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  • Benedictine Rule (monasticism)

    St. Benedict: Rule of St. Benedict: Gregory, in his only reference to the Rule, described it as clear in language and outstanding in its discretion. Benedict had begun his monastic life as a hermit, but he had come to see the difficulties and spiritual dangers of a…

  • Benedictines (religious order)

    Benedictine, member of any of the confederated congregations of monks, lay brothers, and nuns who follow the rule of life of St. Benedict (c. 480–c. 547) and who are spiritual descendants of the traditional monastics of the early medieval centuries in Italy and Gaul. The Benedictines, strictly

  • benediction (religion)

    Benediction, a verbal blessing of persons or things, commonly applied to invocations pronounced in God’s name by a priest or minister, usually at the conclusion of a religious service. The Aaronic benediction (Num. 6:24–26) was incorporated by Luther into his German Mass and is preserved by modern

  • benediction of the Blessed Sacrament (Roman Catholicism)

    Roman Catholicism: Eucharistic devotions: The practice of benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, for example, is a blessing conferred by a priest holding a consecrated host in a vessel of display called a monstrance; the priest’s hands are covered to signify that it is the blessing of Jesus and not his own. This…

  • Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (Anglo-Saxon art)

    Winchester school: …in this period is the Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (10th century; British Museum), in which heavy borders dominate the page designs, creating a low-relief ornamental effect. The colours are rich: purple, green, gold, and blue. The limitation of the style was that it treated both ornament and figures in the…

  • Benedictional of St. Ethelwold (Anglo-Saxon art)

    Winchester school: …in this period is the Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (10th century; British Museum), in which heavy borders dominate the page designs, creating a low-relief ornamental effect. The colours are rich: purple, green, gold, and blue. The limitation of the style was that it treated both ornament and figures in the…

  • Benedictions (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: Books of ordinances: …Congregation, and the manual of Benedictions. The Manual of Discipline is the rule (or statement of regulations) of the Essene community; the most important part of this work is a treatise about the special theology of the sect. The Rule of the Congregation contains prescriptions for the eschatological future when…

  • Benedictsson, Victoria (Swedish author)

    Victoria Benedictsson, writer noted for her natural and unpretentious stories of Swedish folk life and her novels dealing with social issues. Having grown up in a home marred by marital discord, she married, at an early age, a widower much older than herself. Her marriage was unhappy. After an

  • Benedictus (biblical canticle)

    Benedictus, hymn of praise and thanksgiving sung by Zechariah, a Jewish priest of the line of Aaron, on the occasion of the circumcision and naming of his son, John the Baptist. Found in Luke 1:68–79, the canticle received its name from its first words in Latin (Benedictus Dominus Deus Israhel, “

  • Benedictus (liturgical chant)

    Gregorian chant: The Sanctus and Benedictus are probably from apostolic times. The usual Sanctus chants are neumatic. The Agnus Dei was brought into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century and is basically in neumatic style. The concluding Ite Missa Est and its substitute Benedicamus Domino…

  • Benedictus Deus (papal bull)

    Benedict XII: …dispute by issuing a bull, Benedictus Deus (1336), in which he formulated the church’s teaching that the souls of the just are granted the vision immediately after death.

  • Benedictus Grammaticus (pope or antipope)

    Benedict V, pope, or antipope, from May 22, 964, to June 23, 964, when he was deposed. His election by the Romans on the death of Pope John XII infuriated the Holy Roman emperor Otto I, who had already deposed John and designated Leo VIII as successor. Otto forced his way into Rome and convened a

  • Bénédictus, édouard (French artist and chemist)

    safety glass: …by an artist and chemist, édouard Bénédictus, who used a sheet of celluloid bonded between two pieces of glass. Other plastics were also tried, but in 1936 polyvinyl butyral (PVB) was found to possess so many safety-desirable properties that its use became universal. Bulletproof glass is usually built up using…

  • Benedictus, St. (French bridge builder)

    St. Bénézet, ; feast day April 14), builder who instigated and directed the building of the Pont d’Avignon, also known as the Pont Saint-Bénézet, over the Rh?ne River at Avignon, France. He is the patron saint of bridge builders. An uneducated shepherd, Bénézet claimed that he was divinely

  • Benediktbeuern (Germany)

