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  • benzin, petroleum (chemistry)

    fat and oil processing: Processes: …especially the various grades of petroleum benzin (commonly known as petroleum ether, commercial hexane, or heptane). In large-scale operations, solvent extraction is a more economical means of recovering oil than is mechanical pressing. In the United States and increasingly in Europe, there are many instances of simple petroleum benzin extraction…

  • benzo[a]pyrene (chemical compound)

    hydrocarbon: Nomenclature: Benzo[a]pyrene, for example, is present in tobacco smoke and chimney soot and is formed when meat is cooked on barbecue grills.

  • benzoate (chemical compound)

    food preservation: Organic chemical preservatives: benzoates are among the principal chemical preservatives. The use of benzoates in certain products in prescribed quantity (usually not exceeding 0.1 percent) is permitted in most countries, some of which require a declaration of its use on the label of the food container. Since free…

  • benzocaine (chemical compound)

    pharmaceutical industry: New classes of pharmaceuticals: …1900, when the synthetic compound benzocaine was introduced. Benzocaine was the first of many local anesthetics with similar chemical structures and led to the synthesis and introduction of a variety of compounds with more efficacy and less toxicity.

  • benzodiazepine (drug)

    Benzodiazepine, any of a class of therapeutic agents capable of producing a calming, sedative effect and used in the treatment of fear, anxiety, tension, agitation, and related states of mental disturbance. The benzodiazepines are among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. The first

  • benzoic acid (chemical compound)

    Benzoic acid, a white, crystalline organic compound belonging to the family of carboxylic acids, widely used as a food preservative and in the manufacture of various cosmetics, dyes, plastics, and insect repellents. First described in the 16th century, benzoic acid exists in many plants; it makes

  • benzopyridine (chemical compound)

    heterocyclic compound: Six-membered rings with one heteroatom: …formulas below are two isomeric benzopyridines (upper pair) and two isomeric dibenzopyridines (lower pair), with their common names and accepted numberings. All four compounds and some of their alkyl derivatives have been obtained from coal tar. Each of them is also the parent substance of a class of alkaloids. Of…

  • benzopyrrole (chemical compound)

    Indole, a heterocyclic organic compound occurring in some flower oils, such as jasmine and orange blossom, in coal tar, and in fecal matter. It is used in perfumery and in making tryptophan, an essential amino acid, and indoleacetic acid (heteroauxin), a hormone that promotes the development of r

  • benzopyrylium (chemical compound)

    heterocyclic compound: Six-membered rings with one heteroatom: The benzopyrylium cation is the parent of a large number of natural products. Chroman, or 3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran, is itself not found in nature, but the chroman unit is present in many natural products. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol), a substituted chroman, is found in plant oils and the leaves…

  • benzoquinone (chemical compound)

    Benzoquinone, simplest member of the quinone family of organic compounds; see

  • benzothiadiazide (drug)

    pharmaceutical industry: Emergence of modern diseases and treatment: , the discovery of thiazide diuretics. For decreasing death and disability from cancer, one very important step was the development of cancer chemotherapy.

  • benzoyloxy (radical)

    chemistry of industrial polymers: Free-radical initiation: …initiator, benzoyl peroxide, can produce benzoyloxy radicals by cleaving at an oxygen-oxygen bond. The pair of benzoyloxy radicals thus produced may initiate a polymer chain, or they may break down further to yield carbon dioxide and yet a new initiator, a phenyl radical:

  • benzyl alcohol (chemical compound)

    Benzyl alcohol, an organic compound, of molecular formula C6H5CH2OH, that occurs combined with carboxylic acids (as esters) in balsams and oils of jasmine and other flowers. Several of its natural and synthetic esters have long been used in perfumery; the alcohol itself has become important in the

  • benzyl bromide (chemical compound)

    chemical compound: Substitution reactions: …example is the conversion of benzyl bromide to benzyl alcohol, using a solution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  • benzyl chloride (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: For the same reason, benzyl chloride (C6H5CH2Cl) is an alkyl halide, not an aryl halide, even though a benzene ring is present.

