Countries, history of.

  • Belgium, Kingdom of

    Belgium, country of northwestern Europe. It is one of the smallest and most densely populated European countries, and it has been, since its independence in 1830, a representative democracy headed by a hereditary constitutional monarch. Initially, Belgium had a unitary form of government. In the

  • Belgium–Luxembourg Economic Union

    Low Countries: …in economic integration, forming the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) in 1921, followed after World War II by Benelux. That union allows for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between the three countries; coordinates their policy in economic, financial, and social fields; and pursues a common foreign-trade policy.…

  • Belgorod (Russia)

    Belgorod, city and administrative centre of Belgorod oblast (region), western Russia. Located near the Russia-Ukraine border, Belgorod lies along the upper Donets River where it is crossed by the Moscow-Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Sumy–Donets Basin railways. Archaeological finds indicate the existence of

  • Belgorod (oblast, Russia)

    Belgorod, oblast (region), western Russia. It lies chiefly in the basins of the upper Vorskla, Donets, and Oskol rivers. The region, formed in 1954 and centred on Belgorod city, is situated in a forest-steppe with rich soils. The natural vegetation of deciduous forest and steppe has been almost

  • Belgorod-Dnestrovsky (Ukraine)

    Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyy, city, southernmost Ukraine. It lies on the southwestern shore of the broad, shallow Dniester River estuary. In the 6th century bc, Greeks from Miletus established the colony of Tyras on the site. It later came under the Scythians, and it was settled by Slavs in early Kievan

  • Belgrade (national capital, Serbia)

    Belgrade, city, capital of Serbia. It lies at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers in the north-central part of the country. Belgrade is located at the convergence of three historically important routes of travel between Europe and the Balkans: an east-west route along the Danube River

  • Belgrade, Treaty of (1616)

    Danube River: History: …Austro-Turkish treaty was signed in Belgrade under which the Austrians were granted the right to navigate the middle and lower Danube. In 1774, under the Treaty of Kü?ük Kaynarca, Russia was allowed to use the lower Danube. The Anglo-Austrian and the Russo-Austrian conventions of 1838 and 1840, respectively, promoted free…

  • Belgrade, Treaty of (1739)

    Treaty of Belgrade, (September 1739), either of two peace settlements achieved by the Ottoman Empire that ended a four-year war with Russia and a two-year war with Austria. Disputes arising from ill-defined frontiers between Russian-ruled Ukraine and the Ottoman-dominated Crimean Tatars provided

  • Belgrano (area, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Buenos Aires: City neighbourhoods: …the north of Once lies Belgrano, home to a relatively small Chinese community. Belgrano is dominated by high-rise apartment buildings and private homes squeezed between a series of small hills.

  • Belgrano, Manuel (Argentine military leader)

    Manuel Belgrano, military leader in the Argentine war for independence. After studying law in Spain, Belgrano was appointed secretary of the Buenos Aires official merchants’ guild (1794), a position in which he advocated liberal ideas, particularly in education and economic reform. He received his

  • Belgravia (neighbourhood, London, United Kingdom)

    Belgravia, neighbourhood in the London borough of Westminster. It lies east of Chelsea, south of Hyde Park, and southwest of the gardens of Buckingham Palace. Part of London’s fashionable West End, it has many residential squares featuring large 19th-century houses. Belgravia is part of the

  • Belhadj, Ali (Algerian political leader)

    Ali Belhadj, deputy leader of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), an Algerian political party. Born to Algerian parents, he became a high-school teacher and an imam. He and the more moderate Abbasi al-Madani registered FIS as a political party in 1989, and in 1990 FIS won a majority of votes in

  • Beli Drim River (river, Europe)

    North Macedonia: Drainage: …Macedonia drains northward via the Crni Drim River toward the Adriatic Sea.