    Carmina Burana: …at the Benedictine monastery in Benediktbeuern (from which burana is derived), Bavaria. The two parts of the manuscript, though written at the same time, have been separated. The songs, rhymed lyrics mainly in Latin with a few in German, vary in subject and style: there are drinking songs, serious and…

  • Benediktbeuern manuscript (medieval manuscript)

    Carmina Burana, 13th-century manuscript that contains songs (the Carmina Burana proper) and six religious plays. The contents of the manuscript are attributed to the goliards (q.v.), wandering scholars and students in western Europe during the 10th to the 13th century who were known for their songs

  • Benediktbeuren (Germany)

    Carmina Burana: …at the Benedictine monastery in Benediktbeuern (from which burana is derived), Bavaria. The two parts of the manuscript, though written at the same time, have been separated. The songs, rhymed lyrics mainly in Latin with a few in German, vary in subject and style: there are drinking songs, serious and…

  • Benediktsson, Einar (Icelandic poet)

    Einar Benediktsson, Neoromantic poet called by some the greatest Icelandic poet of the 20th century. Benediktsson’s father was a leader of the Icelandic independence movement, and his mother was a poet. He received a law degree at Copenhagen in 1892 and briefly edited a Reykjavík newspaper, Dagskrá

  • Benefactor, The (film by Renzi [2015])

    Richard Gere: …capitalist, and the unsettling drama The Benefactor (2015), in which he played a wealthy drug addict who wheedles and bribes his way into the lives of a young couple. Gere earned critical praise for his portrayal of the title character in Norman: The Moderate Rise and Tragic Fall of a…

  • benefice (land tenure)

    Benefice, a particular kind of land tenure that came into use in the 8th century in the kingdom of the Franks. A Frankish sovereign or lord, the seigneur, leased an estate to a freeman on easy terms in beneficium (Latin: “for the benefit [of the tenant]”), and this came to be called a beneficium,

  • beneficence (ethics)

    bioethics: The four-principles approach: The second principle, beneficence, holds that they should aim to do good—i.e., to promote the interests of their patients. The third principle, nonmaleficence, requires that they should do no harm. Finally, the fourth principle, justice, holds that they should act fairly when the interests of different individuals or…

  • beneficent immortal (Zoroastrianism)

    Amesha spenta, (Avestan: “beneficent immortal”) in Zoroastrianism, any of the six divine beings or archangels created by Ahura Mazdā, the Wise Lord, to help govern creation. Three are male, three female. Ministers of his power against the evil spirit, Ahriman, they are depicted clustered about

  • beneficiary (law)

    Beneficiary, in Anglo-American law, one for whose benefit a trust is created. Beneficiaries of private trusts must be identifiable legal entities (natural persons or corporations) or a class of persons (such as children of the creator of the trust). Whereas the beneficiaries must be described with

  • beneficiation (ore treatment)

    Beneficiation, removal of worthless particles from pulverized metal ore. See mineral

  • beneficium (land tenure)

    Benefice, a particular kind of land tenure that came into use in the 8th century in the kingdom of the Franks. A Frankish sovereign or lord, the seigneur, leased an estate to a freeman on easy terms in beneficium (Latin: “for the benefit [of the tenant]”), and this came to be called a beneficium,

  • benefit (social welfare)

    income tax: Equity tests: …some close relation to the benefits the taxpayer enjoys from the operation of government, have tried to show that, at some levels of income, benefits increase more rapidly than income. But their efforts have served to do little more than reveal the shortcomings of “benefit theory.” Others, starting with the…

  • benefit performance (theatre)

    Benefit performance, in theatre, originally a supplemental performance by an actor or actress, who kept all or part of the proceeds to compensate for insufficient salary. In modern times a benefit performance is given by an actor, entertainer, or company of them to benefit a charitable

  • benefit principle (taxation)

    Erik Robert Lindahl: Lindahl also developed the benefit principle in taxation, described in his book Die Gerechtigkeit der Besteuerung (1919; “The Justness of Taxation”). That principle holds that each person’s share of taxes paid for government-provided goods and services should equal the share of benefits each person receives. Lindahl argued that not…

  • benefit tax (economics)

    sales tax: …fuels, are justified as “benefit taxes” related to costs of providing public services. Others, sometimes called “sin taxes,” may be intended to discourage consumption (e.g., of alcohol and tobacco) that may be injurious to the consumer or to society. The tax rates applied to commodities often vary based on…