  • benzylic alcohol (chemical compound)

    alcohol: Structure and classification of alcohols: …referred to as allylic or benzylic if the hydroxyl group is bonded to an allylic carbon atom (adjacent to a C=C double bond) or a benzylic carbon atom (next to a benzene ring), respectively.

  • benzylpenicillin (drug)

    penicillin: The naturally occurring penicillins, penicillin G (benzylpenicillin) and penicillin V (phenoxymethylpenicillin), are still used clinically. Because of its poor stability in acid, much of penicillin G is broken down as it passes through the stomach; as a result of this characteristic, it must be given by intramuscular injection, which…

  • benzyne (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: Reactions: …the ring to give a benzyne intermediate. In the second stage of the mechanism, a hydroxide ion and a proton add to the benzyne intermediate to give the product.

  • Beodricesworth (England, United Kingdom)

    Bury Saint Edmunds, town (parish), St. Edmundsbury borough, administrative and historic county of Suffolk, eastern England, northwest of Ipswich on the River Lark. At Beodricesworth, as the town was first called, Sigebert, king of the East Angles, is said to have founded a monastery about 630; its

  • Beograd (national capital, Serbia)

    Belgrade, city, capital of Serbia. It lies at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers in the north-central part of the country. Belgrade is located at the convergence of three historically important routes of travel between Europe and the Balkans: an east-west route along the Danube River

  • Beolco, Angelo (Italian actor and playwright)

    Italian literature: Drama: …the mid-20th century the actor Angelo Beolco (“Il Ruzzante”) has become generally recognized as one of the most powerful dramatists of the 16th century. His works, often monologues written in a rural Paduan dialect, treat the problems of the oppressed peasant with realism and profound seriousness. Another dialect playwright of…

  • Beorhtric (king of Wessex)

    Beorhtric, king of the West Saxons, or Wessex (from 786), succeeding Cynewulf. Beorhtric was a descendant of Cerdic, founder of Wessex, but his parentage is unknown. In his time the Danes first began invading England, landing in Dorset. Beorhtric was troubled by a rival to his crown, Egbert (his

  • Beornwulf (English ruler)

    United Kingdom: The decline of Mercia and the rise of Wessex: But in 825 Egbert defeated Beornwulf of Mercia and then sent an army into Kent, with the result that he was accepted as king of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Essex. In that same year the East Angles threw off the Mercian yoke, killing Beornwulf. In 829 Egbert became ruler of…

  • Beothuk (people)

    Beothuk, North American Indian tribe of hunters and gatherers that resided on the island of Newfoundland; their language, Beothukan, may be related to Algonquian, but some authorities believe it to have been an independent language. When discovered by John Cabot in 1497 the tribe probably numbered

  • Beothuk Saga, The (work by Assiniwi)

    Canadian literature: The cosmopolitan culture of French Canada and Quebec: …La Saga des Béothuks (1996; The Beothuk Saga), chronicling the tragic fate of the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland. Quebec and French Canadian writers have come to examine the implications of cultural diversity; a notable example is Montreal novelist Francine No?l’s Babel, prise deux; ou, nous avons tous découvert l’Amérique (1990;…

  • Beowulf (Old English poem)

    Beowulf, heroic poem, the highest achievement of Old English literature and the earliest European vernacular epic. It deals with events of the early 6th century and is believed to have been composed between 700 and 750. Although originally untitled, it was later named after the Scandinavian hero

  • Beowulf (film by Zemeckis [2007])

    Anthony Hopkins: Hannibal Lecter, Richard M. Nixon, and John Quincy Adams: …movies rooted in mythology, including Beowulf (2007; as King Hrothgar) and The Wolfman (2010).

  • Beowulf & Grendel (film by Gunnarsson [2005])

    Gerard Butler: …Lloyd Webber’s musical, and in Beowulf &amp; Grendel (2005), a fantasy based on the epic poem Beowulf that was highlighted by Butler’s gritty but compassionate portrayal of the Norse hero.

