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  • Gvozdena Vrata (gorge, Europe)

    Iron Gate, the last gorge of the Derdap gorge system on the Danube River, dividing the Carpathian and Balkan mountains and forming part of the boundary between Serbia and Romania. It is about 2 miles (3 km) long and 530 feet (162 metres) wide, with towering rock cliffs that make it one of the most

  • Gvozdeva, Ostrova (islands, Bering Sea)

    Diomede Islands, two small islands in the Bering Strait, lying about 2.5 miles (4 km) apart and separated by the U.S.–Russian boundary, which coincides with the International Date Line. The larger island, Big Diomede (Russian: Ostrov Ratmanova [Ratmanov Island]), has an area of 4 square miles (10

  • GVW rating

    truck: Types and definitions: Light trucks have GVW ratings that do not exceed 10,000 pounds (4.5 metric tons); GVWs of less than 8,500 pounds (3.9 metric tons) are classified as work trucks. These vehicles generally have more in common with passenger cars than with larger trucks. More than half of the world…

  • Gwadar (Pakistan)

    Gwadar, town and seaport, southwestern Balochistan province, southwestern Pakistan. Located on the sandy Nuh headland that juts southward into the Arabian Sea, the town is an important fishing (sardines and sharks) and trade centre. The main industrial concern is a fish-processing factory; salt is

  • Gwādar Bay (bay, Arabian Sea)

    Gwādar Bay, inlet of the Arabian Sea indenting the sandy Makran coast at the Iran–Pakistan border. It is about 20 miles (32 km) long and 10 miles (16 km) wide. The Dashtīārī River flows into it from the northwest, and the Dasht from the northeast. The town of Gwādar, Pak., lies on the Arabian Sea

  • Gwaith Dafydd ab Edmwnd (works of Dafydd)

    Dafydd ab Edmwnd: His works are collected in Gwaith Dafydd ab Edmwnd (ed. by Thomas Roberts, 1914).

  • Gwaith Guto’r Glyn (works of Guto’r Glyn)

    Guto'r Glyn: Gwaith Guto’r Glyn (“The Works of Guto’r Glyn,” first published in 1939) was collected by J.Ll. Williams and edited by Sir Ifor Williams. Guto’r Glyn lived at Glynceiriog and spent his last years at the abbey of Valle Crucis, Denbighshire.

  • Gwala, Harry (South African leader)

    Harry Gwala, South African communist and a leader of the African National Congress who never accepted the more conciliatory approach taken by the ANC after Nelson Mandela’s release from prison (b. July 30, 1920--d. June 20,

  • Gwalchmai ap Meilyr (Welsh poet)

    Gwalchmai ap Meilyr, one of the earliest Welsh court poets (gogynfardd) at the court of Owain Gwynedd at Aberffraw, Anglesey. His extant poems include traditional eulogies to the Welsh princes Owain Gwynedd and Madog ap Maredudd and a “boasting poem,” Gorhoffedd, celebrating his prowess in war and

  • Gwalchmei (Celtic mythology)

    Gawain: …Geoffrey’s Historia, Gawain appears as Gwalchmei. In several of the romances and in Malory, Gawain’s strength waxed and waned with the sun, raising the possibility of a connection with a Celtic solar deity.

  • Gwalior (India)

    Gwalior, city, northern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is situated about 75 miles (120 km) south of Agra. Gwalior is a cultural, industrial, and political centre and takes its name from the historic rock fortress that forms the centre of the city. It has been referred to as Gopa Parvat,

  • Gwaltney, Corbin (American editor)

    The Chronicle of Higher Education: …Hopkins University in the 1950s, Corbin Gwaltney developed a print supplement that discussed timely issues in American higher education. Initial interest in the publication was high, and several universities purchased the supplement for inclusion in their own alumni magazines. Gwaltney eventually left the Hopkins magazine to launch an independent publication…

  • Gwanda (Zimbabwe)

    Gwanda, town, southern Zimbabwe. Gwanda was founded in 1900, and its name derives from that of a nearby hill known as Jahunda. It is located on the Bulawayo-Beitbridge road and the railway that runs south to West Nicholson. The town is the chief centre for southwestern Zimbabwe’s cattle district

  • Gwandu (Nigeria)

    Gwandu, town and traditional emirate, Kebbi state, northwestern Nigeria. It lies near a branch of the Zamfara River, a tributary of the Sokoto. Originally settled by the Kebbawa, a subgroup of the Hausa people, the town was named for the surrounding gandu (“royal farmlands”) that formerly belonged

  • Gwandu (emirate, Nigeria)

    Gwandu: From 1815 Abdullahi maintained Gwandu as one of the two capitals of the Fulani empire.