  • benefit-cost analysis (economics)

    Cost–benefit analysis, in governmental planning and budgeting, the attempt to measure the social benefits of a proposed project in monetary terms and compare them with its costs. The procedure, which is equivalent to the business practice of cost-budgeting analysis, was first proposed in 1844 by

  • benefit-to-cost analysis (economics)

    Cost–benefit analysis, in governmental planning and budgeting, the attempt to measure the social benefits of a proposed project in monetary terms and compare them with its costs. The procedure, which is equivalent to the business practice of cost-budgeting analysis, was first proposed in 1844 by

  • Benegal, Shyam (Indian director)

    Shyam Benegal, leading Indian director of nonmainstream Hindi cinema and one of its most prolific filmmakers. He is considered a founder of the movement of realistic and issue-based filmmaking known variously as New Indian cinema, New Wave Indian cinema, or parallel cinema. Benegal’s father was a

  • Beneke, Friedrich Eduard (Prussian philosopher and psychologist)

    Friedrich Eduard Beneke, German philosopher and psychologist who argued that inductive psychology was the foundation for the study of all philosophical disciplines. He rejected the existing idealism for a form of associationism influenced by both Kant and Locke. Beneke studied theology and

  • Beneke, Tex (American musician)

    Tex Beneke, (Gordon Beneke), American musician and band leader (born Feb. 12, 1914, Fort Worth, Texas—died May 30, 2000, Costa Mesa, Calif.), played tenor saxophone solos in a Coleman Hawkins-inspired manner, sang hit songs such as “I Got a Gal in Kalamazoo” and “Chattanooga Choo Choo,” and a

  • Benelux (European economic union)

    Benelux, economic union of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, with the objective of bringing about total economic integration by ensuring free circulation of persons, goods, capital, and services; by following a coordinated policy in the economic, financial, and social fields; and by

  • Benelux Countries (region, Europe)

    Low Countries, coastal region of northwestern Europe, consisting of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. These are together known as the Benelux countries, from the initial letters of their names. The Low Countries are bordered by Germany to the east and France to the south. In 1947 the three

  • Benelux Countries

    Benelux Countries, (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg): see Low

  • Benelux Economic Union (European economic union)

    Benelux, economic union of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, with the objective of bringing about total economic integration by ensuring free circulation of persons, goods, capital, and services; by following a coordinated policy in the economic, financial, and social fields; and by

  • Benelux Economische Unie (European economic union)

    Benelux, economic union of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, with the objective of bringing about total economic integration by ensuring free circulation of persons, goods, capital, and services; by following a coordinated policy in the economic, financial, and social fields; and by

  • Benelux Treaty of Economic Union (Belgium-Luxembourg-Netherlands [1958])

    international trade: The Benelux Economic Union: …their own integration in the Benelux Treaty of Economic Union signed at The Hague on Feb. 3, 1958. The Hague treaty, however, contained little that was new, and in outline form it was no more than the codification of results already achieved.

  • Benemérita de San Cristóbal (Dominican Republic)

    San Cristóbal, city, southern Dominican Republic. It is situated in the coastal lowlands close to the Caribbean Sea. Founded by Spaniards in 1575, when gold was discovered in the area, it was the site of the signing of the Dominican Republic’s first constitution (1844) and of the birth of dictator

  • Benemerita, L’Arma (Italian police)

    Carabiniere, one of the national police forces of Italy. Originally an elite military organization in the Savoyard states, the corps became part of the Italian armed forces at the time of national unification (1861). For almost 140 years the Carabinieri were considered part of the army, but in 2000

  • Benenson, Peter (British lawyer)

    Peter James Henry Solomon Benenson, British attorney and human rights activist (born July 31, 1921, London, Eng.—died Feb. 25, 2005, Oxford, Eng.), founded Amnesty International (AI) in 1961 after reading in a news story that two students in Portugal had been imprisoned by that country’s d

  • Benerito, Ruth (American chemist)

    Ruth Benerito, (Ruth Mary Rogan), American chemist (born Jan. 12, 1916, New Orleans, La.—died Oct. 5, 2013, Metairie, La.), accrued a total of 55 patents while working (1953–86) as a chemist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), but her most notable invention was probably the chemical