  • Beowulf manuscript (Old English literature)

    English literature: The major manuscripts: The Beowulf manuscript (British Library) contains Beowulf, Judith, and three prose tracts; the Exeter Book (Exeter Cathedral) is a miscellaneous gathering of lyrics, riddles, didactic poems, and religious narratives; the Junius Manuscript (Bodleian Library, Oxford)—also called the Caedmon Manuscript, even though its

  • BepiColombo (international space mission)

    Mercury: Mariner 10, radar, and Messenger: …have planned a Mercury mission, BepiColombo, that is scheduled to launch in 2018, arrive at Mercury in 2025, and spend one year in orbit. The mission is named after Italian mathematician Giuseppe (“Bepi”) Colombo, who discovered that Mercury’s rotation period is two-thirds of its orbital period. The spacecraft will have…

  • Beppo (poem by Byron)

    English literature: The later Romantics: Shelley, Keats, and Byron: …less portentous writings, such as Beppo (1818), in which he first used the ottava rima form. The easy, nonchalant, biting style developed there became a formidable device in Don Juan and in his satire on Southey, The Vision of Judgment (1822).

  • Beppu (Japan)

    Beppu, city, eastern ōita ken (prefecture), northeastern Kyushu, Japan. It faces Beppu Bay on the east and lies just northwest of ōita city. Beppu, located at the base of a steep symmetrical fan of coarse volcanic detritus, has been a major hot-springs resort since the late 19th century. After

  • Beqaa (valley, Lebanon)

    Al-Biqā?, broad valley of central Lebanon, extending in a northeast-southwest direction for 75 miles (120 km) along the Lī?ānī and Orontes rivers, between the Lebanon Mountains to the west and Anti-Lebanon Mountains to the east. The valley contains nearly half of Lebanon’s arable land but is not as

  • Beqiri, Sokol (Kosovar artist)

    Kosovo: The arts: …and early 21st centuries is Sokol Beqiri, whose works include provocative photography, video, and performance pieces.

  • bequest (law)

    Legacy, in law, generally a gift of property by will or testament. The term is used to denote the disposition of either personal or real property in the event of death. In Anglo-American law, a legacy of an identified object, such as a particular piece of real estate, or a described object of p

  • BERA (hearing test)

    human ear: Audiometry: …more frequently used test is brain-stem-evoked response audiometry (BERA). In this test electrodes are pasted to the skin (one placed behind the ear) and are used to record the neural responses to brief tones. The minute potentials evoked by a train of brief sound stimuli are suitably amplified and averaged…

  • berachah (Judaism)

    Berakah, in Judaism, a benediction (expression of praise or thanks directed to God) that is recited at specific points of the synagogue liturgy, during private prayer, or on other occasions (e.g., before performing a commandment or for being spared from harm in the face of danger). Most berakoth

  • berachot (Judaism)

    Berakah, in Judaism, a benediction (expression of praise or thanks directed to God) that is recited at specific points of the synagogue liturgy, during private prayer, or on other occasions (e.g., before performing a commandment or for being spared from harm in the face of danger). Most berakoth

  • berachoth (Judaism)

    Berakah, in Judaism, a benediction (expression of praise or thanks directed to God) that is recited at specific points of the synagogue liturgy, during private prayer, or on other occasions (e.g., before performing a commandment or for being spared from harm in the face of danger). Most berakoth

  • berādarī (Indian and Pakistani government)

    Bhāīband, (“brotherhood”), important instrument of caste self-government in India; the bhāīband is the council formed by the heads of families that belong to the same lineage in a particular area, thus constituting an exogamous (those who do not intermarry) unit within the endogamous (those who do

  • Berain, Claude (French engraver)

    Jean Berain, the Elder: His brother Claude Berain (d. 1726?) was an engraver to the king.

  • Berain, Jean, the Elder (French designer and painter)

    Jean Berain, the Elder, French draftsman, engraver, painter, and designer who was called by his contemporaries the oracle of taste in all matters of decoration. Trained under the great French decorator Charles Le Brun, Berain was working at the Louvre when appointed, in 1674, royal designer to King

  • Berain, Jean, the Younger (French engraver)

    Jean Berain, the Elder: His son Jean Berain the Younger (1678–1726), best known as an engraver, was his pupil and succeeded to his official functions. His brother Claude Berain (d. 1726?) was an engraver to the king.

