<var id="79jxb"><video id="79jxb"></video></var>
<var id="79jxb"><strike id="79jxb"></strike></var>
<cite id="79jxb"><span id="79jxb"></span></cite>
<cite id="79jxb"><video id="79jxb"><listing id="79jxb"></listing></video></cite><cite id="79jxb"><span id="79jxb"><menuitem id="79jxb"></menuitem></span></cite><cite id="79jxb"><noframes id="79jxb"><menuitem id="79jxb"></menuitem><cite id="79jxb"><span id="79jxb"><cite id="79jxb"></cite></span></cite><var id="79jxb"><video id="79jxb"></video></var>
<var id="79jxb"><strike id="79jxb"><thead id="79jxb"></thead></strike></var>
<menuitem id="79jxb"><strike id="79jxb"></strike></menuitem><menuitem id="79jxb"></menuitem>
<var id="79jxb"><strike id="79jxb"><thead id="79jxb"></thead></strike></var>
<cite id="79jxb"><span id="79jxb"></span></cite>
<cite id="79jxb"></cite>
<cite id="79jxb"></cite>
<var id="79jxb"></var>
<var id="79jxb"></var>
You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Benda, Friedrich Ludwig (German composer)

    Georg Benda: Benda’s son Friedrich Ludwig Benda (1752–92) was a composer of theatrical music, cantatas, and instrumental works.

  • Benda, Friedrich William Heinrich (German musician)

    Franti?ek Benda: His son Friedrich William Heinrich Benda (1745–1814) also became well known as a violinist and composer.

  • Benda, Georg (German composer)

    Georg Benda, composer widely admired during his lifetime for his stage works. The third son of Jan Ji?í Benda and his wife, Dorota Brixi, both musicians, and brother of the violinist Franti?ek Benda, he went with his family to Berlin in 1742. He played violin in the royal orchestra (1742–49) and

  • Benda, Georg Anton (German composer)

    Georg Benda, composer widely admired during his lifetime for his stage works. The third son of Jan Ji?í Benda and his wife, Dorota Brixi, both musicians, and brother of the violinist Franti?ek Benda, he went with his family to Berlin in 1742. He played violin in the royal orchestra (1742–49) and

  • Benda, Ji?í Antonín (German composer)

    Georg Benda, composer widely admired during his lifetime for his stage works. The third son of Jan Ji?í Benda and his wife, Dorota Brixi, both musicians, and brother of the violinist Franti?ek Benda, he went with his family to Berlin in 1742. He played violin in the royal orchestra (1742–49) and

  • Benda, Julien (French philosopher and author)

    Julien Benda, novelist and philosopher, leader of the anti-Romantic movement in French criticism, persistent defender of reason and intellect against the philosophical intuitionism of Henri Bergson. Benda graduated from the University of Paris in 1894. Among his first writings were articles (1898)

  • Benda, Vaclav (Czech dissident and politician)

    Vaclav Benda, Czech philosopher, mathematician, writer, and politician who was a prominent member of the dissident group Charter 77, which played a leading role in the Velvet Revolution, a popular upheaval that ended communist control of Czechoslovakia in late 1989; a conservative Catholic, he

  • Benda, Wladyslaw Theodor (American painter)

    Wladyslaw Theodor Benda, Polish American painter, illustrator, and designer. Benda studied art in Kraków, Pol., and in Vienna before coming to the United States in 1899. He settled in New York City, becoming a U.S. citizen in 1911. Benda’s illustrations were published in books and in a number of

  • bendahara (Malayan official)

    Bendahara, in the traditional Malay states, the chief minister, second only to the sultan in rank, power, and authority; the office of bendahara (a Sanskrit title) grew in importance during the Malacca sultanate after 1400. Its functions included executing the sultan’s commands and acting as prime

