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  • grit (rock)

    Grit, sedimentary rock that consists of angular sand-sized grains and small pebbles. The term is roughly equivalent to the term sandstone

  • grit cell (plant anatomy)

    pear: …flesh, the so-called grit, or stone cells. In general, pear fruits are elongate, being narrow at the stem end and broader at the opposite end. Pears are usually propagated by budding or grafting onto a rootstock, usually of Pyrus communis origin. In Europe the main rootstock used is quince (Cydonia…

  • grit chamber (sanitation engineering)

    sedimentation tank: …treatment using bar screens and grit chambers to remove large objects and coarse solids.

  • Gritchenko, Alexis (Ukrainian artist)

    Ukraine: Visual arts: …in the West, among them Gritchenko, who began with Cubism and then turned to a dynamic form of Expressionism, and the painter and engraver Jacques Hnizdovsky, who developed a simplified style of realism. The sculptor Alexander Archipenko (Ukrainian: Oleksander Arkhypenko), one of the pioneers of Cubism who later experimented in…

  • Grito de Dolores (Mexican history)

    Grito de Dolores, (English: “Cry of Dolores”) battle cry of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, first uttered by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, parish priest of Dolores (now Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato state), on September 16, 1810. Hidalgo was involved in a plot against the Spanish colonial

  • Grito de Lares (Puerto Rican history)

    Puerto Rico: Movements toward self-government: …uprising, now known as the Grito de Lares (“Cry of Lares”), on September 23, 1868. The poorly planned revolt was quickly suppressed, but it took place concurrently with Cuba’s struggle for independence, and the two events prompted Spain to grant several important reforms to Puerto Rico over the next few…

  • Gritos del combate (work by Nú?ez de Arce)

    Gaspar Nú?ez de Arce: …but he attained celebrity with Gritos del combate (1875; “Cries of Combat”)—a volume of verse that tried to give poetic utterance to religious questionings and the current political problems of freedom and order.

  • grits (food)

    hominy: …the form of coarsely ground grits, boiled and served with butter, gravy, or syrup for breakfast or shaped into cakes and fried. Grits from white corn are processed into cornflake cereals. Hominy is also sometimes used in brewing and in the manufacture of wallpaper paste.

  • Grivas, Georgios (Cypriot leader)

    Georgios Grivas, Cypriot patriot who helped bring Cyprus independence in 1960. His goal was enosis (union) with Greece, and in this he failed; indeed, he was a fugitive at the time of his death. Grivas organized EOKA (Ethnikí Orgánosis Kipriakoú Agónos, the “National Organization of Cypriot

  • Grivas, Georgios Theodoros (Cypriot leader)

    Georgios Grivas, Cypriot patriot who helped bring Cyprus independence in 1960. His goal was enosis (union) with Greece, and in this he failed; indeed, he was a fugitive at the time of his death. Grivas organized EOKA (Ethnikí Orgánosis Kipriakoú Agónos, the “National Organization of Cypriot

  • grivet (monkey)

    Grivet, (Chlorocebus aethiops), African savanna monkey, a species of

  • Grizzard, George (American actor)

    George Grizzard, (George Cooper Grizzard, Jr.), American actor (born April 1, 1928, Roanoke Rapids, N.C.—died Oct. 2, 2007, New York, N.Y.), was an acclaimed stage, television, and film actor, especially known for his roles in the plays of Edward Albee. Grizzard was the first actor to play Nick in

  • Grizzard, George Cooper, Jr. (American actor)

    George Grizzard, (George Cooper Grizzard, Jr.), American actor (born April 1, 1928, Roanoke Rapids, N.C.—died Oct. 2, 2007, New York, N.Y.), was an acclaimed stage, television, and film actor, especially known for his roles in the plays of Edward Albee. Grizzard was the first actor to play Nick in

  • grizzly bear (mammal)

    Grizzly bear, traditional name given to brown bears (Ursus arctos) of North America. Grizzly bears of the northern Rocky Mountains (U. arctos horribilis) are classified as a subspecies, as are the huge Kodiak bears of Alaska (U. arctos middendorffi). Grizzlies are massive animals with humped

  • Grizzly Bear Lodge (national monument, Wyoming, United States)