  • berakah (Judaism)

    Berakah, in Judaism, a benediction (expression of praise or thanks directed to God) that is recited at specific points of the synagogue liturgy, during private prayer, or on other occasions (e.g., before performing a commandment or for being spared from harm in the face of danger). Most berakoth

  • berakha (Judaism)

    Berakah, in Judaism, a benediction (expression of praise or thanks directed to God) that is recited at specific points of the synagogue liturgy, during private prayer, or on other occasions (e.g., before performing a commandment or for being spared from harm in the face of danger). Most berakoth

  • Berakhot (Judaic text)

    Zera?im: …the first of which (Berakhot, “Blessings”) deals with public worship and private prayer. The other 10 tractates all deal with laws regarding agriculture and are called: Pe?a (“Corner”), Demai (“Dubiously Tithed Produce”), Kilayim (“Mixed Kinds”), Shevi?it (“Seventh Year”), Terumot (“Heave Offerings”), Ma?aserot (“Tithes”), Ma?aser sheni (“Second Tithe”), ?alla (“Dough…

  • berakot (Judaism)

    Berakah, in Judaism, a benediction (expression of praise or thanks directed to God) that is recited at specific points of the synagogue liturgy, during private prayer, or on other occasions (e.g., before performing a commandment or for being spared from harm in the face of danger). Most berakoth

  • berakoth (Judaism)

    Berakah, in Judaism, a benediction (expression of praise or thanks directed to God) that is recited at specific points of the synagogue liturgy, during private prayer, or on other occasions (e.g., before performing a commandment or for being spared from harm in the face of danger). Most berakoth

  • Beran, Josef (archbishop of Prague)

    Josef Beran, Roman Catholic archbishop of Prague (1946), made a cardinal in 1965, was interned in 1949 by the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia after members of the clergy were forbidden to participate in political life. He was released in 1965 and left

  • Béranger, Pierre-Jean de (French author)

    Pierre-Jean de Béranger, French poet and writer of popular songs, celebrated for his liberal and humanitarian views during a period when French society as a whole was undergoing rapid and sometimes violent change. Béranger was active in his father’s business enterprises until they failed. He then

  • Berar (region, India)

    Berar, cotton-growing region, east-central Maharashtra state, western India. The region extends for approximately 200 miles (320 km) east-west along the Purna River basin and lies 700 to 1,600 feet (200 to 500 metres) above sea level. Berar is bounded on the north by the Gawilgarh Hills (Melghat)

  • Berardinelli, Giuseppe Antonio (American boxer)

    Joey Maxim, (Giuseppe Antonio Berardinelli), American boxer (born March 28, 1922, Cleveland, Ohio—died June 2, 2001, West Palm Beach, Fla.), was the world light heavyweight champion from 1950 to 1952. On Jan. 24, 1950, Maxim knocked out heavily favoured Englishman Freddie Mills in London to win t

  • Berardino, Joseph (American business executive)

    Arthur Andersen: The Indictment: CEO Joseph Berardino immediately notified the SEC on finding out about the excessive document shredding, and he fired Duncan following the public uproar. Andersen’s response was considered inadequate given that three other major corporations for whom Andersen recently issued unqualified or clean audit opinions—Global Crossing, WorldCom,…

  • Berardius (mammal genus)

    bottlenose whale: &gt;Berardius arnuxii), Baird’s beaked whale (B. bairdii), and members of a third, yet unnamed, species in the genus are commonly called giant bottlenose whales. (A genetic study of the gray and black forms of Baird’s beaked whale performed in 2016 revealed that the darker form…

  • Berardius arnuxii (mammal)

    bottlenose whale: Arnoux’s beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii), Baird’s beaked whale (B. bairdii), and members of a third, yet unnamed, species in the genus are commonly called giant bottlenose whales. (A genetic study of the gray and black forms of Baird’s beaked whale performed in 2016 revealed that…

  • Berardius bairdii (mammal)

    beaked whale: Natural history: 7 feet) for the giant bottlenose whale (Berardius bairdii), these mammals weigh between 1,000 and 14,000 kg (2,200 and 31,000 pounds). Colour is variable but usually consists of some combination of gray or black with white. Their bodies are often covered with scars from fighting each other and from…

  • Berat (Albania)

    Berat, city, southern Albania. It lies along the Osum River, just west of Tomorr Peak (7,927 feet [2,416 metres]). The town is situated among steep hills cut through by the Osum. The terraced houses and several mosques and churches are surmounted by the ruins of a citadel. An oil field at Ku?ov?