  • Benes, Eduard (president of Czechoslovakia)

    Edvard Bene?, statesman, foreign minister, and president, a founder of modern Czechoslovakia who forged its Western-oriented foreign policy between World Wars I and II but capitulated to Adolf Hitler’s demands during the Czech crisis of 1938. After studying in Prague, Paris, and Dijon, France,

  • Bene?, Edvard (president of Czechoslovakia)

    Edvard Bene?, statesman, foreign minister, and president, a founder of modern Czechoslovakia who forged its Western-oriented foreign policy between World Wars I and II but capitulated to Adolf Hitler’s demands during the Czech crisis of 1938. After studying in Prague, Paris, and Dijon, France,

  • Bene?, Jan (Czech dissident)

    Czechoslovak history: The growing reform movement: …answered this rebellion with sanctions: Jan Bene? was sent to prison for antistate propaganda; Ludvík Vaculík, Antonín J. Liehm, and Ivan Klíma were expelled from the party; and Jan Procházka was dismissed from the party’s Central Committee, of which he was a candidate member. This repression merely strengthened opposition to…

  • Benesh notation (dance)

    dance: Prominent notation methods: Choreology, developed by Joan and Rudolf Benesh in 1955, is based on a more clearly visual rather than symbolic form of notation. It is written on a five-line stave, recording the dancer’s position as viewed from behind. The top line shows the position of the…

  • Benesh system (choreography)

    dance notation: Twentieth-century developments: …these was a visual representation system devised in the 1950s by the English artist Rudolf Benesh and his wife, Joan Benesh, a dancer with the Sadler’s Wells Ballet (now the Royal Ballet). A matrix on a five-line horizontal staff represents the dancer from head to foot, seen from the back.…

  • Benesh, Joan (British dance theorist)

    dance notation: Twentieth-century developments: …Rudolf Benesh and his wife, Joan Benesh, a dancer with the Sadler’s Wells Ballet (now the Royal Ballet). A matrix on a five-line horizontal staff represents the dancer from head to foot, seen from the back. Positions and movement lines are plotted on this matrix. Timing indications are placed above…

  • Benesh, Rudolf (British dance theorist)

    dance notation: Twentieth-century developments: …1950s by the English artist Rudolf Benesh and his wife, Joan Benesh, a dancer with the Sadler’s Wells Ballet (now the Royal Ballet). A matrix on a five-line horizontal staff represents the dancer from head to foot, seen from the back. Positions and movement lines are plotted on this matrix.…

  • Benet Biscop (English abbot)

    Saint Benedict Biscop, ; feast day January 12; for English Benedictines and dioceses of Liverpool and Hexham February 13), founder and first abbot of the celebrated twin monasteries of SS. Peter (at Wearmouth) and Paul (at Jarrow on Tyne, nearby); he is considered to be the father of Benedictine

  • Benet Goita, Juan (Spanish writer)

    Juan Benet Goitia, Spanish writer noted for his intricate novels and experimental prose style. Benet lived with his family outside Spain during the Civil War (1936–39). After returning to Spain, he studied civil engineering and earned an advanced degree in 1954. He became a highway engineer in

  • Benet Goitia, Juan (Spanish writer)

    Juan Benet Goitia, Spanish writer noted for his intricate novels and experimental prose style. Benet lived with his family outside Spain during the Civil War (1936–39). After returning to Spain, he studied civil engineering and earned an advanced degree in 1954. He became a highway engineer in

  • Benét, Rosemary (American poet)

    children's literature: Peaks and plateaus (1865–1940): …practitioners as Dorothy Aldis and Rosemary and Stephen Vincent Benét, with their stirring, hearty ballad-like poems collected in A Book of Americans (1933). But the only verse comparable to that of Stevenson or de la Mare was the exquisite Under the Tree (1922), by the novelist Elizabeth Madox Roberts, a…

  • Benét, Stephen Vincent (American writer)

    Stephen Vincent Benét, American poet, novelist, and writer of short stories, best known for John Brown’s Body, a long narrative poem on the American Civil War. Born into a military family with literary inclinations, Benét was reared on army posts. His father read poetry aloud to Stephen, an older

  • Benetton Group (Italian company)