  • Beli mugri (work by Racin)

    Macedonian literature: …poems in Beli mugri (1939; White Dawns), which include many elements of oral folk poetry, were prohibited by the government of pre-World War II Yugoslavia because of their realistic and powerful portrayal of the exploited and impoverished Macedonian people. Some writers, such as Kole Nedelkovski, worked and published abroad because…

  • Beliajus, Vytautas Finadar (Lithuanian dancer and teacher)

    folk dance: The International Folk Dance movement: …from the settlement movement was Vytautas Finadar (Vyts) Beliajus, a Lithuanian who immigrated to the United States as a teenager. His family joined relatives in the Lithuanian community in Chicago. He organized the Lithuanian Youth Society, where he taught folk dancing; the group performed at the 1933 Chicago World’s Fair.…

  • Belial (fictional character)

    Belial, fictional character, a fallen angel in John Milton’s Paradise Lost (in 10 books, 1667; in 12 books, 1674) who tries to persuade the others to be more discreet so that their unacceptable behaviour is less conspicuous. The Hebrew word b?līya?al, apparently with the literal meaning

  • Belial

    Satan, in the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), the prince of evil spirits and adversary of God. Satan is traditionally understood as an angel (or sometimes a jinnī in Islam) who rebelled against God and was cast out of heaven with other “fallen” angels before the creation of

  • Belice (Belize)

    Belize City, chief town, seaport, and former capital of Belize (formerly British Honduras). Belize City occupies both banks of the Haulover Creek, a delta mouth of the Belize River on the Caribbean coast. Its name was probably derived from an ancient Maya Indian word that refers to the Belize

  • Belice

    Belize, country located on the northeast coast of Central America. Belize, which was known as British Honduras until 1973, was the last British colony on the American mainland. Its prolonged path to independence was marked by a unique international campaign (even while it was still a British

  • Belichick, Bill (American football coach)

    Bill Belichick, American professional gridiron football coach who led the New England Patriots of the National Football League (NFL) to six Super Bowl titles (2002, 2004, 2005, 2015, 2017, and 2019), the most for an NFL head coach. Belichick’s father was an assistant collegiate football coach,

  • Belichick, William Stephen (American football coach)

    Bill Belichick, American professional gridiron football coach who led the New England Patriots of the National Football League (NFL) to six Super Bowl titles (2002, 2004, 2005, 2015, 2017, and 2019), the most for an NFL head coach. Belichick’s father was an assistant collegiate football coach,

  • Belidae (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Belidae Small group found in Australia, New Zealand, South America attached to a variety of plants. Family Brentidae About 2,000 species, mostly in wooded tropical countries; variable size range; males unlike females in structure. Family Curculionidae (weevils

  • Belidor, Bernard Forest de (French engineer)

    Bernard Forest de Belidor, military and civil engineer and author of a classic work on hydraulics. After serving in the French army at an early age, he developed an interest in science and worked on the measurement of an arc of the Earth. The study of ballistics also attracted him, and he became

  • belief

    Belief, a mental attitude of acceptance or assent toward a proposition without the full intellectual knowledge required to guarantee its truth. Believing is either an intellectual judgment or, as the 18th-century Scottish Skeptic David Hume maintained, a special sort of feeling with overtones that

  • Belief and Technique for Modern Prose (work by Kerouac)

    Jack Kerouac: Legacy: …Spontaneous Prose” (1958) and “Belief and Technique for Modern Prose” (1959). On the grammatically irreverent sentences, Kerouac extolled a “method” eschewing conventional punctuation in favour of dashes. In “Essentials of Spontaneous Prose” he recommended the “vigorous space dash separating rhetorical breathing (as jazz musician drawing breath between outblown phrases)”;…

  • Belief of Catholics, The (work by Knox)

    Ronald Knox: …of his position appeared in The Belief of Catholics (1927). Six volumes of Knox’s sermons were published, including Heaven and Charing Cross (1935) and Captive Flames (1940). Knox also wrote inventive and complex detective novels; Still Dead (1934) is generally considered the best among them. His version of the New…

  • belief revision (logic)

    applied logic: Belief revision: One area of application of logic and logical techniques is the theory of belief revision. It is comparable to epistemic logic in that it is calculated to serve the purposes of both epistemology and artificial intelligence. Furthermore, this theory is related to the…

  • belief, logic of

    applied logic: Epistemic logic: …to other persons’ knowledge or belief. The other, called “internal,” deals with an agent’s own knowledge or belief. An epistemic logic of the latter kind is also called an autoepistemic logic.