  • Bendall, Fay (British biochemist)

    photosynthesis: The pathway of electrons: …proposed by Robert Hill and Fay Bendall in 1960. This mechanism is based on the relative potential (in volts) of various cofactors of the electron-transfer chain to be oxidized or reduced. Molecules that in their oxidized form have the strongest affinity for electrons (i.e., are strong oxidizing agents) have a…

  • benday process (printing)

    photoengraving: The benday process: An entirely mechanical procedure for production of a halftone image on a metal printing plate is the benday process (1879), named after its inventor, Benjamin Day, a New York newspaper engraver. This process utilizes a series of celluloid screens bearing raised images of…

  • Bendel (state, Nigeria)

    Edo: …from the northern portion of Bendel state, the southern portion becoming Delta state. Prior to this, in 1963, the citizens of the territory had voted to separate from what was then the Western region, and the Mid-West region was created. This became Mid-Western state following the federal reorganization in 1967;…

  • Bender (Moldova)

    Tighina, city, Moldova. Tighina lies along the right bank of the Dniester River below its confluence with the Bacu (Byk). A settlement has existed on the site since the 2nd century bce. It came successively under the rule of Kiev, Moldavia, Genoa, Turkey, and, in 1818, after frequent attacks,

  • Bender Cassim (Somalia)

    Somalia: Settlement patterns: Mogadishu, Berbera, and Boosaaso (Bosaso).

  • Bender, Charles Albert (American baseball player)

    Charles Albert Bender, American professional baseball player, a right-handed pitcher. He is credited with the invention of the pitch known as the slider. Bender’s mother was part Ojibwa, and his childhood was spent on a reservation and at schools for Native Americans. Because of this, Bender was

  • Bender-Ere?li (Zonguldak province, Turkey)

    Ere?li, town, northern Turkey. It is situated on the Black Sea coast about 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Zonguldak. The town was founded about 560 bce as Heraclea Pontica by a colony of Megarians who soon subjected the native Mariandynians and extended their control over most of the coast. In 74

  • Bendery (Moldova)

    Tighina, city, Moldova. Tighina lies along the right bank of the Dniester River below its confluence with the Bacu (Byk). A settlement has existed on the site since the 2nd century bce. It came successively under the rule of Kiev, Moldavia, Genoa, Turkey, and, in 1818, after frequent attacks,

  • Bendich, Al (American lawyer)

    Al Bendich, (Albert Morris Bendich), American lawyer (born June 18, 1929, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 5, 2015, Oakland, Calif.), was known for his landmark successful defenses on free-speech grounds of poet and bookstore owner Lawrence Ferlinghetti for having published Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Other

  • Bendich, Albert Morris (American lawyer)

    Al Bendich, (Albert Morris Bendich), American lawyer (born June 18, 1929, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 5, 2015, Oakland, Calif.), was known for his landmark successful defenses on free-speech grounds of poet and bookstore owner Lawrence Ferlinghetti for having published Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Other

  • Bendideia (Greek festival)

    Bendis: …created a state festival, the Bendideia, for her. The first celebration was held on the 19th of Thargelion (May–June), 429 bc, at the Piraeus, the seaport of Athens. The festival included two processions, a torch race on horseback, and a vigil; it provided the dramatic setting for Plato’s Republic.

  • Bendigeidfran (Celtic god)

    Bran, (Celtic: “Raven”), gigantic Celtic deity who figured in the Mabinogion (a collection of medieval Welsh tales) as “crowned king over this Island” (i.e., Britain). Because of his stature, he and his court had to live in a tent, as no house had ever been built large enough to contain him. The

  • Bendigo (British boxer)

    Bendigo, English bare-knuckle boxer who became a Methodist evangelist and who is one of the few athletes whose name is borne by a city—Bendigo in Victoria, Australia. His nickname apparently is a corruption of the Old Testament name Abednego. Thompson was one of triplets; the other two were

  • Bendigo (Victoria, Australia)

    Bendigo, city, central Victoria, Australia, in the central upland area of the state; it is about 93 miles (150 km) northwest of Melbourne by road. Founded as a sheep run in 1840, the city’s official name was Sandhurst until 1891, when it was formally changed to honour a local prizefighter who