    Luciano Benetton: …his sister, Giuliana, formed the Benetton Group. Reputedly, the sale of Luciano’s bicycle had raised the money needed to buy the company’s first knitting machine. More important, the implementation of a wool-softening process that he had encountered in Scotland helped establish a pattern of productivity and innovation that became the…

  • Benetton, Luciano (Italian manufacturer)

    Luciano Benetton, Italian manufacturer and cofounder of the family-run apparel empire Benetton Group, where he was best known for his unconventional advertising campaigns. Benetton left school at age 14 to work in a clothing store after the death of his father, a businessman. In 1965 he, his

  • Beneventan script (calligraphy)

    Beneventan script, in calligraphy, southern Italian hand, cultivated in the mother house of the Benedictine order at Montecassino. It has a peculiar jerky rhythm and retains individual cursive forms, which together with many abbreviations and ligatures make for difficult reading. Nevertheless,

  • Benevento (Italy)

    Benevento, city and archiepiscopal see, Campania regione, southern Italy. The city lies on a ridge between the Calore and Sabato rivers, northeast of Naples. It originated as Malies, a town of the Oscans, or Samnites; later known as Maleventum, or Malventum, it was renamed Beneventum by the Romans.

  • Benevento, Battle of (Italian history [1266])

    Battle of Benevento, (26 February 1266). This battle was the result of the long-running power struggle in Italy, between the Guelfs (supporters of the papacy) and the Ghibellines (supporters of the Holy Roman Empire). The defeat of Manfred of Sicily marked a triumph for the papacy and all but

  • Benevento, Concordat of (1156, Sicily)

    William I: …Pope Adrian IV in the Concordat of Benevento (1156), winning papal acknowledgment of his authority over all the territories that had come under Norman control.

  • Beneventum (Italy)

    Benevento, city and archiepiscopal see, Campania regione, southern Italy. The city lies on a ridge between the Calore and Sabato rivers, northeast of Naples. It originated as Malies, a town of the Oscans, or Samnites; later known as Maleventum, or Malventum, it was renamed Beneventum by the Romans.

  • Beneventum, Battle of (ancient Roman history)

    Benevento: …or Malventum, it was renamed Beneventum by the Romans. It became an important town on the Appian Way and was a base for Roman expansion in southern Italy. In 275 bc, Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, was defeated at Beneventum in his last battle with the Romans. After partial destruction by…

  • benevolence (taxation)

    Benevolence, in English history, any sum of money, disguised as a gift, extorted by various English kings, from Edward IV to James I, from their subjects without Parliament’s consent. Forced loans had been taken earlier, but Edward IV discarded even the pretense of repayment, and the word

  • benevolence, axiom of (philosophy)

    ethics: Early intuitionists: Cudworth, More, and Clarke: …Hobbes, More included an “axiom of benevolence”: “If it be good that one man should be supplied with the means of living well and happily, it is mathematically certain that it is doubly good that two should be so supplied, and so on.” Here, More was attempting to build…

  • benevolent despotism (political science)

    Enlightened despotism, form of government in the 18th century in which absolute monarchs pursued legal, social, and educational reforms inspired by the Enlightenment. Among the most prominent enlightened despots were Frederick II (the Great), Peter I (the Great), Catherine II (the Great), Maria

  • Benevoli, Orazio (Italian composer)

    choral music: The mass: …and almost unmanageable pitch by Orazio Benevoli in his mass for the dedication of the Salzburg cathedral (1628) in 53 parts.

  • Benezet, Anthony (American educator)

    Anthony Benezet, eminent teacher, abolitionist, and social reformer in 18th-century America. Escaping Huguenot persecution in France, the Benezet family fled first to Holland and then to London. Anthony was there apprenticed in a mercantile house, and he joined the Quaker sect. In 1731 he and his

  • Bénézet, St. (French bridge builder)

    St. Bénézet, ; feast day April 14), builder who instigated and directed the building of the Pont d’Avignon, also known as the Pont Saint-Bénézet, over the Rh?ne River at Avignon, France. He is the patron saint of bridge builders. An uneducated shepherd, Bénézet claimed that he was divinely

  • Benfey, Theodor (German scholar)