  • Beliefs and Opinions, The Book of (work by Sa?adia ben Joseph)

    Judaism: Sa?adia ben Joseph: …Kitāb al-amānāt wa al-i?tiqādāt (Beliefs and Opinions), is modeled on similar Mu?tazilite treatises and on the Mu?tazilite classification of theological subject matter known as the Five Principles.

  • Believe (recording by Cher)

    Cher: … for the dance single “Believe.” Cher’s enduring popularity was evident with a successful (and elaborate) Las Vegas residency from 2008 to 2011. In 2017 she began another concert residency, in Las Vegas and Washington, D.C. Her later albums included Closer to the Truth (2013). In 2018 Cher was named…

  • Believe It or Not! (cartoon by Ripley)

    Robert L. Ripley: …was the founder of “Believe It or Not!,” a widely popular newspaper cartoon presenting bizarre facts and oddities of all kinds.

  • Beligrad (Albania)

    Berat, city, southern Albania. It lies along the Osum River, just west of Tomorr Peak (7,927 feet [2,416 metres]). The town is situated among steep hills cut through by the Osum. The terraced houses and several mosques and churches are surmounted by the ruins of a citadel. An oil field at Ku?ov?

  • Belin, édouard (French engineer)

    édouard Belin, French engineer who in 1907 made the first telephoto transmission, from Paris to Lyon to Bordeaux and back to Paris, using an apparatus of his own invention. The first transatlantic transmission was made in 1921 between Annapolis, Md., and Belin’s laboratories at La Malmaison,

  • Belingwe greenstone belt (geological region, Africa)

    Precambrian: Age and occurrence of greenstone-granite belts: …in South Africa; the Sebakwian, Belingwean, and Bulawayan-Shamvaian belts of Zimbabwe; the Yellowknife belts in the Slave province of Canada; the Abitibi, Wawa, Wabigoon, and Quetico belts of the Superior province of Canada; the Dharwar belts in India; and the

  • Belingwean belt (geological region, Africa)

    Precambrian: Age and occurrence of greenstone-granite belts: …in South Africa; the Sebakwian, Belingwean, and Bulawayan-Shamvaian belts of Zimbabwe; the Yellowknife belts in the Slave province of Canada; the Abitibi, Wawa, Wabigoon, and Quetico belts of the Superior province of Canada; the Dharwar belts in India; and the

  • Belinsky, Vissarion Grigoryevich (Russian literary critic)

    Vissarion Grigoryevich Belinsky, eminent Russian literary critic who is often called the “father” of the Russian radical intelligentsia. The son of a provincial doctor, Belinsky was expelled from the University of Moscow (1832) and earned his living thereafter as a journalist. His first substantial

  • Belisarius (Byzantine general)

    Belisarius, Byzantine general, the leading military figure in the age of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (527–565). As one of the last important figures in the Roman military tradition, he led imperial armies against the Sāsānian empire (Persia), the Vandal kingdom of North Africa, the

  • Belit (Mesopotamian deity)

    Ninlil, Mesopotamian goddess, the consort of the god Enlil and a deity of destiny. She was worshiped especially at Nippur and Shuruppak and was the mother of the moon god, Sin (Sumerian: Nanna). In Assyrian documents Belit is sometimes identified with Ishtar (Sumerian: Inanna) of Nineveh and

  • Belit-ili (Mesopotamian deity)

    Ninhursag, in Mesopotamian religion, city goddess of Adab and of Kish in the northern herding regions; she was the goddess of the stony, rocky ground, the hursag. In particular, she had the power in the foothills and desert to produce wildlife. Especially prominent among her offspring were the

  • Belitoeng (island, Indonesia)

    Belitung, island and kabupaten (regency), Bangka Belitung propinsi (or provinsi; province), Indonesia. With 135 associated smaller islands, it lies between the South China and Java seas, southwest of Borneo and east of Bangka island. Tanjungpandan on the west coast is the main town, port, and site

  • Belitong (island, Indonesia)

    Belitung, island and kabupaten (regency), Bangka Belitung propinsi (or provinsi; province), Indonesia. With 135 associated smaller islands, it lies between the South China and Java seas, southwest of Borneo and east of Bangka island. Tanjungpandan on the west coast is the main town, port, and site

  • Belitung (island, Indonesia)