  • Gwangju (South Korea)

    Kwangju, metropolitan city, southwestern South Korea. It has the status of a metropolitan city under the direct control of the central government, with administrative status equal to that of a province. An old city bordering the mountainous area of South Ch?lla province, Kwangju is located at the

  • Gwangju Rebellion (South Korean history)

    Kwangju Uprising, mass protest against the South Korean military government that took place in the southern city of Kwangju between May 18 and 27, 1980. Nearly a quarter of a million people participated in the rebellion. Although it was brutally repressed and initially unsuccessful in bringing

  • Gwangju Uprising (South Korean history)

    Kwangju Uprising, mass protest against the South Korean military government that took place in the southern city of Kwangju between May 18 and 27, 1980. Nearly a quarter of a million people participated in the rebellion. Although it was brutally repressed and initially unsuccessful in bringing

  • Gwari (people)

    African dance: Masquerade dancers: …Akakayi ancestral masqueraders of the Gwari wear close-fitting head and body coverings, which permit rapid, staccato movements while dancing at the “second burial” (i.e., the post-burial celebrations) of a leader of the community. The Egungun ancestral masqueraders of Yorubaland appear in a wide variety of loosely flowing cloth or palm-leaf…

  • Gwathmey, Charles (American architect)

    Charles Gwathmey, American architect (born June 19, 1938, Charlotte, N.C.—died Aug. 3, 2009, New York, N.Y.), was celebrated for his geometric-inspired Modernist architecture. Early in his career Gwathmey gained prominence as the youngest of five New York City-based architects (together with

  • Gwawl (Celtic mythology)

    Pwyll: …won her from his rival, Gwawl. She bore him a son, Pryderi, who was abducted by Gwawl. Pryderi was later restored to his parents and succeeded Pwyll as ruler both in Dyfed and Annwn. In Arthurian legend, Pwyll’s caldron became the Holy Grail, and Pwyll appeared as Pelles, the keeper…

  • Gweithiau Barddonol Eben Fardd (work by Eben Fardd)

    Eben Fardd: …works appeared under the title Gweithiau Barddonol Eben Fardd (1875; “Poetic Works of Eben Fardd”). From 1827 he conducted a school at Clynnog, Caernarvonshire.

  • Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Cwsc (work by Wynne)

    Ellis Wynne: …Merioneth), clergyman and author whose Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Cwsc (1703; “Visions of the Sleeping Bard”) is generally considered the greatest Welsh prose classic. An adaptation of Sir Roger L’Estrange’s translation of the Spanish satirist Quevedo’s Sue?os (1627; “Visions”), savage pictures of contemporary evils, it followed its original closely. Wynne, however,…

  • Gwelo (Zimbabwe)

    Gweru, town, central Zimbabwe, on the Gweru River. The original Matabele settlement was named iKwelo (“The Steep Place”), after the river’s high banks. The modern town, founded in 1894 as a military outpost, developed as an agricultural centre and became a municipality in 1914. Situated along the

  • Gwenhwyvar (legendary queen of Britain)

    Guinevere, wife of Arthur, legendary king of Britain, best known in Arthurian romance through the love that his knight Sir Lancelot bore for her. In early Welsh literature, one Gwenhwyvar was “the first lady of this island”; in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s inventive Historia regum Britanniae (early 12th

  • Gwenn, Edmund (British actor)

    George Seaton: Miracle on 34th Street and The Country Girl: …that the elderly man (Edmund Gwenn in an Oscar-winning performance) hired to play Santa Claus at Macy’s department store might actually be St. Nick. Seaton won an Oscar for his screenplay. Apartment for Peggy (1948) was a light romance, with Jeanne Crain and William Holden as campus newlyweds; Gwenn…

  • gwersiou (poetic form)

    Gwersiou, narrative ballad in the Breton language that dramatically describes local events, history, legends, and folklore. One of the major types of folk poetry in Breton literature, the gwersiou was first published in an authenticated collection by Fran?ois Luzel in Gwersiou Breiz-Izel, 2 vol.

