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  • Bell’s inequality (physics)

    quantum mechanics: Paradox of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen: …certain relationship, now known as Bell’s inequality, for the correlation values mentioned above. Experiments have been conducted at several laboratories with photons instead of protons (the analysis is similar), and the results show fairly conclusively that Bell’s inequality is violated. That is to say, the observed results agree with those…

  • Bell’s palsy (pathology)

    Bell palsy, abrupt paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face due to dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve, the facial nerve. The disorder is named for the Scottish surgeon Sir Charles Bell, who first described the function of the facial nerve in 1829. The facial nerve supplies the muscles

  • Bell, Acton (British author)

    Anne Bront?, English poet and novelist, sister of Charlotte and Emily Bront? and author of Agnes Grey (1847) and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (1848). The youngest of six children of Patrick and Marie Bront?, Anne was taught in the family’s Haworth home and at Roe Head School. With her sister Emily,

  • Bell, Adam Schall von (German missionary)

    Adam Schall von Bell, Jesuit missionary and astronomer who became an important adviser to the first emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). Schall arrived in China in 1622, having been trained in Rome in the astronomical system of Galileo. He soon impressed the Chinese with the superiority of

  • Bell, Alexander Graham (American inventor)

    Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish-born American inventor, scientist, and teacher of the deaf whose foremost accomplishments were the invention of the telephone (1876) and the refinement of the phonograph (1886). Alexander (“Graham” was not added until he was 11) was born to Alexander Melville Bell

  • Bell, Andrew (Scottish publisher)

    Andrew Bell, Scottish engraver, and cofounder, with the printer Colin Macfarquhar, of the Encyclop?dia Britannica. Bell was born in Edinburgh and lived there all his life. He began work humbly by “engraving letters, names, and crests on gentlemen’s plate, dog’s collars and so forth.” He was never

  • Bell, Andrew (Scottish educator)

    Andrew Bell, Scottish clergyman who developed popular education by the method of supervised mutual teaching among students. Bell graduated from the University of St. Andrews and went as a tutor to Virginia in colonial North America, where, in addition to teaching, he made a small fortune trading

  • Bell, Arthur Clive Heward (British critic)

    Clive Bell, English art critic who helped popularize the art of the Post-Impressionists in Great Britain. Bell graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1902 and spent the next several years studying art in Paris and then back in London. In 1907 he married Vanessa Stephen, the sister of

  • Bell, Bert (American sportsman)

    gridiron football: Ascendance of the NFL: …fretted over television, NFL commissioner Bert Bell embraced it immediately and won congressional approval to black out television coverage in the cities where home teams were playing. In a stroke, Bell’s efforts assured maximum attendance for the league’s 12 clubs with little impact on the size of the league’s rapidly…

  • Bell, Bob Lewis (American actor)

    Bob Lewis Bell, American performer who starred (1959-84) as the original fiery-red-haired Bozo the Clown on WGN-TV’s "Bozo’s Circus," a Chicago program that attracted more than 30 million viewers when the show was aired over cable stations; his side-splitting antics earned Bell induction into the

  • Bell, Book and Candle (film by Quine [1958])

    Richard Quine: Bell, Book and Candle (1958), adapted from a Broadway play, featured Novak as a witch who casts a spell on her neighbour (James Stewart), much to the amusement of his pal (Ernie Kovacs). In 1959 Lemmon reteamed with Quine on the comedy It Happened to…

  • bell, book, and candle (Roman Catholicism)

    Bell, book, and candle, in Roman Catholicism, a ceremony formerly used in pronouncing the “major excommunication” or “anathema” (see excommunication). Its origins are not clear, but it dates back certainly to the late 9th century. The bell represented the public character of the act, the book the

  • Bell, Carey (American musician)

    Carey Bell, (Carey Bell Harrington), American blues harmonica player (born Nov. 14, 1936, Macon, Miss.—died May 6, 2007, Chicago, Ill.), became a fixture on the Chicago blues scene soon after his arrival in the city in 1956. After perfecting his playing under the tutelage of such masters as “Little