    Belitung, island and kabupaten (regency), Bangka Belitung propinsi (or provinsi; province), Indonesia. With 135 associated smaller islands, it lies between the South China and Java seas, southwest of Borneo and east of Bangka island. Tanjungpandan on the west coast is the main town, port, and site

  • Béliveau, Jean (Canadian hockey player)

    Jean Béliveau, Canadian professional ice hockey player who was one of the game’s greatest centres, noted for his prolific scoring. He played his entire career (1953–71) with the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League (NHL) and won 10 Stanley Cups. Béliveau began playing hockey in

  • Béliveau, Jean Arthur (Canadian hockey player)

    Jean Béliveau, Canadian professional ice hockey player who was one of the game’s greatest centres, noted for his prolific scoring. He played his entire career (1953–71) with the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League (NHL) and won 10 Stanley Cups. Béliveau began playing hockey in

  • Belize

    Belize, country located on the northeast coast of Central America. Belize, which was known as British Honduras until 1973, was the last British colony on the American mainland. Its prolonged path to independence was marked by a unique international campaign (even while it was still a British

  • Belize Barrier Reef (reef, Belize)

    Belize Barrier Reef, coral reef that is second in size after the Great Barrier Reef of Australia and is the largest of its kind in the Northern and Western hemispheres. Extending for more than 180 miles (290 km) along the Caribbean coast of Belize, it maintains an offshore distance ranging from

  • Belize City (Belize)

    Belize City, chief town, seaport, and former capital of Belize (formerly British Honduras). Belize City occupies both banks of the Haulover Creek, a delta mouth of the Belize River on the Caribbean coast. Its name was probably derived from an ancient Maya Indian word that refers to the Belize

  • Belize River (river, Guatemala-Belize)

    Belize River, river rising in northeastern Guatemala as the Río Mopán and flows about 180 mi (290 km) northeast past Benque Viejo, San Ignacio (El Cayo), and Roaring Creek (site of Belmopan, capital of Belize [formerly British Honduras]) into the Caribbean Sea at Belize City. During the

  • Belize, flag of

    national flag with horizontal stripes of red, dark blue, and red, incorporating on its wide middle stripe the national coat of arms. It typically has a width-to-length ratio of 3 to 5.In 1819 the colony then known as British Honduras obtained its coat of arms, subsequently slightly modified. The

  • Belize, history of

    Belize: History: Assorted Referencesflag historyMesoamerican Indian jewelryrelations with Guatemala

  • Belkacem, Smain Ait Ali (Algerian militant)

    Charlie Hebdo shooting: The attackers: …plot to free from prison Smain Ait Ali Belkacem, a former member of Algerian Islamist group GIA (Groupe Islamique Armé), who was serving a life sentence for an attack in 1995 on the Paris Métro. Kouachi was in custody from May to October 2010 in connection with the investigation of…

  • Belkhadem, Abdelaziz (prime minister of Algeria)

    Abdelaziz Belkhadem, Algerian politician who served as prime minister of Algeria from 2006 to 2008. After studying literature and economics, Belkhadem worked as a tax inspector (1964–67) and professor (1968–71). In 1972 he became deputy director of international relations for the revolutionary

  • Belkis (ancient city, Turkey)

    Aspendus, ancient city of Pamphylia (modern K?prü), near the mouth of the Eurymedon (modern K?prü) River in southern Turkey, some 3 miles (5 km) from modern Belkis. It is noted for its Roman ruins. A wide range of coinage from the 5th century bc onward attests to the city’s wealth. In the 5th

  • Belknap (county, New Hampshire, United States)

    Belknap, county, east-central New Hampshire, U.S. It comprises a hilly upland region with numerous lakes. The Pemigewasset River constitutes a portion of the northwestern border before flowing through the western part of the county; Lake Winnipesaukee, the state’s largest lake, is bisected by the

  • Belknap, William W. (American politician)

    Ulysses S. Grant: Grant’s presidency: …resignation of Secretary of War William W. Belknap, who was impeached on charges of accepting bribes; because he was no longer a government official, Belknap escaped conviction. Discouraged and sickened, Grant closed his second term by assuring Congress, “Failures have been errors of judgment, not of intent.”