    Theodor Benfey, German scholar of Sanskrit and comparative linguistics whose works, particularly his edition of the ancient collection of Indian animal fables known as the Pa?ca-tantra, contributed in a major way to Sanskrit studies. Concerned initially with research in classical languages, Benfey

  • Benfica (Portuguese soccer club)

    Eusébio: The Lisbon team Benfica acquired Eusébio on his arrival in Portugal in 1960; the following year he played in his first game with the club. In the 1962 European Cup final against Real Madrid, he scored two goals in Benfica’s 5–3 victory. He was named European Footballer of…

  • benga (Kenyan popular music form)

    Kenya: The arts: …inhabited by the Luo; called benga, it is perhaps the most distinctly Kenyan form in the musical repertoire. Taarab, a popular music of the eastern coastal region heavily influenced by Arabic styles, is also played throughout the country.

  • Bengal (region, Asia)

    Bengal, historical region in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent, generally corresponding to the area inhabited by speakers of the Bengali language and now divided between the Indian state of West Bengal and the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Bengal formed part of most of the early

  • Bengal Atlas, A (atlas)

    James Rennell: …map of India and published A Bengal Atlas (1779), a work important for British strategic and administrative interests.

  • Bengal Congress (Indian history)

    Subhas Chandra Bose: Early life and political activity: …journalist, and commandant of the Bengal Congress volunteers. His activities led to his imprisonment in December 1921. In 1924 he was appointed chief executive officer of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation, with Das as mayor. Bose was soon after deported to Burma (Myanmar) because he was suspected of connections with secret…

  • Bengal cyclone of 1876

    Bengal cyclone of 1876, deadly cyclone that struck Bangladesh (then part of the province of Bengal in British India) on Oct. 31, 1876, killing approximately 200,000 people. The cyclone formed over the Bay of Bengal and made landfall at the Meghna River estuary. A high tide made the effects of the

  • Bengal famine (Bengal [1943])

    famine: Entitlement failure: …food production is the Bengal famine of 1943, which happens to be one of the most intensively studied famines. Although food production did fall slightly in 1943 compared with previous years, it was still 13 percent higher than in 1941, when there was no famine. One phenomenon that did distinguish…

  • Bengal fig (plant)

    Banyan, (Ficus benghalensis), unusually shaped tree of the mulberry family (Moraceae) native to the Indian subcontinent. The banyan reaches a height up to 30 metres (100 feet) and spreads laterally indefinitely. Aerial roots that develop from its branches descend and take root in the soil to become

  • Bengal finch (bird)

    mannikin: …or spotted munia, and the striated mannikin (L. striata), also called white-backed munia. The former is established in Hawaii, where it is called ricebird. A domestic strain of the latter is called Bengal finch.

  • Bengal fox (mammal)

    fox: Classification: bengalensis (Bengal, or Indian, fox) Small (1.5–3 kg) and gray; found in sparsely wooded regions of the Indian subcontinent. V. cana (Blanford’s, or hoary, fox) Small (1–2 kg) and catlike, with soft fur and a long bushy tail; found in the mountain steppes and deserts of…

  • Bengal gram (plant)

    Chickpea, (Cicer arietinum), annual plant of the pea family (Fabaceae), widely grown for its nutritious seeds. Chickpeas are an important food plant in India, Africa, and Central and South America. The seeds are high in fibre and protein and are a good source of iron, phosphorus, and folic acid.

  • Bengal light (pyrotechnics)

    flare: They were also known as Bengal lights, probably because Bengal was the chief source of saltpetre.

  • Bengal quince (fruit and tree)

    Bel fruit, (Aegle marmelos), tree of the family Rutaceae, cultivated for its fruit. The plant is native to India and Bangladesh and has naturalized throughout much of Southeast Asia. The unripe fruit, sliced and sun-dried, is traditionally used as a remedy for dysentery and other digestive

  • Bengal saltpetre (chemical compound)

    saltpetre: Ordinary saltpetre.: Potassium nitrate occurs as crusts on the surface of the Earth, on walls and rocks, and in caves; and it forms in certain soils in Spain, Italy, Egypt, Iran, and India. The deposits in the great limestone caves of Kentucky, Virginia, and Indiana have probably…

  • Bengal School of Art (Indian art movement)