  • Bell, Charles Frederic Moberly (British journalist)

    Charles Frederic Moberly Bell, British journalist who played a significant part in the management of The Times (London) during a troubled period. Educated privately in England, Bell returned to Alexandria in 1865 to work for a commercial firm but soon established an informal connection with The

  • Bell, Charles H. (Australian business executive)

    Charlie Bell, (Charles H. Bell), Australian business executive (born Nov. 7, 1960, Sydney, Australia—died Jan. 17, 2005, Sydney), rocketed up through the ranks of U.S.-based McDonald’s Corp.—after having started at age 15 by mopping floors part-time in a local Sydney outlet—to become the f

  • Bell, Charlie (Australian business executive)

    Charlie Bell, (Charles H. Bell), Australian business executive (born Nov. 7, 1960, Sydney, Australia—died Jan. 17, 2005, Sydney), rocketed up through the ranks of U.S.-based McDonald’s Corp.—after having started at age 15 by mopping floors part-time in a local Sydney outlet—to become the f

  • Bell, Chris (American musician)

    Big Star: ), Chris Bell (b. Jan. 12, 1951, Memphis—d. Dec. 27, 1978, Memphis), Andy Hummel (b. Jan. 26, 1951, Memphis—d. July 19, 2010, Weatherford, Texas), and Jody Stephens (b. Oct. 4, 1952, Memphis).

  • Bell, Clive (British critic)

    Clive Bell, English art critic who helped popularize the art of the Post-Impressionists in Great Britain. Bell graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1902 and spent the next several years studying art in Paris and then back in London. In 1907 he married Vanessa Stephen, the sister of

  • Bell, Cool Papa (American baseball player)

    Cool Papa Bell, American professional baseball player, reputedly the fastest base runner of all time. Bell began as a pitcher for the St. Louis Stars in the Negro National League at the age of 19 and earned the nickname “Cool” when he struck out legendary Oscar Charleston; Bell’s manager added

  • Bell, Currer (British author)

    Charlotte Bront?, English novelist noted for Jane Eyre (1847), a strong narrative of a woman in conflict with her natural desires and social condition. The novel gave new truthfulness to Victorian fiction. She later wrote Shirley (1849) and Villette (1853). Her father was Patrick Bront?

  • Bell, Daniel (American sociologist)

    Daniel Bell, American sociologist and journalist who used sociological theory to reconcile what he believed were the inherent contradictions of capitalist societies. Bell was educated at City College of New York, where he received a B.S. (1939), and was employed as a journalist for more than 20

  • Bell, Derek Fleetwood (Irish musician)

    Derek Fleetwood Bell, Irish musician and composer (born Oct. 21, 1935, Belfast, N.Ire.—died Oct. 17, 2002, Phoenix, Ariz.), brought a classical music background to the popular Irish folk group the Chieftains when he joined them as harpist in 1972. Having already mastered a variety of instruments, i

  • Bell, Derrick Albert, Jr. (American legal scholar and educator)

    Derrick Albert Bell, Jr., American legal scholar and educator (born Nov. 6, 1930, Pittsburgh, Pa.—died Oct. 5, 2011, New York, N.Y.), strove uncompromisingly to reveal and confront the pernicious racism that he found ingrained in American legal and social structures. He was involved in the

  • Bell, Ellis (British author)

    Emily Bront?, English novelist and poet who produced but one novel, Wuthering Heights (1847), a highly imaginative work of passion and hate set on the Yorkshire moors. Emily was perhaps the greatest of the three Bront? sisters, but the record of her life is extremely meagre, for she was silent and

  • Bell, Eric Temple (American mathematician)

    Eric Temple Bell, Scottish American mathematician, educator, and writer who made significant contributions to analytic number theory. Bell emigrated to the United States at the age of 19 and immediately enrolled at Stanford University, where after only two years he earned his bachelor’s degree. He

  • Bell, Franklin (United States general)

    Ralph Van Deman: General Franklin Bell, then chief of staff, who harboured a grudge against intelligence officers in general and Van Deman in particular, forced the virtual disbanding of MID by merging it with the War College.