  • Gwersiou Breiz-Izel (collection by Luzel)

    Celtic literature: The revival of Breton literature: …authentic folk songs and publish Gwerziou Breiz-Izel (2 vol., 1868–74; “Ballads of Lower Brittany”) and, in collaboration with Anatole Le Braz, Soniou Breiz-Izel (2 vol., 1890; “Folk Songs of Lower Brittanyrdquo;). In the 1980s Donatien Laurent, the first to have had access to Villemarqué’s papers, demonstrated that some of the…

  • Gweru (Zimbabwe)

    Gweru, town, central Zimbabwe, on the Gweru River. The original Matabele settlement was named iKwelo (“The Steep Place”), after the river’s high banks. The modern town, founded in 1894 as a military outpost, developed as an agricultural centre and became a municipality in 1914. Situated along the

  • Gwich’in (people)

    Gwich’in, a group of Athabaskan-speaking North American Indian tribes inhabiting the basins of the Yukon and Peel rivers in eastern Alaska and Yukon—a land of coniferous forests interspersed with open, barren ground. The name Gwich’in, meaning “people,” is given collectively to an indefinite number

  • Gwijde van Dampierre (count of Flanders)

    Guy, count of Flanders (from 1278) and margrave of Namur (Namen). He was the son of Margaret, countess of Flanders and Hainaut. The government of Guy of Dampierre was unfortunate. It was in the interest of the Flemish weavers to be on good terms with England, the wool-producing country, and Guy

  • Gwin, William M. (United States senator)

    Pony Express: Conceiving the idea of a Pony Express: William M. Gwin while the two traveled on horseback from San Francisco to Washington, D.C., in 1854. In January 1855 Gwin introduced a bill to finance a system of weekly service across the frontier along a central route, but this bill too failed. Others credit…

  • Gwinnett, Button (American statesman)

    Button Gwinnett, American merchant, patriot, and signer of the Declaration of Independence, known chiefly because his autographs are of extreme rarity and collectors have forced their value to a high figure. (In 2001 one of his 36 autographs sold at public auction for $110,000.) Gwinnett emigrated

  • gwobonanj (Vodou)

    Gwobonanj, in Vodou, the immortal aspect of a human spirit, or the human life force. According to Vodou theology, a human being is composed of three parts: a physical body, a tibo-nanj (one’s personality and conscience), and a gwobonanj, which is of divine origin. At the time of death, the

  • Gwreans an bys (work by Jordan)

    Cornish literature: Gwreans an bys (The Creation of the World) is the latest surviving medieval religious play in Cornish, perhaps composed about 1550. Some 180 of its lines also appear in Origo mundi, and its language shows features associated with Late Cornish. John Tregear’s Homelyes XIII in Cornysche (c. 1560;…

  • Gwydion (Celtic deity)

    Gwydion, in the Welsh Mabinogion, a son of the goddess D?n, a master of magic and poetry and a somewhat dubious character. He assisted in raping a virgin servant girl of his uncle, King Math; for his punishment he was made to live as a stag, a sow, and a wolf with the rapist as his counterpart—the

  • Gwyn, Eleanor (English actress)

    Nell Gwyn, English actress and mistress of Charles II, whose frank recklessness, generosity, invariable good temper, ready wit, infectious high spirits, and amazing indiscretions appealed irresistibly to a generation that welcomed in her the living antithesis of Puritanism. Her father, according to

  • Gwyn, Nell (English actress)

    Nell Gwyn, English actress and mistress of Charles II, whose frank recklessness, generosity, invariable good temper, ready wit, infectious high spirits, and amazing indiscretions appealed irresistibly to a generation that welcomed in her the living antithesis of Puritanism. Her father, according to

  • Gwyn, Sandra (Canadian journalist)

    Sandra Gwyn, Canadian journalist (born May 17, 1935, St. John’s, Nfd.—died May 26, 2000, Toronto, Ont.), passionately championed her native province of Newfoundland in writings for Saturday Night magazine that heralded the work of its sons and daughters; Gwyn also gained critical acclaim as a s