    Amrita Sher-Gil: …Nandalal Bose—who belonged to the Bengal school, which represented the first modern movement of Indian art. She considered the school retrograde and blamed it for what she called the stagnation that, in her estimation, characterized Indian painting of the time. An exceptional colourist, Sher-Gil was able to achieve special effects…

  • Bengal System (government system, British India)

    India: Organization: …base Cornwallis built up the Bengal system. Its first principle was Anglicization. In the belief that Indian officials were corrupt (and that British corruption had been cured), all posts worth more than £500 a year were reserved for the company’s covenanted servants. Next came the government. The 23 districts each…

  • Bengal Tenancy Act (1885, India)

    Indian Association: …tenant rights, and, when the Bengal Tenancy Act was finally passed in 1885, it demanded representative government. After the Indian National Congress was founded in 1885, the association gradually lost ground; it was not heard of after 1888.

  • Bengal tiger (mammal)

    tiger: The Indian, or Bengal, tiger (P. tigris tigris) is the most numerous and accounts for about half of the total tiger population. Males are larger than females and may attain a shoulder height of about 1 metre and a length of about 2.2 metres, excluding a tail of…

  • Bengal, Bay of (bay, Indian Ocean)

    Bay of Bengal, large but relatively shallow embayment of the northeastern Indian Ocean, occupying an area of about 839,000 square miles (2,173,000 square km). It lies roughly between latitudes 5° and 22° N and longitudes 80° and 90° E. It is bordered by Sri Lanka and India to the west, Bangladesh

  • Bengal, Partition of (Indian history)

    Partition of Bengal, (1905), division of Bengal carried out by the British viceroy in India, Lord Curzon, despite strong Indian nationalist opposition. It began a transformation of the Indian National Congress from a middle-class pressure group into a nationwide mass movement. Bengal, Bihar, and

  • Bengala (Bangladesh)

    Chittagong, city that is the chief Indian Ocean port of Bangladesh. It lies about 12 miles (19 km) north of the mouth of the Karnaphuli River, in the southeastern arm of the country. Chittagong is the second largest city in Bangladesh, after Dhaka. Pop. (2001) city, 2,023,489; metro. area,

  • Bengalee, The (Indian newspaper)

    Sir Surendranath Banerjea: Three years later he purchased The Bengalee, a newspaper he edited for 40 years from his nationalist viewpoint.

  • Bengali (people)

    Bengali, majority population of Bengal, the region of northeastern South Asia that generally corresponds to the country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. The Bengali people speak dialects of Bangla—as they call the Bengali language—which belongs to the Indo-Aryan group of the

  • Bengali alphabet (writing system)

    Bengali language: Writing systems: The Bengali script is derived from Brahmi, one of the two ancient Indian scripts, and particularly from the eastern variety of Brahmi. Bengali script followed a different line of development from that of Devanagari and Oriyan scripts, but the characters of Bengali and Assamese scripts generally…

  • Bengali language

    Bengali language, member of the Indo-Aryan group of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken by more than 210 million people as a first or second language, with some 100 million Bengali speakers in Bangladesh; about 85 million in India, primarily in the states of

  • Bengali literature

    Bengali literature, the body of writings in the Bengali language of the Indian subcontinent. Its earliest extant work is a pre-12th-century collection of lyrics that reflect the beliefs and practices of the Sahajiyā religious sect. The dispersal of the poets of the Muslim invasion of 1199 broke

  • Bengali Renaissance

    Bangladesh: Literature: …foundation for the so-called “Bengali Renaissance” of the 19th century. The renaissance was centred in Kolkata (Calcutta) and led by Ram Mohan Roy (1772–1833); its luminary poet, Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941), composed the national anthems of both India and Bangladesh and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.…

  • Bengali script (writing system)

    Bengali language: Writing systems: The Bengali script is derived from Brahmi, one of the two ancient Indian scripts, and particularly from the eastern variety of Brahmi. Bengali script followed a different line of development from that of Devanagari and Oriyan scripts, but the characters of Bengali and Assamese scripts generally…

  • Bengalooru (India)

    Bengaluru, city, capital (since 1830) of Karnataka state, southern India. Bengaluru is one of India’s largest cities. It lies 3,113 feet (949 metres) above sea level, atop an east-west ridge in the Karnataka Plateau in the southeastern part of the state, at a cultural meeting point of the Kannada-,

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