  • Bell, George Derek Fleetwood (Irish musician)

    Derek Fleetwood Bell, Irish musician and composer (born Oct. 21, 1935, Belfast, N.Ire.—died Oct. 17, 2002, Phoenix, Ariz.), brought a classical music background to the popular Irish folk group the Chieftains when he joined them as harpist in 1972. Having already mastered a variety of instruments, i

  • Bell, George Kennedy Allen (British clergyman)

    George Kennedy Allen Bell, Anglican bishop of Chichester, outstanding ecumenicist, and leading British churchman during World War II. Ordained in 1907, Bell was curate of Leeds (Yorkshire) parish church from 1907 to 1910. In 1914 he ceased studies at Christ Church and became chaplain to Archbishop

  • Bell, Gertrude (English politician and writer)

    Gertrude Bell, English traveler, administrator in Arabia, and writer who played a principal part in the establishment in Baghdad of the Hāshimite dynasty. Gertrude Bell’s brilliant career at Oxford, where she took a first in history in 1887, was followed by some time spent in Tehrān, where her

  • Bell, Gertrude Margaret Lowthian (English politician and writer)

    Gertrude Bell, English traveler, administrator in Arabia, and writer who played a principal part in the establishment in Baghdad of the Hāshimite dynasty. Gertrude Bell’s brilliant career at Oxford, where she took a first in history in 1887, was followed by some time spent in Tehrān, where her

  • Bell, Glen (American entrepreneur)

    Taco Bell: …in 1962 by American entrepreneur Glen Bell, the chain has more than 7,000 locations and over 350 franchisees worldwide. Its commitment to branding and its changing product lineup have made it one of the most accessible and unique fast-food restaurant chains.

  • Bell, Graeme Emerson (Australian musician)

    Graeme Emerson Bell, Australian jazz musician (born Sept. 7, 1914, Richmond, near Melbourne, Australia—died June 13, 2012, Sydney, Australia), pioneered a resurgence of traditional jazz as dance music in Australia and parts of Europe as the leader of Australia’s foremost jazz band. Bell, who

  • Bell, Griffin Boyette (American judge and public official)

    Griffin Boyette Bell, American judge and public official (born Oct. 31, 1918, Americus, Ga.—died Jan. 5, 2009, Atlanta, Ga.), earned a reputation as a principled and independent federal judge while serving (1961–76) on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit; later, as U.S. attorney general

  • Bell, Henry (Scottish engineer)

    Henry Bell, Scottish engineer who launched the first commercially successful steamship in Europe. After serving apprenticeships as a millwright and a ship modeler, he went to London, where he worked and studied under the Scottish engineer John Rennie. Bell returned to Scotland in 1790, settled in

  • Bell, James Thomas (American baseball player)

    Cool Papa Bell, American professional baseball player, reputedly the fastest base runner of all time. Bell began as a pitcher for the St. Louis Stars in the Negro National League at the age of 19 and earned the nickname “Cool” when he struck out legendary Oscar Charleston; Bell’s manager added

  • Bell, John (Scottish physician)

    John Bell, Scottish physician and traveler whose vivid account of his journeys did much to awaken Westerners to the way of life of the peoples of Russia and the East, particularly China. In 1714 Bell set out for St. Petersburg, where he joined a Russian diplomatic mission departing for Persia.