  • Berazategui (county, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Berazategui, partido (county) at the southeastern limits of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, eastern Argentina, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). It lies along the Río de la Plata estuary. The county was created in October 1960 out of the existing county of Quilmes. Berazategui was originally the

  • Berber (people)

    Berber, any of the descendants of the pre-Arab inhabitants of North Africa. The Berbers live in scattered communities across Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Niger, and Mauritania. They speak various Amazigh languages belonging to the Afro-Asiatic family related to ancient Egyptian.

  • Berber Dahir (Morocco [1930])

    Morocco: The pre-World War II period: …the French to issue the Berber Decree in 1930, which was a crude effort to divide Imazighen and Arabs. The result was just the opposite of French intentions; it provoked a Moroccan nationalist reaction and forced the administration to modify its proposals. In 1933 the nationalists initiated a new national…

  • Berber Decree (Morocco [1930])

    Morocco: The pre-World War II period: …the French to issue the Berber Decree in 1930, which was a crude effort to divide Imazighen and Arabs. The result was just the opposite of French intentions; it provoked a Moroccan nationalist reaction and forced the administration to modify its proposals. In 1933 the nationalists initiated a new national…

  • Berber languages

    Berber languages, family of languages in the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. As they are the most homogeneous division within Afro-Asiatic, the Berber languages have often been referred to as a single language in the past (especially in the tradition of French scholarship). Berber languages are

  • Berbera (Somalia)

    Berbera, port, northwestern Somalia, on the Gulf of Aden; it is also under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Somaliland (a self-declared independent state without international recognition that falls within the recognized borders of Somalia) and serves as Somaliland’s primary port. Berbera lies

  • berbere (seasoning)

    Eritrea: Cultural life: …a side dish of fiery berbere, a locally produced pepper that figures prominently in Eritrean cooking. Eritrean food also shows many influences from the country’s erstwhile Italian occupiers, with such dishes as capretto (goat), frittata (vegetable omelet), and pasta featured on many menus.

  • Berberian, Ara (American singer)

    Ara Berberian, American opera singer (born May 14, 1930, Detroit, Mich.—died Feb. 21, 2005, Boynton Beach, Fla.), performed at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City for more than 20 years after having made his debut there in 1979 as Zacharie in Giacomo Meyerbeer’s Le Prophète. His warm bass d

  • Berberidaceae (plant)

    Berberidaceae, the barberry family of the buttercup order (Ranunculales), comprising 14 genera and 701 species of perennial herbs and shrubs. Its members occur in most temperate regions of the world. Many of the shrub forms have spines or spiny-margined leaves. The form of the flower is highly

  • Berberidopsidaceae (plant family)

    Berberidopsidales: …up of two families (Berberidopsidaceae and Aextoxicaceae) containing a total of four species, found only in Chile and Australia. It is one of the basal orders among the core eudicots (a major clade, or plants with a common genetic lineage).

  • Berberidopsidales (plant order)

    Berberidopsidales, small order of woody evergreen dicotyledonous plants, made up of two families (Berberidopsidaceae and Aextoxicaceae) containing a total of four species, found only in Chile and Australia. It is one of the basal orders among the core eudicots (a major clade, or plants with a

  • Berberis (plant)

    Barberry, any of almost 500 species of thorny evergreen or deciduous shrubs constituting the genus Berberis of the family Berberidaceae, mostly native to the North Temperate Zone, particularly Asia. Species of Oregon grape, previously included in Berberis but now assigned to the genus Mahonia, are

  • Berberis canadensis (plant)

    barberry: The American or Allegheny barberry (B. canadensis) is native to eastern North America. Japanese barberry (B. thunbergii) often is cultivated as a hedge or ornamental shrub for its scarlet fall foliage and bright-red, long-lasting berries. Several varieties with purple or yellow foliage, spinelessness, or dwarf habit…

  • Berberis julianae (plant)

    barberry: Another widely planted species is wintergreen barberry (B. julianae), an evergreen shrub with bluish black berries. The cultivation of certain barberry species is prohibited in some regions because they harbour one of the spore stages of the fungus that causes black stem rust of wheat.