    Devils Tower National Monument, the first U.S. national monument, established in 1906 in northeastern Wyoming, near the Belle Fourche River. It encompasses 2.1 square miles (5.4 square km) and features a natural rock tower, the remnant of a volcanic intrusion now exposed by erosion. The tower has a

  • Grizzly Man (film by Herzog [2005])

    Werner Herzog: …religious beliefs among Russians, and Grizzly Man (2005), an account of Timothy Treadwell, an American who studied and lived among grizzly bears in Alaska but was mauled to death along with his girlfriend. Little Dieter Needs to Fly (1997) centres on a German American pilot shot down in the jungle…

  • GRNOPC1 (medicine)

    stem cell: Human embryonic stem cells: …be tested was known as GRNOPC1, which consisted of progenitor cells (partially differentiated cells) that, once inside the body, matured into neural cells known as oligodendrocytes. The oligodendrocyte progenitors of GRNOPC1 were derived from human embryonic stem cells. The therapy was designed for the restoration of nerve function in persons…

  • gro-ba (tree)

    Tibet: Plant and animal life: …trees, thorn trees, tea bushes, gro-ba (small white trees that grow mainly in hilly regions), ’om-bu (bushlike trees with red flowers that grow near water), khres-pa (strong durable forest trees used to make food containers), glang-ma (a willow tree used for basketry), and rtsi-shings (the seeds of which are used…

  • Groan, Titus (fictional character)

    Titus Groan, fictional character, the titled heir to the crumbling castle Gormenghast in the Gormenghast series by Mervyn

  • groat (English coin)

    coin: Post-Conquest coinage: He also introduced a groat, or fourpenny piece, but this larger coin did not establish itself until Edward III’s reign. The coins of Edward I, II, and III can be distinguished only by a minute study of detail. Privileged ecclesiastical mints still continued active.

  • Groban, Josh (American singer)

    Josh Groban, American popular singer and actor recognized for his novel blending of contemporary and classical musical styles. Groban did not study voice seriously until his teens, when he became active in musical theatre at the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. In late 1998 he was

  • Groban, Joshua Winslow (American singer)

    Josh Groban, American popular singer and actor recognized for his novel blending of contemporary and classical musical styles. Groban did not study voice seriously until his teens, when he became active in musical theatre at the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. In late 1998 he was

  • Gr?ber, Gustav (German scholar)

    textual criticism: Related developments in the late 19th century: …was due to the medievalists G. Gr?ber and G. Paris, who first emphasized the significance of common errors. But in the general uncritical enthusiasm for scientific method, the genealogical approach was too often used without regard for the special conditions under which medieval literature has been handed down.

  • Grobsmith, Kaila (American writer)

    Kate Simon, memoirist and travel writer whose work was noted for its readability and its wit. Simon’s family immigrated to the United States in 1917 and settled in New York, first in Harlem and then in the Bronx. Simon graduated from Hunter College of the City University of New York with a

  • grocery store (retail store)

    Supermarket, large retail store operated on a self-service basis, selling groceries, fresh produce, meat, bakery and dairy products, and sometimes an assortment of nonfood goods. Supermarkets gained acceptance in the United States during the 1930s. The early stores were usually located in

  • Grochowiak, Stanis?aw (Polish author)

    Polish literature: New trends in poetry and drama: …of this generation is perhaps Stanis?aw Grochowiak, who created an expressive poetic style based on unexpected juxtapositions and a deliberate emphasis on the grotesque.

  • Grock (Swiss clown)

    Grock, Swiss clown whose blunders with the piano and the violin became proverbial. He was the son of a watchmaker and began his performance career by partnering with his father in a cabaret act. He then became an amateur acrobat and was allowed to spend each summer with a circus, where he performed

  • Grocyn, William (English educator)

    William Grocyn, British scholar who helped prepare the ground for the rise of humanism in England. He was reputedly the first Englishman to teach the Greek language. After studying and teaching at Oxford, Grocyn went in 1488 to Italy, where he was permitted by Lorenzo de’ Medici to study Greek with

  • Grodno (province, Belarus)

    Hrodna, voblasts (province), western Belarus. Most of the province consists of the level, often swampy plain of the Neman River, from which the land rises westward, southward, and eastward to a series of undulating morainic uplands. The lowland has sandy or alluvial soils, often acidic, with much