  • Bell, John (British publisher)

    John Bell, English publisher who was one of the first to organize a book-publishing company on a joint-stock basis. Beginning in 1777 he issued the 109 volumes of The Poets of Great Britain complete from Chaucer to Churchill series. He influenced later publishing practice by introducing into his

  • Bell, John (American politician)

    John Bell, American politician and nominee for president on the eve of the American Civil War. Bell entered the U.S. House of Representatives in 1827 and served there as a Democrat until 1841. He broke with Pres. Andrew Jackson in 1834 and supported Hugh Lawson White for president in 1836. After

  • Bell, John Stewart (Irish-born physicist)

    quantum mechanics: Paradox of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen: …theorem by the Irish-born physicist John Stewart Bell. Bell began by assuming the existence of some form of hidden variable with a value that would determine whether the measured angular momentum gives a plus or minus result. He further assumed locality—namely, that measurement on one proton (i.e., the choice of…

  • Bell, Josephine (British physician and writer)

    Josephine Bell, English physician and novelist best known for her numerous detective novels, in which poison and unusual methods of murder are prominent. She was educated at Newnham College, Cambridge (1916–19), and University College Hospital, London, and was a practicing physician from 1922 to

  • Bell, Joshua (American musician)

    Joshua Bell, American musician whose technical accomplishments and versatility in classical and popular music made him one of the most successful and critically lauded violinists in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Bell received his first violin at age four from his parents after they found

  • Bell, Ken (Canadian photographer)

    Ken Bell, Canadian photographer (born July 30, 1914, Toronto, Ont.—died June 26, 2000, Gibsons, B.C.), was one of Canada’s most accomplished photographers. Bell documented Canada’s participation in World War II while serving in the Canadian Army Film and Photo Unit; his war pictures were housed p

  • Bell, Lawrence Dale (American aircraft designer)

    Lawrence Dale Bell, U.S. aircraft designer whose experimental X-1 rocket-propelled airplane in 1947 was the first to break the sound barrier in level flight. In 1912 Bell entered the aviation business as a mechanic for his brother, Grover. When his brother was killed in an airplane accident in

  • Bell, Mabel Hubbard (wife of Alexander Bell)

    Alexander Graham Bell: One of Bell’s students was Mabel Hubbard, daughter of Gardiner Greene Hubbard, a founder of the Clarke School. Mabel had become deaf at age five as a result of a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever. Bell began working with her in 1873, when she was 15 years old. Despite a…

  • Bell, Mark (British musician and producer)

    Bj?rk: …a studio effort with collaborator Mark Bell. Bell and Bj?rk also worked together on Selmasongs, the score for Lars von Trier’s Dancer in the Dark (2000), a tragic musical in which she also starred. The film won the Palme d’Or at the Cannes film festival, and Bj?rk was named best…

  • Bell, Mary Hayley (British author and actress)

    Mary Hayley Bell, British playwright, novelist, and actress (born Jan. 22, 1911, Shanghai, China—died Dec. 1, 2005, Denham, Buckinghamshire, Eng.), turned her back on a promising stage career in the early 1940s following her marriage to actor Sir John Mills (q.v.) and instead began writing plays, n

  • Bell, Patrick (British inventor)
  • Bell, Peter M. (American scientist)

    high-pressure phenomena: The diamond-anvil cell: …the geophysicists Ho-kwang Mao and Peter M. Bell, both of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, in Washington, D.C., where they subsequently attained diamond-cell pressures of approximately 300 GPa. Heating of diamond-cell samples, with both resistance heaters and lasers, has extended accessible pressure-temperature conditions to those that…

  • Bell, Quentin Claudian Stephen (British artist, author and educator)

    Quentin Claudian Stephen Bell, British artist, critic, university professor, and writer who chronicled the Bloomsbury group, which was founded by his parents, Clive and Vanessa Bell, and wrote an authoritative two-volume biography of his mother’s sister, the novelist Virginia Woolf (b. Aug. 19,

  • Bell, Rico (musician)

    the Mekons: Sarah Corina, Lu Edmonds, and Rico Bell (byname of Erik Bellis).