  • Gwynedd (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Gwynedd, county of northwestern Wales, extending from the Irish Sea in the west to the mountains of Snowdonia in the east. It encompasses most of the historic counties of Caernarvonshire and Merioneth. Caernarfon is the administrative centre of the county. The county is named for the medieval Welsh

  • Gwynedd of Dwyfor, Viscount (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    David Lloyd George, British prime minister (1916–22) who dominated the British political scene in the latter part of World War I. He was raised to the peerage in the year of his death. Lloyd George’s father was a Welshman from Pembrokeshire and had become headmaster of an elementary school in

  • Gwynn, Anthony Keith (American baseball player)

    Tony Gwynn, American professional baseball player who, while with the San Diego Padres (1982–2001), became one of the sport’s all-time best singles hitters. He threw and batted from the left side. Gwynn attended San Diego State University (California) on a basketball scholarship, where he set a

  • Gwynn, Tony (American baseball player)

    Tony Gwynn, American professional baseball player who, while with the San Diego Padres (1982–2001), became one of the sport’s all-time best singles hitters. He threw and batted from the left side. Gwynn attended San Diego State University (California) on a basketball scholarship, where he set a

  • Gwynne, Fred (American actor and writer)

    Fred Gwynne, (Frederick Hubbard Gwynne), U.S. actor and writer (born July 10, 1926, New York, N.Y.—died July 2, 1993, Taneytown, Md.), possessed a lanky and towering physique, which, coupled with his distinctive high forehead and long-jawed, dour face, made him a natural to portray the

  • Gwynne, Frederick Hubbard (American actor and writer)

    Fred Gwynne, (Frederick Hubbard Gwynne), U.S. actor and writer (born July 10, 1926, New York, N.Y.—died July 2, 1993, Taneytown, Md.), possessed a lanky and towering physique, which, coupled with his distinctive high forehead and long-jawed, dour face, made him a natural to portray the

  • G?yr (peninsula, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Gower, peninsula in Swansea city and county, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), Wales, extending southwest into the Bristol Channel. The old Welsh province of G?yr, from which the name is derived, also included extensive tracts to the north. Gower is mainly a plateau, 150–450 feet (45–140

  • Gy (physics)

    Gray, unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation, defined in the 1980s by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. One gray is equal approximately to the absorbed dose delivered when the energy per unit mass imparted to matter by ionizing radiation is one joule per

  • Gy, Pierre (French chemist)

    sample preparation: Theory: …was formulated by French chemist Pierre Gy in the second half of the 20th century. Gy defined two types of material heterogeneity: constitution heterogeneity, which is the intrinsic heterogeneity of the material’s components, and distribution heterogeneity, which is the heterogeneity that derives from the spatial mixing of the components. While…

  • Gyalsing (India)

    Gyalsing, town, southwestern Sikkim state, northern India. Gezing lies just west of the Rangit River on the Rathong-Kalet interfluve. The town has a hospital, a rest house, a higher secondary school, a college affiliated with Sikkim University in Gangtok, and a small hydroelectric project. Pop.

  • Gyalzing (India)

    Gyalsing, town, southwestern Sikkim state, northern India. Gezing lies just west of the Rangit River on the Rathong-Kalet interfluve. The town has a hospital, a rest house, a higher secondary school, a college affiliated with Sikkim University in Gangtok, and a small hydroelectric project. Pop.

  • Gyana Bhandar (library, Jaisalmer, India)

    Jaisalmer: …and a library called the Gyana Bhandar (“Store of Knowledge”), which contains old Sanskrit and Prakrit manuscripts. It was one of several historic hill forts in Rajasthan to be collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2013. Gadisar Lake is a popular recreational area in town.

  • Gyancain Norbu (Tibetan Buddhist)

    Panchen Lama: The Chinese government appointed Gyancain Norbu the 11th Panchen Lama in late 1995.