  • Berberis thunbergii (plant)

    barberry: Japanese barberry (B. thunbergii) often is cultivated as a hedge or ornamental shrub for its scarlet fall foliage and bright-red, long-lasting berries. Several varieties with purple or yellow foliage, spinelessness, or dwarf habit are useful in the landscape. Another widely planted species is wintergreen barberry…

  • Berberova, Nina (Russian-American writer)

    Nina Berberova, Russian-born émigré writer, biographer, editor, and translator known for her examination of the plight of exiles. Berberova left the Soviet Union in 1922 and lived in Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Italy as part of Maxim Gorky’s entourage before settling in Paris in 1925. While living

  • Berberova, Nina Nikolayevna (Russian-American writer)

    Nina Berberova, Russian-born émigré writer, biographer, editor, and translator known for her examination of the plight of exiles. Berberova left the Soviet Union in 1922 and lived in Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Italy as part of Maxim Gorky’s entourage before settling in Paris in 1925. While living

  • Berbice (Dutch colony, Guyana)

    Demerara River: …which joined with Essequibo and Berbice in 1831 to become British Guiana (from 1966 the independent republic of Guyana).

  • Berbice language

    Ijoid languages: …basis of a Dutch creole, Berbice, now nearly extinct.

  • Berbice River (river, Guyana)

    Berbice River, river in eastern Guyana. The Berbice River rises in the highlands of the Rupununi region and flows northward for 370 miles (595 km) through dense forests to the coastal plain. It enters the Atlantic Ocean at New Amsterdam, where its flow is obstructed by shallows. The basin of the

  • Berbick, Trevor (Canadian boxer)

    Trevor Berbick, Jamaican-born Canadian boxer (born Aug. 1, 1954, Port Antonio, Jam.—died Oct. 28, 2006, Norwich, Jam.), defeated Muhammad Ali on Dec. 12, 1981, in a unanimous decision in a fight that would end Ali’s career. In 1986 Berbick won the World Boxing Council heavyweight title in a d

  • Berbie Palace (museum, Albi, France)

    Albi: …is situated the red brick Berbie Palace, a 13th-century archbishop’s palace that is now a museum where the works of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, a native of Albi, are displayed. Below the palace is the 9th-century Old Bridge. The centre of the town is medieval. The church of Saint-Salvi has a…

  • Berceo, Gonzalo de (Spanish author)

    Gonzalo de Berceo, the first author of verse in Castilian Spanish whose name is known. Berceo was a secular priest associated with the Monastery of San Millán de Cogolla in the Rioja, where he served as an administrator and notary. His works combined classical rhetorical style, popular poetic form,

  • berceuse (music)

    Berceuse, (French: “lullaby”) musical composition, typically of the 19th century, having the character of a soothing refrain. While the word appears to imply no particular formal pattern, rocking rhythms in 68 time are common not only in the vocal prototype but also in its stylized instrumental

  • Berceuse (work by Diepenbrock)

    berceuse: Prominent among subsequent composers of berceuses were Franz Liszt, Camille Saint-Sa?ns, and Maurice Ravel. An appealing example is the Berceuse for voice, piano, and cello (1912) by the early 20th-century Dutch composer Alphons Diepenbrock.

  • Berceuse (work by Chopin)

    berceuse: …the latter is Frédéric Chopin’s Berceuse in D-flat Major (1843–44), with its elaborate figurations above a static, repetitive pattern in the left hand.