  • Bell, Robert (American musician)

    Kool &amp; the Gang: ), Robert (“Kool”) Bell (b. October 8, 1950, Youngstown), Claydes Charles Smith (b. September 6, 1948, Jersey City, New Jersey—d. June 20, 2006, Maplewood, New Jersey), George (“Funky”) Brown (b. January 5, 1949, Jersey City), Dennis (“DT”) Thomas (b. February 9, 1951, Jersey City), Robert (“Spike”)…

  • Bell, Ronald (American musician)

    Kool &amp; the Gang: The principal members were Khalis Bayyan (byname of Ronald Bell; b. November 1, 1951, Youngstown, Ohio, U.S.), Robert (“Kool”) Bell (b. October 8, 1950, Youngstown), Claydes Charles Smith (b. September 6, 1948, Jersey City, New Jersey—d. June 20, 2006, Maplewood, New Jersey), George (“Funky”) Brown (b. January 5, 1949,…

  • bell, ship’s

    Ship’s bell, bell used as early as the 15th century to sound the time on board ship by striking each half hour of a watch. The mariner’s day is divided into six watches, each four hours long, except that the 4:00 to 8:00 pm watch may be “dogged”; that is, divided into the first and second

  • Bell, Sir Charles (British anatomist)

    Sir Charles Bell, Scottish anatomist whose New Idea of Anatomy of the Brain (1811) has been called the “Magna Carta of neurology.” A graduate of the University of Edinburgh, Bell went to London (1804), where he held surgical and teaching posts. In 1829 he received a medal from the Royal Society; he

  • Bell, Sir Francis Henry Dillon (prime minister of New Zealand)

    Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell, New Zealand lawyer and statesman who had a leading role in the Cabinets of Prime Minister William Ferguson Massey (1912–25). He himself also served for a short time as prime minister of New Zealand (1925). Bell was initially a successful lawyer, and upon entering

  • Bell, Sir Hesketh (British official)

    Uganda: Growth of a peasant economy: Sadler’s own successor, Sir Hesketh Bell, announced that he wished to develop Uganda as an African state. In this he was opposed by a number of his more senior officials and in particular by the chief justice, William Morris Carter. Carter was chairman of a land commission whose…

  • Bell, Steve (British cartoonist)

    comic strip: The fact-based comic: historical, didactic, political, narrative: …of the British socialist cartoonist Steve Bell, whose caustic strip If… (begun 1981) appeared daily in The Guardian. His start in children’s comics is evident in his crude, chaotic linear style and composition.

  • Bell, Susan Jocelyn (British astronomer)

    Jocelyn Bell Burnell, British astronomer who discovered pulsars, the cosmic sources of peculiar radio pulses. She attended the University of Glasgow, where she received a bachelor’s degree (1965) in physics. She proceeded to the University of Cambridge, where she was awarded a doctorate (1969) in

  • Bell, The (novel by Murdoch)

    Iris Murdoch: …is perhaps her finest book, The Bell (1958), Murdoch began to attain wide recognition as a novelist. She went on to a highly prolific career with such novels as A Severed Head (1961), The Red and the Green (1965), The Nice and the Good (1968), The Black Prince (1973), Henry…

  • Bell, The (Russian newspaper)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen: Life in exile.: …in 1856, and a newspaper, Kolokol (The Bell), created in 1857 with the aid of his old friend Ogaryov, now also an émigré. Herzen’s aim was to influence both the government and the public toward emancipation of the peasants, with generous allotments of land and the liberalization of Russian society.…

  • Bell, Vanessa (British painter and designer)

    Vanessa Bell, British painter, designer, and founding member of the Bloomsbury group who was known for her colourful portraits and still-life paintings and for her dust-jacket designs. Bell was born into a Victorian upper-middle-class literary family, daughter of literary critic Sir Leslie Stephen

  • Bell-Beaker culture (people)

    Beaker folk, Late Neolithic–Early Bronze Age people living about 4,500 years ago in the temperate zones of Europe; they received their name from their distinctive bell-shaped beakers, decorated in horizontal zones by finely toothed stamps. (Their culture is often called the Bell-Beaker culture.)