  • Grodno (Belarus)

    Hrodna, city and administrative centre, western Belarus, on the Neman River. First mentioned in 1128 as the seat of a princedom, Hrodna has had a stormy history, being sacked by the Tatars in 1241 and by the Teutonic Knights in 1284 and 1391. It passed to Lithuania in the 13th century and later to

  • Groebli, Frick (Swiss ice skater and comedian)

    Werner Fritz Groebli, (“Frick”), Swiss ice skater and comedian (born April 21, 1915, Basel, Switz.—died April 14, 2008, Zürich, Switz.), delighted audiences for more than 45 years (1934–80), first as half of the skating comedy team Frick and Frack and then as Mr. Frick after his partner, Hansruedi

  • Groebli, Werner Fritz (Swiss ice skater and comedian)

    Werner Fritz Groebli, (“Frick”), Swiss ice skater and comedian (born April 21, 1915, Basel, Switz.—died April 14, 2008, Zürich, Switz.), delighted audiences for more than 45 years (1934–80), first as half of the skating comedy team Frick and Frack and then as Mr. Frick after his partner, Hansruedi

  • Groen van Prinsterer, Guillaume (Dutch statesman)

    Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, Dutch Protestant political leader and religious thinker to whose influence can be traced one of the religious parties active in Dutch politics from the later 19th century. A liberal in his early years, he was converted about 1830 to strict Calvinist orthodoxy,

  • Groenendael (breed of dog)

    Belgian sheepdog, working dog developed in the village of Groenendaal, Belgium, in 1885. A long-haired black dog, the Belgian sheepdog has a relatively pointed muzzle and erect, triangular ears. It is valued for its intelligence and working ability; in addition to herding sheep, it has been useful

  • Groener, Karl Eduard Wilhelm (German general and politician)

    Wilhelm Groener, German general and politician who helped prevent a communist revolution in Germany after World War I by throwing army support to the moderate Social Democratic government of Friedrich Ebert. Groener entered the army in 1884. By 1912 he had risen to become head of the railroad

  • Groener, Wilhelm (German general and politician)

    Wilhelm Groener, German general and politician who helped prevent a communist revolution in Germany after World War I by throwing army support to the moderate Social Democratic government of Friedrich Ebert. Groener entered the army in 1884. By 1912 he had risen to become head of the railroad

  • Groening, Matt (American cartoonist and animator)

    Matt Groening, American cartoonist and animator who created the comic strip Life in Hell (1980–2012) and the television series The Simpsons (1989– ) and Futurama (1999–2003, 2010–13). Groening began drawing cartoons at an early age, but he focused on journalism while attending Evergreen State

  • Groenlendinga saga (Icelandic saga)

    Leif Erikson: According to the Gr?nlendinga saga (“Saga of the Greenlanders”) in the Flateyjarbók (“Book of the Flat Islands”), considered by many scholars to be more reliable in some aspects than Eiríks saga rauea, Leif learned of the new land to the west from the Icelander Bjarni Herjólfsson, who had…

  • Groesse, Paul (American art director)
  • Gróf, András István (American businessman)

    Andrew S. Grove, Hungarian-born American businessman who was credited with being the driving force behind the enormous success of semiconductor computer circuit manufacturer Intel Corporation, for which he served as president (1979–97), CEO (1987–98), and chairman (1997–2005). Grove was born into a

  • Grofé, Ferde (American composer)

    Ferde Grofé, American composer and arranger known for his orchestral works as well as for his pioneering role in establishing the sound of big band dance music. Grofé was reared in Los Angeles, where his father was an actor and singer and his mother taught music and played cello. Although his

  • Grogan, Steve (American football player)

    New England Patriots: …cornerback Mike Haynes, and quarterback Steve Grogan, the Patriots experienced sporadic success in the 1970s and ’80s. They advanced to their first Super Bowl in 1986 but lost to a dominant Chicago Bears team, 46–10. Eleven years would pass before the Patriots would return to the Super Bowl, this time…

  • Grohl, Dave (American musician)

    Nirvana: …16, 1965, Compton, California), and Dave Grohl (b. January 14, 1969, Warren, Ohio).