  • Bendine, Aldemir (Brazilian business executive)

    Aldemir Bendine, Brazilian business executive who served as CEO of Banco do Brasil (2009–15) and later of Petrobras (2015–16). Bendine began his association with the government-owned Banco do Brasil in 1978, when he began an internship at that bank at the age of 14. He later earned a bachelor’s

  • bending (physics)

    mechanics of solids: Linear elastic beam: …and have sufficient symmetry that bending it by applying a torque about the 3-direction causes the line to deform into an arc lying in the 1,2-plane. Make an imaginary cut through the line, and let the forces and torque acting at that section on the part lying in the direction…

  • bending moment (physics)

    mechanics of solids: Linear elastic beam: …torque M, commonly called a bending moment, about the positive 3-direction. The linear and angular momentum principles then require that the actions at that section on the part of the line lying along the direction of increasing X1 be of equal magnitude but opposite sign.

  • bending moment curve (physics)

    ship: Structural integrity: …the length to give the bending moment curve—a curve that usually has its maximum near mid-length. A value for bending stress can then be obtained by dividing the maximum bending moment by a beam section modulus of the hull structure, which is calculated from a detailed structural plan. For protection…

  • bending structure (engineering)

    construction: Structural types: Bending structures include the girder, the two-way grid, the truss, the two-way truss, and the space truss. They have varying optimum depth-to-span ratios ranging from 1 : 5 to 1 : 15 for the one-way truss to 1 : 35 to 1 : 40 for…

  • bending test

    papermaking: Strength and durability: …resistance of paper to a bending force is evident in the various operations of its manufacture and in its many uses. The range in this property extends from very soft, flexible tissues to rigid boards. Thicker and heavier sheets tend to be stiff, whereas soft, flexible sheets are light and…

  • bending vibration (chemical bonding)

    chemical compound: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy: These movements are called bending vibrations. Both stretching and bending vibrations represent different energy levels of a molecule. These energy differences match the energies of wavelengths in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum—i.e., those ranging from 2.5 to 15 micrometres (μm; 1 μm = 10?6m). An infrared spectrophotometer…

  • Bendis (Thracian goddess)

    Bendis, Thracian goddess of the moon; the Greeks usually identified her with the goddess Artemis. She is often represented holding two spears. Apart from areas adjacent to Thrace, the cult of Bendis gained prominence only in Athens. At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians allowed

  • Bendis, Brian Michael (American writer and cartoonist)

    Marvel Comics: The Marvel universe: …new wave of writers, including Brian Michael Bendis (Daredevil, The Avengers), Jonathan Hickman (Fantastic Four), and Ed Brubaker (Captain America), became well known for their mature and sometimes controversial takes on Marvel’s characters. The 2010s saw the emergence of another new wave of talent, with writer Matt Fraction and artist…

  • Bendix Aviation Corporation (American company)

    Bendix Corporation, former American corporation founded in 1924 to manufacture automobile brake systems. In 1983 it became a subsidiary of Allied Corporation (see AlliedSignal), which merged with Honeywell in 1999. For much of the 20th century, Bendix was a leading manufacturer and supplier of

  • Bendix Corporation (American company)

    Bendix Corporation, former American corporation founded in 1924 to manufacture automobile brake systems. In 1983 it became a subsidiary of Allied Corporation (see AlliedSignal), which merged with Honeywell in 1999. For much of the 20th century, Bendix was a leading manufacturer and supplier of

  • Bendix, Reinhard (American sociologist)

    monarchy: Premodern monarchies: …what the German-born American sociologist Reinhard Bendix called “a mandate of the people.” Thus, a society’s “sovereignty,” or its principles of independence, cohesion, and leadership, rested with its people as a whole and not with an individual and his or her dynasty.