  • bell (wind instrument part)

    sound: Bore configuration and harmonicity: In general, a rapidly flaring bell is added to the end of the instrument to reduce the impedance mismatch as the sound emerges from the instrument, thus increasing the ability of the instrument to radiate sound.

  • bell (musical instrument)

    Bell, hollow vessel usually of metal, but sometimes of horn, wood, glass, or clay, struck near the rim by an interior clapper or exterior hammer or mallet to produce a ringing sound. Bells may be categorized as idiophones, instruments sounding by the vibration of resonant solid material, and more

  • Bell (typeface)

    typography: Mechanical composition: …foundry face; and Baskerville and Bell, based upon English models. Italics included Arrighi, a version of the letter used by the 16th-century papal writing master and printer (see above). Among the modern faces whose design Morison supervised were Eric Gill’s Sans Serif, which enjoyed a wide vogue in advertising and…

  • Bell Aircraft Corporation (American company)

    Chuck Yeager: …X-1 aircraft, built by the Bell Aircraft Company to test the capabilities of the human pilot and a fixed-wing aircraft against the severe aerodynamic stresses of sonic flight. On October 14, 1947, over Rogers Dry Lake in southern California, he rode the X-1, attached to a B-29 mother ship, to…

  • Bell Bay (Tasmania, Australia)

    Bell Bay, port and site of a large aluminum-production facility, northern Tasmania, Australia, on the east bank of the River Tamar estuary in George Town municipality. Electric power is supplied primarily from the Trevallyn station on the South Esk River. The first metal was produced there in 1955;

  • Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (British astronomer)

    Jocelyn Bell Burnell, British astronomer who discovered pulsars, the cosmic sources of peculiar radio pulses. She attended the University of Glasgow, where she received a bachelor’s degree (1965) in physics. She proceeded to the University of Cambridge, where she was awarded a doctorate (1969) in

  • Bell Burnell, Susan Jocelyn (British astronomer)

    Jocelyn Bell Burnell, British astronomer who discovered pulsars, the cosmic sources of peculiar radio pulses. She attended the University of Glasgow, where she received a bachelor’s degree (1965) in physics. She proceeded to the University of Cambridge, where she was awarded a doctorate (1969) in

  • bell chime (musical instrument)

    Bell chime, (from medieval Latin cymbala, meaning “bells”) set of stationary bells tuned in a musical series, traditionally in diatonic sequence (seven-note scale) plus a few accidentals (sharps and flats). The bells generally number from 2 to 20 and, in the voorslags (automatic clock chimes) of

  • bell cote (architecture)

    belfry: A bell cote, or cot, is a bell gable, or turret, a framework for hanging bells when there is no belfry. It may be attached to a roof ridge, as an extension of the gable, or supported by brackets against a wall.

  • bell curve (mathematics)

    Brownian motion: Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion: The graph is the familiar bell-shaped Gaussian “normal” curve that typically arises when the random variable is the sum of many independent, statistically identical random variables, in this case the many little pushes that add up to the total motion. The equation for this relationship is

  • Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, The (work by Herrnstein and Murray)

    race: The scientific debate over race: …this point of view was The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (1994) by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray. This work is a representation of social Darwinism in that the authors argue not only that minority or low-status races have innate deficiencies but that poor people of…

  • Bell for Adano, A (work by Hersey)

    A Bell for Adano, novel by John Hersey, published in 1944 and awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1945. The novel’s action takes place during World War II after the occupation of Sicily by Allied forces. Maj. Victor Joppolo, an American army officer of Italian descent, is part of the Allied military

  • Bell for Adano, A (film by King [1945])

    Henry King: Films of the 1940s: A Bell for Adano (1945), from the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by John Hersey, was more popular with moviegoers, and it again proved King’s skill at literary adaptations. It was a sentimental but effective tale about a U.S. Army commander (John Hodiak) whose troops occupy an…

  • Bell Globemedia Publishing Inc. (Canadian corporation)

    The Globe and Mail: …and Mail was folded into Bell Globemedia Publishing Inc., owned by Bell Canada Enterprises (BCE). In 2010 an 85 percent stake in the newspaper was purchased by the Woodbridge Company Ltd., the majority owner of the information services company Thomson Reuters. Woodbridge acquired the remaining 15 percent of The Globe…

  • bell glockenspiel (musical instrument)

    Sistrum, percussion instrument, a rattle consisting of a wood, metal, or clay frame set loosely with crossbars (often hung with jingles) that sound when the instrument is shaken. A handle is attached to the frame. In ancient Egypt, sistrums were either temple-shaped or had a closed-horseshoe shape.