  • groin (coastal engineering)

    Groin, in coastal engineering, a long, narrow structure built out into the water from a beach in order to prevent beach erosion or to trap and accumulate sand that would otherwise drift along the beach face and nearshore zone under the influence of waves approaching the beach at an angle. A groin

  • groin vault (architecture)

    construction: Stone construction: …of their curved surfaces, called groins. The ribs were built with supporting formwork or centring made of timber; close cooperation was needed between the carpenters and the masons. The curved surfaces of stones between the ribs were probably laid with little formwork, using only mortar; brick vaults are still built…

  • grok (term)

    Stranger in a Strange Land: Publication and reception: Heinlein’s coining of the word grok—meaning literally “to drink” but more broadly “to understand profoundly and intuitively”—was later incorporated into English-language dictionaries.

  • Grolier Codex (Mayan literature)

    Grolier Codex, codex fragment consisting of 11 damaged pages from a presumed 20-page book and 5 single pages. Discovered in Mexico in 1965, the documents were named for the Grolier Club (founded 1884) of New York City, an association of bibliophiles who first photographed, published, and presented

  • Grolier de Servières, Jean, vicomte d’Aguisy (French bibliophile)

    Jean Grolier de Servières, vicomte d’Aguisy, French bibliophile and patron of bookbinders. Grolier was educated in Paris, served as the treasurer and receiver general of the French army in Italy, and in 1534 was named ambassador to Pope Clement VII. By 1547 he had become one of the four treasurers

  • Grolier, Inc. (American publishing company)

    Encyclopedia Americana: In the 1990s its publisher, Grolier, Inc., made Americana available on CD-ROM. The final print edition was released in 2006. A related yearbook, which appeared under a variety of titles, was published from 1923 to 2008.

  • groma (surveying instrument)

    surveying: History: …originated the use of the groma, a device used to establish right angles, but Roman surveyors made it a standard tool. It was made of a horizontal wooden cross pivoted at the middle and supported from above. From the end of each of the four arms hung a plumb bob.…

  • Gromia (protist)

    protozoan: Annotated classification: Gromia Cytoplasm is nongranular. Test is organic. Filopodia are not reticulate. Radiolaria Produce “skeletons” made of amorphous silica or, in the acantharians, made of strontium sulfate. Filopods are reinforced by microtubules. Amoebozoa

  • Gromov, Mikhail Leonidovich (Soviet-born French mathematician)

    Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov, Soviet-born French mathematician who was awarded the 2009 Abel Prize by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters “for his revolutionary contributions to geometry.” Gromov’s work in Riemannian geometry, global symplectic geometry, and geometric group theory was cited

  • Gromyko Plan (Soviet arms control plan)

    20th-century international relations: Atomic energy: ” The Soviet plan, presented by Andrey Gromyko, called instead for immediate prohibition of all manufacture and use of atomic weapons. Measures to ensure compliance would follow, but there could be no tampering with the Security Council veto. Western delegates pointed out that the Soviets were asking…

  • Gromyko, Andrey Andreyevich (president of Soviet Union)

    Andrey Andreyevich Gromyko, Soviet foreign minister (1957–85) and president (1985–88) of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. Although never strongly identified with any particular policy or political faction, he served dependably as a skilled emissary and spokesman. Gromyko was born

  • Gr?nblad–Strandberg syndrome (pathology)

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, inherited disease in which the premature breakdown of exposed skin occurs. It is characterized by eruptions of yellow plaques and thickening and grooving of the skin on the face, neck, and sometimes the armpits, abdomen, and groin. The skin loses its elasticity and hangs l

  • Gronchi, Giovanni (president of Italy)

    Giovanni Gronchi, Christian Democrat politician who served as president of Italy from 1955 to 1962. Gronchi graduated from the University of Pisa and, after World War I, helped found the Popular Party, a Catholic party. Elected a deputy (1919), he was undersecretary of industry and commerce when he

  • Gr?ndal, Benedikt (Icelandic author)

    Icelandic literature: The 19th century: …whom the most outstanding were Benedikt Gr?ndal, Steingrímur Torsteinsson, and Matthías Jochumsson. Gr?ndal wrote powerful lyric poetry, two prose fantasies, and an autobiography, D?gradv?l (1923; “Day-Spending”). Torsteinsson wrote nature poetry and satiric epigrams but is best remembered as a translator of The Thousand and One Nights