  • bell-in-vacuum experiment (physics)

    acoustics: Early experimentation: …the famous and often misinterpreted “bell-in-vacuum” experiment, which has become a staple of contemporary physics lecture demonstrations. In this experiment the air is pumped out of a jar in which a ringing bell is located; as air is pumped out, the sound of the bell diminishes until it becomes inaudible.…

  • Bell-Magendie law (physiology)

    Johannes Müller: …live frogs, he confirmed the law named after Charles Bell and Fran?ois Magendie, according to which the anterior roots of the nerves originating from the spinal cord are motor and the posterior roots are sensory. He investigated the nervous system of lower animal species, the intricate structure of glands, and…

  • bell-magpie (bird)

    Bell-magpie, Australasian songbird belonging to the family Cracticidae (order Passeriformes), named for its loud, metallic voice and magpie-like black-and-white plumage. Most authorities consider the bell-magpies to represent a single widespread species, Gymnorhina tibicen; some recognize three

  • bell-shrike (bird genus)

    shrike: Bell-shrikes or bellbirds, members of the African genus Laniarius, also of the bush-shrike group, often have names imitative of the males’ notes: boubou and gonolek. They are about 20 cm (8 inches) long, plain-coloured, often with a slash of white on the wings. All black…

  • Bell/Boeing V-22 (aircraft)

    V-22, tilt-rotor military aircraft built by Bell Helicopter (a subsidiary of Textron) and Boeing. The V-22’s unique hybrid design, which combines features of a helicopter and a turboprop airplane, allows it to take off and land vertically. Once airborne, the V-22’s two wingtip nacelles, each

  • Bella (work by Giraudoux)

    Jean Giraudoux: Bella (1926) is a love story behind which can be glimpsed the rivalry between two statesmen, a nationalist and an internationalist. Thus, what was to become the central theme of Giraudoux’s plays was made clear: a pair of opposites, whatever they might be—man and God…

  • Bella Coola (people)

    Bella Coola, North American Indians whose villages were located in what is now the central British Columbia coast, along the upper Dean and Burke channels and the lower parts of the Bella Coola River valley. They spoke a Salishan language related to that of the Coast Salish (q.v.) to the south.

  • bella diplomatica (French history)

    diplomatics: Post-Renaissance scholarship: …concerted action known as the bella diplomatica (“diplomatic wars”) to assert their ancient privileges against royal absolutism. The decisive impetus, however, came from a much more particularist dispute. Daniel van Papenbroeck, a member of the Jesuit commission known as the Bollandists (from another member, Jean Bolland), which was charged with…

  • Bella Donna (album by Nicks)

    Fleetwood Mac: Nicks hit number one with Bella Donna (1981), an album that featured singles such as “Edge of Seventeen” and the Tom Petty duet “Stop Draggin’ My Heart Around,” and Buckingham broke the Billboard Top Ten with his single “Trouble.” The band produced the noteworthy Mirage (1982) and Tango in the…

  • Bella figura (play by Reza)

    Yasmina Reza: …You Talk the Game”) and Bella figura (2015; “Beautiful Figure”), which she wrote for the Schaubühne in Berlin and later directed in a 2017 Paris production.

  • Bella, Ahmed Ben (president of Algeria)

    Ahmed Ben Bella, principal leader of the Algerian War of Independence against France, the first prime minister (1962–63) and first elected president (1963–65) of the Algerian republic, who steered his country toward a socialist economy. Ben Bella was the son of a farmer and small businessman in

  • Bella, Ivan (Slovak pilot and air force officer)

    Ivan Bella, Slovak pilot and air force officer and the first Slovak citizen to go into space. Bella graduated from the military high school in Banská Bystrica in 1983 and earned his university degree from the Czechoslovak air force academy in Ko?ice in 1987. After completing his education, Bella

  • Bella, Stefano della (Italian printmaker)

    Stefano della Bella, Baroque printmaker noted for his engravings of military events, in the manner of Jacques Callot. Stefano was initially apprenticed to a goldsmith but turned to engraving, studying under Remigio Cantagallina. Through Lorenzo de’ Medici he was enabled to spend three years in

  • belladonna (plant)

    Belladonna, (Atropa belladonna), tall bushy herb of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), the source of the crude drug of the same name. The highly poisonous plant is a native of wooded or waste areas in central and southern Eurasia. It grows to about 1.5 metres (4–5 feet) tall and has dull green