  • Bendix, Vincent (American inventor and industrialist)

    Vincent Bendix, American inventor and industrialist who contributed to the development of automobiles and aircraft. At the age of 16, Bendix ran away from home to New York City, where he studied engineering at night school. In 1907 he organized the Bendix Company of Chicago and produced more than

  • Bendix, William (American actor)

    John Farrow: Films of the 1940s: …Brian Donlevy, Robert Preston, and William Bendix. It received an Academy Award nomination for best picture and earned Farrow his only nomination for best director. Other films set during World War II included Commandos Strike at Dawn (1942) with Paul Muni; China (1943), a thriller about war profiteers (Alan Ladd…

  • Bendjedid, Chadli (president of Algeria)

    Chadli Bendjedid, Algerian politician (born April 14, 1929, Bouteldja, French Algeria—died Oct. 6, 2012, Algiers, Alg.), introduced moderate democratic reforms, promulgated a new national constitution, and attempted to foster multiparty legislative elections as the third president (1979–92) of the

  • Bendjelloul, Malik (Swedish documentary filmmaker)

    Malik Bendjelloul, Swedish documentary filmmaker (born Sept. 14, 1977, Ystad, Swed.—died May 13, 2014, Stockholm, Swed.), won an Academy Award, a BAFTA award, and more than a dozen other honours for his debut feature-length documentary, Searching for Sugar Man (2012). The detective-style film arose

  • Bendor, Avraham (Israeli intelligence agent)

    Avraham Shalom, (Avraham Bendor), Israeli intelligence agent (born June 7, 1928, Vienna, Austria—died June 19, 2014, Tel Aviv, Israel), was in the Israeli internal security agency, Shin Bet, for more than 35 years (1950–86), including a six-year stint (1980–86) as the organization’s director, but

  • Bendorf Bridge (bridge, Koblenz, Germany)

    bridge: Ulrich Finsterwalder: Finsterwalder’s Bendorf Bridge over the Rhine at Koblenz, Germany, was completed in 1962 with thin piers and a centre span of 202 metres (673 feet). The double cantilevering method saved money through the absence of scaffolding in the water and also by allowing for reduced girder…

  • bends

    Decompression sickness, physiological effects of the formation of gas bubbles in the body because of rapid transition from a high-pressure environment to one of lower pressure. Pilots of unpressurized aircraft, underwater divers, and caisson workers are highly susceptible to the sickness because

  • Bends, The (album by Radiohead)

    Radiohead: The Bends (1995) took even the band’s most ardent fans by surprise. A soaring, intense mix of the approaches of Nirvana and dramatic vocalist Jeff Buckley, the album’s powerful sense of alienation completely transcended the parochial issues of mid-1990s Britpop. Driving rockers such as “Bones”…

  • Bene Beraq (Israel)

    Bnei Brak, city, northeastern suburb of Tel Aviv–Yafo, west-central Israel, in the southern Plain of Sharon. In Assyrian texts, Bnei Brak is listed as a city that fell to Sennacherib, king of Assyria, in 701 bce. It is also mentioned in the Bible (Joshua 19) and was a well-known scholarly centre

  • Bene Ha-Mizra? (people)

    Mizrahi Jews, the approximately 1.5 million Diaspora Jews who lived for several centuries in North Africa and the Middle East and whose ancestors did not reside in either Germany or Spain. They are thus distinguished from the two other major groups of Diaspora Jews—the Ashkenazim (German rite) and

  • Bene hekh-ala de-khesifin (hymn by Luria)

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: …Order the Festive Meal”), and “Bene hekh-ala de-khesifin” (“Sons of the Temple of Silver”). They are mystical, erotic songs about “the adornment (or fitting) of the bride”—i.e., the sabbath, who was identified with the community of Israel—and on the other partzufim: arikh anpin (the long-suffering: the countenance of grace) and…

  • Bene Israel (people)

    Bene Israel, (Hebrew: “Sons of Israel”) the largest and oldest of several groups of Jews of India. Believed by tradition to have shipwrecked on the Konkan coast of western India more than 2,100 years ago, they were absorbed into Indian society, maintaining many Jewish observances while operating

  • Bene nati (novel by Orzeszkowa)

    Eliza Orzeszkowa: Bene nati (1892; “Wellborn”) describes the impoverished gentry of small villages.