  • Grondona, Julio Humberto (Argentine association football official)

    Julio Humberto Grondona, Argentine association football (soccer) official (born Sept. 18, 1931, Avellaneda, Arg.—died July 30, 2014, Buenos Aires, Arg.), forcefully promoted his country’s standing in the sport during his 35 years (1979–2014) as president of the Argentine Football Association and

  • Grongar Hill (work by Dyer)

    John Dyer: …British poet chiefly remembered for “Grongar Hill” (1726), a short descriptive and meditative poem, in the manner of Alexander Pope’s “Windsor-Forest,” in which he portrays the countryside largely in terms of classical landscape. The poet describes the view from a hill overlooking the vale of Towy and uses this as…

  • Groningen (Netherlands)

    Groningen, gemeente (municipality), northern Netherlands, at the junction of the canalized Drentsche Aa and Hunze rivers and several canals. Although it probably existed in the 9th century, little is known before 1040, when it was given, along with the neighbouring districts then known as the

  • Groningen (province, Netherlands)

    Groningen, provincie (province), northern Netherlands, drained by numerous short rivers and canals, including the Ems (Eems), the Hoen, the Reit, and the Winschoten canals. The province occupies the region between the Wadden Sea and the Ems Estuary (to the north and northeast), the German border

  • Groninger Museum (museum, Groninger, Netherlands)

    museum: Building design and function: The Groninger Museum in Groningen, Netherlands, is another building that challenged traditional museum and architectural values. It features a series of pavilions that were built for each collection by a different designer to create a varied visitor experience. The search continues to find the extent to…

  • Groninger Veenkolonien (region, Netherlands)

    Groningen: …created an agricultural region (Groninger Veenkolonien). The morass along the German border had long been considered a natural frontier and so was left in its impassable condition until the second half of the 19th century. Agriculture in this region has specialized in rye, oats, and potatoes for the starch…

  • Gronkiewicz-Waltz, Hanna (Polish politician)

    Warsaw: World War II and contemporary Warsaw: …successor, Warsaw’s first female mayor, Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (elected 2006), took a very different tack, acting as an advocate for social diversity, gay rights, and environmental responsibility.

  • Gr?nland

    Greenland, the world’s largest island, lying in the North Atlantic Ocean. Greenland is noted for its vast tundra and immense glaciers. Although Greenland remains a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the island’s home-rule government is responsible for most domestic affairs. The Greenlandic people are

  • Gr?nlands Vegetation, Om (work by Warming)

    Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming: …book on ecological plant distribution, Om Gr?nlands Vegetation (1888; “On the Vegetation of Greenland”), in which he described the structural adaptations of plants to their surroundings. Warming extended this type of study to several other countries, including Denmark, Venezuela, and some islands of the West Indies. His famous work, Lagoa…

  • Gr?nlandshavet (sea, Arctic Ocean)

    Greenland Sea, outlying portion of the Arctic Ocean, with an area of 465,000 square miles (1,205,000 square km). It lies south of the Arctic Basin proper and borders Greenland (west), Svalbard (east), the main Arctic Ocean (north), and the Norwegian Sea and Iceland (south). Average depth is 4,750

  • Gronovius, Johannes Fredericus (Dutch scholar)

    textual criticism: From Politian to Cobet: …of the great Dutch Latinists J.F. Gronovius and N. Heinsius were informed by Bentleian principles. Under his influence there grew up what may be called an Anglo-Dutch school of criticism, the two most typical representatives of which were Richard Porson and C.G. Cobet. Its strength lay in sound judgment and…

  • groom (anthropology)

    dowry: …the bride’s kin to the groom’s kin for the expenses incurred by the latter in payment of bridewealth. These exchanges are not purely economic but instead serve to ratify the marriage and consolidate friendship between the two families.

  • Groombridge 1830 group (astronomy)

    Milky Way Galaxy: Moving groups: One of these, called the Groombridge 1830 group, consists of a number of subdwarfs and the star RR Lyrae, after which the RR Lyrae variables were named.