  • belladonna lily (plant)

    Amaryllidaceae: …many garden ornamentals, especially the belladonna lily (Amaryllis belladonna), snowdrop (Galanthus), snowflake (Leucojum), and daffodil (Narcissus). Many tropical lilylike plants also belong to the subfamily, such as the Cape tulip, or blood lily (Haemanthus),

  • Belladonna, Giorgio (Italian contract bridge player)

    Giorgio Belladonna, Italian contract bridge player who led the Italian Squadra Azzura, or Blue Team, to 10 European championships and 16 world titles between 1956 and 1979 (b. June 7, 1923--d. May 12,

  • Bellagio (hotel and casino, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States)

    Las Vegas: Cultural life: The Bellagio, which opened in 1998, featured a magnificent collection of paintings by such masters as Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, Claude Monet, Pablo Picasso, and Henri Matisse. Inside the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino, a 12,000-seat sports-and-entertainment complex was installed, inaugurated in

  • Bellah, Robert Neelly (American sociologist)

    Robert Neelly Bellah, American sociologist who addressed the problem of change in modern religious practice and who offered innovative procedures for reconciling traditional religious societies with social change. Bellah was educated at Harvard University, where he received his B.A. (1950) and

  • Bellamy, Edward (American writer)

    Edward Bellamy, American writer known chiefly for his utopian novel Looking Backward, 2000–1887. The son of a Baptist minister, Bellamy first realized the plight of the urban poor at 18 while studying for a year in Germany. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1871, but soon turned to

  • Bellamy, Francis (American editor)

    Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America: …of The Youth’s Companion, and Francis Bellamy, an assistant editor. In 1939 a committee of the U.S. Flag Association ruled in favour of Bellamy, and a detailed report issued by the U.S. Library of Congress in 1957 supported the committee’s ruling.

  • Bellamy, George Anne (English actress)

    George Anne Bellamy, English actress whose stage career and personal life were, in their irregularity, not entirely atypical of her era. Her best performances were in such tragic roles as Desdemona in Othello and Juliet in Romeo and Juliet. Bellamy was the “accidental” daughter of a Quaker lady who

  • Bellamy, Ralph (American actor)

    Ralph Bellamy, American actor who was best known for his work in screwball comedies and dramatic stage productions. Bellamy grew up in the Chicago suburb of Winnetka and began his involvement with theatre as a teen. He formed his own troupe of actors, the North Shore Players, in the Chicago area in

  • Bellamy, Ralph Rexford (American actor)

    Ralph Bellamy, American actor who was best known for his work in screwball comedies and dramatic stage productions. Bellamy grew up in the Chicago suburb of Winnetka and began his involvement with theatre as a teen. He formed his own troupe of actors, the North Shore Players, in the Chicago area in

  • Bellamy, Walt (American basketball player)

    Walt Bellamy, (Walter Jones Bellamy), American basketball player (born July 24, 1939, New Bern, N.C.—died Nov. 2, 2013, Atlanta, Ga.), was a leading scorer and rebounder in 14 seasons as a centre on five NBA teams (the Chicago Packers [renamed the Chicago Zephyrs in 1962 and the Baltimore Bullets

  • Bellamy, Walter Jones (American basketball player)

    Walt Bellamy, (Walter Jones Bellamy), American basketball player (born July 24, 1939, New Bern, N.C.—died Nov. 2, 2013, Atlanta, Ga.), was a leading scorer and rebounder in 14 seasons as a centre on five NBA teams (the Chicago Packers [renamed the Chicago Zephyrs in 1962 and the Baltimore Bullets

  • Bellán, Esteban (Cuban baseball player)

    Latin Americans in Major League Baseball Through the First Years of the 21st Century: Early history: From 1871 to 1873 Esteban Bellán, another Cuban Fordham student, played third base, shortstop, and some outfield (in a total of 59 games) for the Troy Haymakers and the New York Mutuals, teams in the National Association, the earliest American professional league. Bellán was the first Latin American in…