  • Bene, Carmelo (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Theatre: …admire the intense presence of Carmelo Bene (who died prematurely in 2002) in the episodic tableaux and declamatory voice-over of the antinarrative film version of his Nostra signora dei Turchi (1966; “Our Lady of the Turks”). Bene, Fo, and Fo’s talented wife, Franca Rame, are examples of the phenomenon of…

  • Bene-Yisrael (Judaism)

    Samaritan, member of a community of Jews, now nearly extinct, that claims to be related by blood to those Jews of ancient Samaria who were not deported by the Assyrian conquerors of the kingdom of Israel in 722 bce. The Samaritans call themselves Bene-Yisrael (“Children of Israel”), or Shamerim

  • Beneath the Wheel (novel by Hesse)

    Hermann Hesse: …the novel Unterm Rad (1906; Beneath the Wheel), in which an overly diligent student is driven to self-destruction.

  • Benedek, Laslo (Hungarian-born director)

    The Wild One: Production notes and credits:

  • Benedek, Ludwig August, Ritter von (Austrian field marshal)

    Ludwig August, Ritter von Benedek, Austrian field marshal whose defeat at the Battle of K?niggr?tz (Battle of Sadowa) on July 3, 1866, was decisive in the emergence of Prussia as the predominant German power and the creation of a Prussian-dominated German Empire. Benedek entered the Austrian Army

  • Beneden, Edouard Joseph Louis-Marie van (Belgian embryologist and cytologist)

    Edouard van Beneden, Belgian embryologist and cytologist best known for his discoveries concerning fertilization and chromosome numbers in sex cells and body cells. During his early years, van Beneden worked with his father, P.J. van Beneden, a professor of zoology at the Catholic University in

  • Beneden, Edouard van (Belgian embryologist and cytologist)

    Edouard van Beneden, Belgian embryologist and cytologist best known for his discoveries concerning fertilization and chromosome numbers in sex cells and body cells. During his early years, van Beneden worked with his father, P.J. van Beneden, a professor of zoology at the Catholic University in

  • Beneden, Pierre-Joseph van (Belgian scientist)

    Pierre-Joseph van Beneden, parasitologist and paleontologist best known for his discovery of the life cycle of tapeworms (Cestoda). After an apprenticeship with the pharmacist Louis Stoffels, van Beneden studied medicine at the University of Louvain. In 1835 he was appointed professor of zoology at

  • Benédette, Le (Italian painter)

    Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, Italian painter and one of the most important technical innovators in the history of printmaking. Beginning in the highly artificial style of Mannerism, Castiglione was a productive painter who left portraits (though very few survived from what had been a large

  • Benedetti, Jacopo dei (Italian poet)

    Jacopone Da Todi, Italian religious poet, author of more than 100 mystical poems of great power and originality, and probable author of the Latin poem Stabat mater dolorosa. Born of a noble family and trained for the law, Jacopone practiced until his wife’s sudden death at a party about 1268 p

  • Benedetti, Mario (Uruguayan writer)

    Mario Benedetti, Uruguayan writer who was best known for his short stories. Benedetti was born to a prosperous family of Italian immigrants. His father was a viniculturist and a chemist. At age four the boy was taken to Montevideo, where he received a superior education at a private school. He was

  • Benedetti, Vincent, Comte (French diplomat)

    Vincent, Count Benedetti, French diplomat remembered chiefly for his role in the events leading up to the Franco-German War in 1870. Benedetti studied law in Paris and in 1840 entered consular service. He served in several embassies in Europe and the Middle East between 1845 and 1864, when he was