  • Groombridge, Stephen (British astronomer)

    Stephen Groombridge, English astronomer, compiler of a star catalog known by his name. Groombridge began observations at Blackheath, London, in 1806 and retired from the West Indian trade in 1815 to devote full time to the project. A Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars, listing 4,243 stars situated

  • grooming

    Cleaning behaviour, self-grooming, as the action of a bird in preening its feathers, or mutual grooming as part of species behaviour, as among monkeys and other mammalian groups. Mutual grooming, which is often derived from display behaviour, cements social bonds between individuals of a group or

  • Grooms, Red (American artist)

    Happening: Claes Oldenburg, and Red Grooms. The term quickly became applied to a wide variety of live art events—from the painterly gestures of Japan’s Gutai group to the street actions of Czech dissident Milan Knizak and his Aktual group. Happenings were also a part of the international avant-garde group…

  • Groot Constantia (homestead, Constantia, South Africa)

    Constantia: The Groot Constantia homestead there was built about 1685 by Governor Simon van der Stel and named for his wife, Constance; a fine example of Cape Dutch architecture, it has been restored and serves as a museum of antique Cape stinkwood furniture.

  • Groot Karoo (plateau, South Africa)

    Great Karoo, plateau basin in Western Cape province, South Africa, lying between the Great Escarpment (north) and the Swartberg (south). It represents the effect of headwater erosion by rivers flowing southwest and southeast from the escarpment. The Great Karoo is divided into a western basin and a

  • Groot Liedt-Boeck (work by Bredero)

    Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero: …poetry, which is collected in Groot Liedt-Boeck (1622; “Great Songbook”). The humorous poems revealed the same power of observation for which some critics have praised the painters Jan Steen and Adriaen van Ostade. The sensuality of the amorous songs and sonnets contrasts with the sincerity and often the remorse of…

  • Groot Marico River (river, South Africa)

    Marico River, main headstream (with the Krokodil [Crocodile] River) of the Limpopo River, in northeastern South Africa. It flows generally north through the Marico Valley and is about 130 miles (210 km) long. The regional centre of Zeerust is situated along its

  • Groot River (Afrikaans name for several rivers)

    Groot River, (Afrikaans: Great River), any of a number of rivers in South Africa, especially the Orange River

  • Groot Trek (South African history)

    Great Trek, the emigration of some 12,000 to 14,000 Boers from Cape Colony in South Africa between 1835 and the early 1840s, in rebellion against the policies of the British government and in search of fresh pasturelands. The Great Trek is regarded by Afrikaners as a central event of their

  • Groot-Kei River (river, South Africa)

    Great Kei River, river, Eastern province, South Africa. Formed southeast of Queenstown by the junction of the White Kei (Wit Kei) and the Black Kei (Swart Kei) rivers, it flows approximately 140 miles (225 km) southeast to the Indian Ocean. Its longest tributary is the Tsomo (north). The river a

  • Groot-Vis (river, South Africa)

    Great Fish River, river in the Cape Midlands, Eastern Cape province, southern South Africa. The Great Fish River has a length of 430 miles (692 km) and a drainage area of 11,900 square miles (30,800 square km). Its main northern tributary, the Great Brak River, rises in 7,000-foot- (2,100-metre-)

  • Groote Eylandt (island, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Groote Eylandt, island off the northeast coast of Northern Territory, Australia. It is the largest island of an archipelago of the same name in the Gulf of Carpentaria, 25 miles (40 km) across Warwick Channel. Groote Eylandt is a barren and rocky outlier of the sunken coast of the Arnhem Land

  • Groote Schuur (estate, South Africa)

    Groote Schuur, large estate—named for its original building, a “large barn”—established in 1657 on the slopes of Devil’s Peak directly southeast of Cape Town, S.Af. After undergoing numerous subdivisions and changes of ownership, the estate was acquired in 1891 and enlarged by Cecil Rhodes, who

  • Groote, Geert (Dutch religious leader)

    Geert Groote, Dutch priest and educator whose establishment of a centre for manuscript copiers led to the formation of the Brethren of the Common Life, a teaching order that was a major influence in the development of German humanism. The son of wealthy parents, Groote studied for the priesthood at

  • Groote, Gerard (Dutch religious leader)

    Geert Groote, Dutch priest and educator whose establishment of a centre for manuscript copiers led to the formation of the Brethren of the Common Life, a teaching order that was a major influence in the development of German humanism. The son of wealthy parents, Groote studied for the priesthood at