  • Berchem, Claes Pieterszoon (Dutch artist)

    Nicolaes Pietersz Berchem, Dutch landscape painter and etcher who achieved wide popularity. Berchem received instruction from his father, Pieter Claesz, a prominent still-life painter, and from several other Dutch masters. After study in Italy, he produced many landscapes in warm colours and an

  • Berchem, Nicolaes Pietersz (Dutch artist)

    Nicolaes Pietersz Berchem, Dutch landscape painter and etcher who achieved wide popularity. Berchem received instruction from his father, Pieter Claesz, a prominent still-life painter, and from several other Dutch masters. After study in Italy, he produced many landscapes in warm colours and an

  • Berchemia scandens (plant)

    Supplejack, any of various woody climbing plants with pliant, tough stems, particularly Berchemia scandens, of the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae), also known as rattan vine. B. scandens occurs in the central and southern United States. It climbs to the tops of trees and has alternate, elliptical

  • Bercher, Jean (French dancer)

    Jean Dauberval, French ballet dancer, teacher, and choreographer often credited with establishing the comic ballet as a genre. In 1761 Dauberval made his debut at the Paris Académie (now Opéra) and became noted for his pantomimic dance ability; in 1773 he was made an assistant ballet master. In

  • Berchet, Giovanni (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Opposing movements: Giovanni Berchet (patriotic poet whose Lettera semiseria di Grisostomo al suo figliuolo [1816; “Half-Serious Letter from Grisostomo to His Son”] is an important manifesto of Italian popular romanticism), Silvio Pellico, Ludovico di Breme, Giovita Scalvini, and Ermes Visconti were among

  • Berchtesgaden (Germany)

    Berchtesgaden, town, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. It is situated on the Berchtesgaden Stream in a deep valley surrounded on three sides by Austrian territory, just north of Berchtesgaden National Park. The opening of its salt mines in the 12th century was the beginning of many centuries

  • Berchtesgadener Alps (mountains, Germany)

    Germany: The Alps and the Alpine Foreland: highest mountain, the Zugspitze—and the Berchtesgadener Alps. Like the North German Plain, the Alpine Foreland is fundamentally a depression filled with Paleogene and Neogene gravels, sands, and clays, which are derived from the Alpine orogeny. In contrast to the North German Plain, however, the Paleogene and Neogene deposits are more…

  • Berchtold, Leopold, count von (Austro-Hungarian foreign minister)

    Leopold, Graf von Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian foreign minister whose ultimatum to Serbia (July 23, 1914) was followed (August 1) by the outbreak of World War I. A wealthy landowner in Hungary and Moravia, Berchtold, through marriage, became one of the richest men in Austria-Hungary. He entered the

  • Bercow, John (British politician)

    United Kingdom: Indicative votes, May’s pledge to resign, a third defeat for her plan, and a new deadline: …by Speaker of the House John Bercow, only the withdrawal agreement portion of May’s plan was voted upon by the House of Commons (excluded was the “political declaration” that addressed what the U.K. and EU expected of their long-term relationship). Although the vote was closer than the previous two (286…

  • Bercsényi, Miklós, Gróf (Hungarian count)

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    Paris: Modern business quarters: Bercy, which lies directly on the river on the Right Bank, was until this development one of the “secret cities” of Paris. This was the village of vintages, where merchants stored and sold their stocks of wine. Fenced and guarded, its chalets lined cobbled lanes…

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    Yisrael Galili, Russian-born political commander of the Haganah, Israeli’s preindependence defense force. When Galili was four years old, his family moved to Palestine. He was active in the self-defense forces and as an organizer of the youth movement of the Histadrut when barely in his teens. In

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    Berdache, early European designation for American Indians (in Canada called First Nations peoples) who did not conform to Western gender and sexual norms. The term held negative implications for a variety of sexual behavior, gender practices, and various physical sex characteristics. Since then, it

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    Kermān, city, provincial capital, and ostān (province), southeastern Iran. The city lies on a sandy plain, 5,738 feet (1,749 metres) above sea level, under barren rocky hills. Surrounded by mountains on the north and east, it has a cool climate and frequent sandstorms in the autumn and spring. The

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    Kermān, city, provincial capital, and ostān (province), southeastern Iran. The city lies on a sandy plain, 5,738 feet (1,749 metres) above sea level, under barren rocky hills. Surrounded by mountains on the north and east, it has a cool climate and frequent sandstorms in the autumn and spring. The

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