  • Benedetto Croce on aesthetics

    Benedetto Croce’s life stretched from the early years of Italy’s unification to the era of stability that followed World War II. As a humanist, historian, and philosopher, he bore lifelong witness to his nation’s formative decades. Consequently, his historical and political writings often reveal

  • Benedetto da Maiano (Italian sculptor)

    Benedetto da Maiano, early Renaissance sculptor, whose work is characterized by its decorative elegance and realistic detail. He was greatly influenced by the Florentine sculptor Antonio Rossellino. His earliest surviving work is the shrine of S. Savino (1468–72) in the Faenza cathedral. Between

  • Benedetto, Anthony Dominick (American singer)

    Tony Bennett, American popular singer known for his smooth voice and interpretive abilities with songs in a variety of genres. Bennett, the son of a grocer, spent his boyhood in Astoria, New York, studying singing and painting. At the behest of his vocal instructor, Bennett immersed himself in the

  • Benedick (fictional character)

    Benedick, the young lord of Padua in Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing. Together, Benedick and Beatrice wage a “merry war” of wits in which love triumphs over

  • Benedicks, Michael (Swedish mathematician)

    Lennart Carleson: …his work with Swedish mathematician Michael Benedicks in 1991, which gave one of the first rigorous proofs that strange attractors exist in dynamical systems and has important consequences for the study of chaotic behaviour.

  • Benedict Biscop, Saint (English abbot)

    Saint Benedict Biscop, ; feast day January 12; for English Benedictines and dioceses of Liverpool and Hexham February 13), founder and first abbot of the celebrated twin monasteries of SS. Peter (at Wearmouth) and Paul (at Jarrow on Tyne, nearby); he is considered to be the father of Benedictine

  • Benedict dell’Antella, Saint (Italian friar)
  • Benedict I (pope)

    Benedict I, pope from 575 to 579. Little is known about his life. He was elected to succeed John III, probably just after the latter’s death (July 574), but was not consecrated until June 575, so that the see of Rome was vacant for almost 11 months. He consecrated 21 bishops during his pontificate,

  • Benedict II, Saint (pope)

    Saint Benedict II, ; feast day May 8), pope from 684 to 685. He was engaged in church government under popes SS. Agatho and Leo II, whom he was elected (683) to succeed. His consecration (June 26, 684) was delayed until the approval of the Byzantine emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus could be

  • Benedict III (pope)

    Benedict III, pope from 855 to 858, who was chosen as successor to Leo IV in July 855. The election was not immediately confirmed by the Holy Roman emperor Louis II the Bavarian, who set up Anastasius the Librarian as antipope. Benedict was imprisoned, but the imperial government’s opposition to

  • Benedict IV (pope)

    Benedict IV, pope from 900 to 903. Benedict reigned during one of the darkest periods of papal history, when Rome was torn by partisan conflict over the memory of the posthumously excommunicated pope Formosus. Little is known of his life or acts. He excommunicated Baldwin II, count of Flanders, for

  • Benedict IX (pope)

    Benedict IX, pope three times, from 1032 to 1044, from April to May 1045, and from 1047 to 1048. The last of the popes from the powerful Tusculani family, he was notorious for selling the papacy and then reclaiming the office twice. The son of Count Alberic of Tusculum, he was the nephew of two p

  • Benedict of Albano (Italian bishop)

    Sergius II: …dominated by his brother, Bishop Benedict of Albano, to whom, partly because of his severe gout, he delegated most of the papal business. Benedict proved opportunistic, however, usurping power and finagling money while executing a large building program that included the enlargement of the St. John Lateran Basilica. The worst…

  • Benedict of Aniane, Saint (French bishop)

    France: Monasticism: Benedict of Aniane, imposed the Benedictine rule, which became a characteristic feature of Western monasticism. The Carolingians, however, continued the practice of having lay abbots.