  • Groote, Gerhard (Dutch religious leader)

    Geert Groote, Dutch priest and educator whose establishment of a centre for manuscript copiers led to the formation of the Brethren of the Common Life, a teaching order that was a major influence in the development of German humanism. The son of wealthy parents, Groote studied for the priesthood at

  • Grootfontein (Namibia)

    Grootfontein, town, northeastern Namibia. The town lies 36 miles (60 km) southeast of the copper- and lead-mining centre of Tsumeb and 210 air miles northeast of Windhoek, the national capital, in a semiarid region of varied grasses, shrubs, and large trees. Grootfontein, at an elevation of 4,793

  • groove (sound recording)

    sound recording: The phonograph disc: …of a spiral 90° V-shaped groove impressed into a plastic disc. As the record revolves at 33 13 rotations per minute, a tiny “needle,” or stylus, simultaneously moves along the groove and vibrates back and forth parallel to the surface of the disc and perpendicular to the groove, tracing out…

  • Groove City (song by Pickett)

    Wilson Pickett: …are critics who consider “Groove City” (1979) on EMI, his one nod to disco, a dance groove of monumental stature. Although his output began to slow in the 1980s, Pickett continued to perform into the early 21st century, and his influence on younger generations of soulful singers, from Johnny…

  • groove pin (tool)

    pin fastener: Groove pins are solid pins with longitudinal grooves produced by upsetting the metal so that it interferes with the walls of the hole when the pin is driven in.

  • groove-billed ani (bird)

    ani: The groove-billed ani (C. sulcirostris), found from southern Texas to western Peru and northern Brazil, has several grooves in the upper mandible.

  • groove-toothed shrew mouse (rodent)

    shrew rat: Natural history: …Guinea are all very small—the groove-toothed shrew mouse (Microhydromys richardsoni) weighs only 9 to 12 grams and has a body 8 to 9 cm long and an equally long tail.

  • Groover, Jan (American photographer)

    Jan Groover, American photographer who experimented with space and illusion in large-format still-life tableaux that featured everyday objects, particularly kitchen utensils arranged in a sink. She was probably best remembered for her conceptualist works: colour diptychs and triptychs depicting

  • GROPE, Project (computer science)

    virtual reality: Education and training: Project GROPE, started in 1967 at the University of North Carolina by Frederick Brooks, was particularly noteworthy for the advancements it made possible in the study of molecular biology. Brooks sought to enhance perception and comprehension of the interaction of a drug molecule with its…

  • Gropius, Alma (wife of Gustav Mahler)

    Alma Mahler, wife of Gustav Mahler, known for her relationships with celebrated men. The daughter of the painter Emil Schindler, Alma grew up surrounded by art and artists. She studied art and became friends with the painter Gustav Klimt, who made several portraits of her. Her primary interest,

  • Gropius, Walter (German-American architect)

    Walter Gropius, German American architect and educator who, particularly as director of the Bauhaus (1919–28), exerted a major influence on the development of modern architecture. His works, many executed in collaboration with other architects, included the school building and faculty housing at

  • Gropius, Walter Adolph (German-American architect)

    Walter Gropius, German American architect and educator who, particularly as director of the Bauhaus (1919–28), exerted a major influence on the development of modern architecture. His works, many executed in collaboration with other architects, included the school building and faculty housing at

  • Gropper, William (American artist)

    William Gropper, editorial cartoonist, illustrator, and painter whose main concern was the human tragedy caused by economic and social injustice. Gropper studied at the National Academy of Design (1913–14), then at the New York School of Fine and Applied Art (1915–18). After a brief period as a

  • Gros Bill, Le (Canadian hockey player)

    Jean Béliveau, Canadian professional ice hockey player who was one of the game’s greatest centres, noted for his prolific scoring. He played his entire career (1953–71) with the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League (NHL) and won 10 Stanley Cups. Béliveau began playing hockey in

  • Gros Michel (banana variety)

    banana: Cultivation and disease susceptibility: …the late 1950s with the Gros Michel dessert variety, which had dominated the world’s commercial banana business. Richer and sweeter than the modern Cavendish, the Gros Michel fell victim to an invading soil fungus that causes Panama disease, a form of Fusarium wilt. Powerless to breed resistance into the sterile…

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