  • bell heather (plant)

    heath: The purple, or Scotch, heath, or bell heather (Erica cinerea), is common in Great Britain and western Europe. Its minute flowers yield much nectar. Other British species are cross-leaved heath, or bog heather (E. tetralix); Cornish heath (E. vagans), found also in western Europe; and fringed,…

  • Bell Helicopter 206-B (helicopter)

    Charles Wilfred Butler: …army helicopter (1961) into the Bell Jet Ranger (1965). He and his designers restyled the machine inside and out in the manner of automotive design, creating in the process one of the world’s most successful and beautiful helicopters.

  • Bell Helicopter Company (American company)

    virtual reality: Early work: In 1967 Bell Helicopter (now part of Textron Inc.) carried out tests in which a helicopter pilot wore a head-mounted display (HMD) that showed video from a servo-controlled infrared camera mounted beneath the helicopter. The camera moved with the pilot’s head, both augmenting his night vision and…

  • Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. (American company)

    virtual reality: Early work: In 1967 Bell Helicopter (now part of Textron Inc.) carried out tests in which a helicopter pilot wore a head-mounted display (HMD) that showed video from a servo-controlled infrared camera mounted beneath the helicopter. The camera moved with the pilot’s head, both augmenting his night vision and…

  • Bell Island (island, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Bell Island, island in southeastern Newfoundland, Canada; it lies in Conception Bay 3 mi (5 km) off the Avalon Peninsula. Bell Island is 6 mi long and 3 mi wide, and has an area of 11 sq mi (28 sq km). Named after a large bell-shaped rock off its west end, it was one of the world’s major iron-ore

  • Bell Jar, The (novel by Plath)

    The Bell Jar, novel by Sylvia Plath, first published in January 1963 under the pseudonym Victoria Lucas and later released posthumously under her real name. The work, a thinly veiled autobiography, chronicles a young woman’s mental breakdown and eventual recovery, while also exploring societal

  • Bell Jet Ranger (helicopter)

    Charles Wilfred Butler: …army helicopter (1961) into the Bell Jet Ranger (1965). He and his designers restyled the machine inside and out in the manner of automotive design, creating in the process one of the world’s most successful and beautiful helicopters.

  • bell krater (pottery)

    krater: …the many variations are the bell krater, confined to red-figure pottery, shaped like an inverted bell, with loop handles and a disk foot; the volute krater, with an egg-shaped body and handles that rise from the shoulder and curl in a volute (scroll-shaped form) well above the rim; the calyx…

  • Bell Laboratories (American company)

    Bell Laboratories, the longtime research-and-development arm of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T). It is now part of the Finnish telecommunications company Nokia. Headquarters for the laboratories are in Murray Hill, New Jersey. The company was incorporated in 1925 as an AT&T

  • Bell Labs (American company)

    Bell Laboratories, the longtime research-and-development arm of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T). It is now part of the Finnish telecommunications company Nokia. Headquarters for the laboratories are in Murray Hill, New Jersey. The company was incorporated in 1925 as an AT&T

  • bell lyre (musical instrument)

    glockenspiel: …a lyre-shaped frame, called a bell lyre. A glockenspiel may be fitted with a keyboard mechanism so that chords can be played. The glockenspiel became part of the orchestra in the 18th century.

  • bell metal

    bronze: Bell metal, characterized by its sonorous quality when struck, is a bronze with a high tin content of 20–25 percent. Statuary bronze, with a tin content of less than 10 percent and an admixture of zinc and lead, is technically a brass. Bronze is improved…

  • bell miner (bird)

    bellbird: Manorina melanophrys, often called the bell miner, is an olive-coloured Australian honeyeater with an orange bill and legs. It has a short bell-like call.

  • bell morel (fungus)

    cup fungus: The bell morel (Verpa), an edible mushroom with a bell-shaped cap, is found in woods and in old orchards in early spring. Most species of Gyromitra, a genus of false morels, are poisonous. G. brunnea is edible, however, and is found in sandy soils or woods.