  • Benedict of Norcia, Saint (Italian monk)

    St. Benedict, ; feast day July 11, formerly March 21), founder of the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino and father of Western monasticism; the rule that he established became the norm for monastic living throughout Europe. In 1964, in view of the work of monks following the Benedictine Rule in

  • Benedict of Nursia, Saint (Italian monk)

    St. Benedict, ; feast day July 11, formerly March 21), founder of the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino and father of Western monasticism; the rule that he established became the norm for monastic living throughout Europe. In 1964, in view of the work of monks following the Benedictine Rule in

  • Benedict the Grammarian (pope or antipope)

    Benedict V, pope, or antipope, from May 22, 964, to June 23, 964, when he was deposed. His election by the Romans on the death of Pope John XII infuriated the Holy Roman emperor Otto I, who had already deposed John and designated Leo VIII as successor. Otto forced his way into Rome and convened a

  • Benedict the Pole (Franciscan monk)

    Giovanni Da Pian Del Carpini: …at Breslau (now Wroc?aw) by Benedict the Pole, another Franciscan appointed to act as interpreter. The mission entered the Mongol posts at Kanev and thereafter crossed the Dnieper, the Don, and the Volga. On the Volga stood the ordu, or “camp,” of Batu, the supreme commander on the western frontiers…

  • Benedict V (pope or antipope)

    Benedict V, pope, or antipope, from May 22, 964, to June 23, 964, when he was deposed. His election by the Romans on the death of Pope John XII infuriated the Holy Roman emperor Otto I, who had already deposed John and designated Leo VIII as successor. Otto forced his way into Rome and convened a

  • Benedict VI (pope)

    Benedict VI, pope from Jan. 19, 973, to July 974. He was a cardinal deacon when elected to succeed John XIII the Good (d. Sept. 6, 972), but his consecration was delayed for the ratification of his protector, the Holy Roman emperor Otto I the Great. Otto’s death in 973 put Benedict at the mercy of

  • Benedict VII (pope)

    Benedict VII, pope from 974 to 983. He furthered the cause of monasticism and acted against simony, specifically in an encyclical letter in 981 forbidding the exaction of money for the conferring of any holy order. Formerly bishop of Sutri, Papal States, he was elected through the intervention of

  • Benedict VIII (pope)

    Benedict VIII, pope from 1012 to 1024, the first of several pontiffs from the powerful Tusculani family. The ascendancy of the Tusculani marked the fall of the rival Crescentii family of Rome, which had come to dominate the papacy in the latter half of the 10th century. Benedict’s predecessor,

  • Benedict X (antipope)

    Benedict (X), antipope from April 1058 to January 1059. His expulsion from the papal throne, on which he had been placed through the efforts of the powerful Tusculani family of Rome, was followed by a reform in the law governing papal elections. The new law, enacted in 1059, established an

  • Benedict XI, Blessed (pope)

    Blessed Benedict XI, ; feast day July 7), pope from 1303 to 1304. His brief reign was taken up with problems he inherited from the quarrel of his predecessor, Boniface VIII, with King Philip IV the Fair of France and the King’s allies (the Colonna family of Rome). He entered the Dominican order in

  • Benedict XII (pope)

    Benedict XII, pope from 1334 to 1342; he was the third pontiff to reign at Avignon, where he devoted himself to reform of the church and its religious orders. In the political sphere his efforts, influenced by King Philip VI of France, were generally unsuccessful. One of his most significant

  • Benedict XIII (antipope)

    Benedict (XIII), antipope from 1394 to 1417. He reigned in Avignon, Provence, in opposition to the reigning popes in Rome, during the Western Schism (1378–1417), when the Roman Catholic Church was split by national rivalries claiming the papal throne. Of noble birth, he was professor of canon law

  • Benedict XIII (pope)

    Benedict XIII, pope from 1724 to 1730. Entering the Dominican order in 1667, Orsini taught philosophy at Brescia, Venetian Republic, before Pope Clement X made him cardinal in 1672. He was successively archbishop of Manfredonia (1675), of Cesena (1680), and of Benevento (1686). He had taken part