  • Bellanca, Dorothy Jacobs (American activist)

    Dorothy Jacobs Bellanca, Latvian-born American labour leader, remembered for her zealous union activism in the garment industry. Dorothy Jacobs immigrated with her family to the United States from Latvia in 1900. They settled in Baltimore, Maryland. At age 13 Jacobs left school and went to work in

  • Bellanca, Giuseppe Mario (American aeronautical designer)

    Giuseppe Mario Bellanca, airplane designer and builder who created the first monoplane in the United States with an enclosed cabin. Bellanca graduated with an engineering degree from the Milan Polytechnic and in 1911 came to the United States, where he thought the future was bright for aircraft

  • Bellarmine (stoneware jug)

    Bartmannkrug, type of 16th-century German jug, characterized by a round belly and a mask of a bearded man applied in relief to the neck. This salt-glazed stoneware jug is associated particularly with Cologne and Frechen, where it was manufactured in considerable numbers. It was sometimes called a

  • Bellarmine, Saint Robert (Italian cardinal)

    St. Robert Bellarmine, ; canonized 1930; feast day September 17), Italian cardinal and theologian, an opponent of the Protestant doctrines of the Reformation. He is considered a leading figure in the Catholic Counter-Reformation and strongly supported the self-reform decrees of the Council of

  • Bellarmino, San Roberto Francesco Romolo (Italian cardinal)

    St. Robert Bellarmine, ; canonized 1930; feast day September 17), Italian cardinal and theologian, an opponent of the Protestant doctrines of the Reformation. He is considered a leading figure in the Catholic Counter-Reformation and strongly supported the self-reform decrees of the Council of

  • Bellary (India)

    Ballari, city, eastern Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in an upland region about 35 miles (55 km) east-southeast of the Tungabhadra Reservoir. The city is dominated by a 16th-century fort on a granitic rock, 2 miles (3 km) in circumference, which rises abruptly to a height of some

  • Bellas Artes, Museo de (museum, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Museum of Fine Arts, museum in Caracas, Venez., containing a variety of international and Venezuelan art, and also possessing fine gardens. It adjoins the Gallery of National Art (Galería de Arte Nacional), one of the few museums in South America founded to show the national cultural identity of

  • Bellas Artes, Palacio de (cultural centre, Mexico City, Mexico)

    Palace of Fine Arts, cultural centre in Mexico City that was built between 1904 and 1934. The palace contains a large theatre, concert hall, museum of popular arts, and halls and galleries for paintings and other works of art. Balcony lobbies display murals by Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco,

  • Bellatrix (star)

    astronomical map: Star names and designations: …meaning “hand of Orion”; and Bellatrix, meaning “Female Warrior,” either is a free Latin translation of an independent Arabic title, al-najid, “the conqueror,” or is a modification of an alternative name for Orion himself. Only a handful of names have recent origins—for example, Cor Caroli (Latin: “Heart of Charles”), the…

  • Bellay, Guillaume du, seigneur de Langey (French soldier, writer, and diplomat)

    Guillaume du Bellay, seigneur de Langey, French soldier and writer known for his diplomatic exploits during the reign of King Francis I of France. The eldest of six brothers of a noble Angevin family, du Bellay was educated at the Sorbonne. He fought in Flanders and in Italy and was eventually,

  • Bellay, Jean du (French cardinal and diplomat)

    Jean du Bellay, French cardinal and diplomat, one of the chief counsellors of King Francis I of France and a protector of humanists and religious reformers. Member of a prominent family and brother of Guillaume du Bellay, Jean du Bellay was made bishop of Bayonne in 1526, a privy counsellor in

  • Bellay, Joachim du (French poet)

    Joachim du Bellay, French poet, leader with Pierre de Ronsard of the literary group known as La Pléiade. Du Bellay is the author of the Pléiade’s manifesto, La Défense et illustration de la langue fran?aise (The Defence & Illustration of the French Language). Du Bellay was born into a noble family

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