  • bell moth (insect)

    Leaf roller moth, any member of the worldwide insect family Tortricidae (order Lepidoptera), named for the characteristic leaf rolling habit of the larvae. The name bell moth arises from the shape of the adult’s folded, squarish forewings. These moths are characterized by their stout bodies, s

  • Bell P-59A Airacomet (aircraft)

    military aircraft: Subsonic flight: jet, the Bell P-59A Airacomet, made its first flight the following year. It was slower than contemporary piston-engined fighters, but in 1943–44 a small team under Lockheed designer Clarence (“Kelly”) Johnson developed the P-80 Shooting Star. The P-80 and its British contemporary, the de Havilland Vampire, were the…

  • Bell palsy (pathology)

    Bell palsy, abrupt paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face due to dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve, the facial nerve. The disorder is named for the Scottish surgeon Sir Charles Bell, who first described the function of the facial nerve in 1829. The facial nerve supplies the muscles

  • bell pepper (plant cultivar, Capsicum annuum)

    Bell pepper, (Capsicum annuum), pepper cultivar in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), grown for its thick, mild fruits. Bell peppers are used in salads and in cooked dishes and are high in vitamin A and vitamin C. The large furrowed fruits are technically berries and can be green, red, yellow, or

  • Bell Rock (sandstone reef, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Bell Rock, sandstone reef in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Arbroath, Angus. It is 2,000 feet (600 metres) long and is exposed for a few feet at low tide but submerged at high tide. A peril to navigation, the rock lies in the fairway of vessels entering or

  • Bell Sound

    Al Weintraub opened Bell Sound in the early 1950s on West 87th Street, and when he moved closer to the midtown action (to 46th Street and 8th Avenue) in 1954, Bell became New York City’s busiest independent studio. Recording sessions in the city were closely monitored by the local chapter of the

  • Bell Sound (American recording studio)

    Bell Sound: Al Weintraub opened Bell Sound in the early 1950s on West 87th Street, and when he moved closer to the midtown action (to 46th Street and 8th Avenue) in 1954, Bell became New York City’s busiest independent studio. Recording sessions in the city were closely…

  • Bell System (American telephone system)

    Bell System, a former American telephone system, governed by American Telephone & Telegraph Company (now AT&T Corporation; q.v.) and including Western Electric Company (q.v.), the system’s manufacturer; Bell Laboratories (q.v.), the research and development facility; and other departments and 22

  • Bell Telephone Company (American corporation)

    AT&amp;T Corporation: …and Thomas Sanders, formed the Bell Telephone Company, which they sold the next year to a group of financiers. The Bell Company was already embroiled in a race with the the leading telegraph company, Western Union Company, for the development of telephone service—Western Union by this time having acquired its…

  • Bell Telephone Laboratories (American company)

    AT&amp;T Corporation: …formed in 1883, became the Bell Telephone Laboratories, incorporated as a separate company in 1925. In 1885 Bell established the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, or AT&amp;T, as its subsidiary responsible for building long-distance telephone lines. In 1899 AT&amp;T was made the parent company of the Bell System.

  • bell tower (architecture)

    Belfry, bell tower, either attached to a structure or freestanding. More specifically, it is the section of such a tower where bells hang, and even more particularly the timberwork that supports the bells. Etymologically, belfries have nothing to do with bells. The word is derived from the Old

  • Bell Trade Act (United States [1946])

    Bell Trade Act, an act passed by the U.S. Congress specifying the economic conditions governing the emergence of the Republic of the Philippines from U.S. rule; the act included controversial provisions that tied the Philippine economy to that of the United States. When the Philippines became

  • Bell X-1 (airplane)

    Bell X-1, U.S. rocket-powered supersonic research airplane built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in level flight. On October 14, 1947, an X-1 launched from the bomb bay of a B-29 bomber and piloted by U.S. Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager over the Mojave

  • Bell XS-1 (airplane)

    Bell X-1, U.S. rocket-powered supersonic research airplane built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in level flight. On October 14, 1947, an X-1 launched from the bomb bay of a B-29 bomber and piloted by U.S. Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager over the Mojave

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