  • Benedict XIV (pope)

    Benedict XIV, pope from 1740 to 1758. His intelligence and moderation won praise even among deprecators of the Roman Catholic Church at a time when it was beset by criticism from the philosophers of the Enlightenment and its prerogatives were being challenged by absolutist monarchs. Typical of his

  • Benedict XIV (antipope)

    Benedict (XIV), counter-antipope from 1425 to c. 1430. In 1417 the Council of Constance deposed the antipope Pope Benedict (XIII) and elected Martin V, thus officially terminating the Western Schism between Avignon and Rome. However, Benedict, protected in his castle of Pe?íscola in Valencia,

  • Benedict XV (pope)

    Benedict XV, pope from 1914 to 1922. After graduating from the University of Genoa, he studied for the priesthood in the Collegio Capranica in Rome and entered the papal diplomatic service, later spending four years in Spain before being employed in the department of the secretary of state (1887).

  • Benedict XVI (pope)

    Benedict XVI, bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church (2005–13). Prior to his election as pope, Benedict led a distinguished career as a theologian and as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. His papacy faced several challenges, including a decline in vocations

  • Benedict, Order of Saint (religious order)

    Benedictine, member of any of the confederated congregations of monks, lay brothers, and nuns who follow the rule of life of St. Benedict (c. 480–c. 547) and who are spiritual descendants of the traditional monastics of the early medieval centuries in Italy and Gaul. The Benedictines, strictly

  • Benedict, Paul K. (American linguist)

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Phonological correspondences: The American linguist Paul Benedict brought in material from other Sino-Tibetan languages and laid down the rule that the comparative linguist should accept perfect phonetic correspondences with inexact though close semantic equivalences in preference to perfect semantic equivalences with questionable phonetic correspondences. New material and competent descriptions later…

  • Benedict, Rule of Saint (monasticism)

    St. Benedict: Rule of St. Benedict: Gregory, in his only reference to the Rule, described it as clear in language and outstanding in its discretion. Benedict had begun his monastic life as a hermit, but he had come to see the difficulties and spiritual dangers of a…

  • Benedict, Ruth (American anthropologist and author)

    Ruth Benedict, American anthropologist whose theories had a profound influence on cultural anthropology, especially in the area of culture and personality. Benedict graduated from Vassar College in 1909, lived in Europe for a year, and then settled in California, where she taught in girls’ schools.

  • Benedict, St. (Italian monk)

    St. Benedict, ; feast day July 11, formerly March 21), founder of the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino and father of Western monasticism; the rule that he established became the norm for monastic living throughout Europe. In 1964, in view of the work of monks following the Benedictine Rule in

  • Benedictine (liqueur)

    Fécamp: …distillery in the town where Benedictine, the liqueur originally produced by local monks, continues to be made. A museum in the distillery is open to the public. The north Atlantic cod fisheries formerly gave the town some prosperity, but this has passed now to Le Havre. The town, popular as…

  • Benedictine Abbey of Melk (abbey, Melk, Austria)

    Melk: …in 1111 to the huge Benedictine abbey of Melk (founded in 1089), which dominates the city. The abbey was enlarged and fortified in the 14th century, but most of its palatial buildings date from its Baroque reconstruction (1702–36). Melk also has some notable Renaissance houses, notably Schallaburg castle. The locality…

  • Benedictine Abbey of St. Mary (abbey, Glastonbury, England, United Kingdom)

    Mendip: …cathedral at Wells and the abbey at Glastonbury, are built of the locally quarried high-quality Doulting limestone. Area 285 square miles (739 square km). Pop. (2001) 103,869; (2011) 109,279.

  • Benedictine Armenian Antonine Monks (religious order)

    Mechitarist, member of the Congregation of Benedictine Armenian Antonine Monks, a Roman Catholic congregation of monks that is widely recognized for its contribution to the renaissance of Armenian philology, literature, and culture early in the 19th century and particularly for the publication of

Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
91国产福利在线观看