  • Gyandzha (Azerbaijan)

    G?nc?, city, western Azerbaijan. It lies along the G?nc? River. The town was founded sometime in the 5th or 6th century, about 4 miles (6.5 km) east of the modern city. That town was destroyed by earthquake in 1139 and rebuilt on the present site. G?nc? became an important centre of trade, but in

  • Gyanendra (king of Nepal)

    Gyanendra, last monarch (2001–08) of Nepal, who ascended to the throne after the assassination of King Birendra (reigned 1972–2001) and the subsequent suicide of Crown Prince Dipendra, who had committed the murder. Gyanendra, the second son of King Mahendra (reigned 1955–72), was educated at St.

  • Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (king of Nepal)

    Gyanendra, last monarch (2001–08) of Nepal, who ascended to the throne after the assassination of King Birendra (reigned 1972–2001) and the subsequent suicide of Crown Prince Dipendra, who had committed the murder. Gyanendra, the second son of King Mahendra (reigned 1955–72), was educated at St.

  • Gyangzê (China)

    Gyangzê, town, southern Tibet Autonomous Region, western China. It is situated on the Nianchu River some 53 miles (86 km) southeast of Xigazê and about halfway between Lhasa (capital of Tibet) and the town of Yadong (Xarsingma) on the frontiers with India and Bhutan. Gyangzê is an important route

  • Gyaring, Lake (lake, China)

    Yellow River: The upper course: …of water, Lakes Ngoring and Gyaring. Those shallow lakes, each covering an area of about 400 square miles (1,000 square km), are rich in fish and freeze over in winter. The Yellow River in that region flows generally from west to east. The broad highlands of the upper course rise…

  • Gyarmati, Dezs? (Hungarian water polo player and coach)

    Dezs? Gyarmati, Hungarian water polo player and coach. Widely regarded as one of the greatest water polo players of all time, Gyarmati starred for the Hungarian teams that dominated international water polo competition in the 1950s. He won medals in five consecutive Olympic Games (1948–64).

  • gyascutus (legendary animal)

    Gyascutus, an imaginary, large, four-legged beast with legs on one side longer than those on the other, for walking on hillsides. Humorous references to this creature, whose name has countless local variants, first appeared in American newspapers during the 1840s. It has continued to play a minor

  • Gyaurov, Nikolay Georgiev (Bulgarian opera singer)

    Nicolai Ghiaurov, (Nikolay Georgiev Gyaurov), Bulgarian opera singer (born Sept. 13, 1929, Velingrad, Bulg.—died June 2, 2004, Modena, Italy), enraptured audiences worldwide with his commanding onstage presence and his tremendous bass voice. Considered one of the 20th century’s greatest bass v

  • Gyavira, Saint (Ugandan saint)

    Martyrs of Uganda: Gyavira, and Kizito. The soldiers and officials Bruno Serunkuma, James Buzabaliawo, and Luke Banabakintu were martyred with them.

  • Gyda Peninsula (peninsula, Russia)

    Gyda Peninsula, peninsula, northern Russia. It is a northern extension of the West Siberian Plain reaching into the Kara Sea and situated between the bays of Ob and Tazovsky to the west and the estuary of the Yenisey River to the east. The peninsula is about 250 miles (400 km) long and is similar i

  • Gydan Peninsula (peninsula, Russia)

    Gyda Peninsula, peninsula, northern Russia. It is a northern extension of the West Siberian Plain reaching into the Kara Sea and situated between the bays of Ob and Tazovsky to the west and the estuary of the Yenisey River to the east. The peninsula is about 250 miles (400 km) long and is similar i

  • Gydansky Poluostrov (peninsula, Russia)

    Gyda Peninsula, peninsula, northern Russia. It is a northern extension of the West Siberian Plain reaching into the Kara Sea and situated between the bays of Ob and Tazovsky to the west and the estuary of the Yenisey River to the east. The peninsula is about 250 miles (400 km) long and is similar i

  • Gyêgu (China)

    Qinghai earthquake of 2010: …west of the town of Gyêgu, the capital of Yushu prefecture, and about 500 miles (800 km) southwest of Xining, the provincial capital. The quake occurred in a tectonically complex zone dominated by the titanic convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The uplift created by that convergence constitutes the…

  • Gyeongbok Palace (palace, Seoul, South Korea)

    Korean architecture: Kory? period (918–1392): …in Kaes?ng (now in the Ky?ngbok Palace, Seoul). The pagoda stands on a cross-shaped, three-tiered platform. Every architectural detail from roof tiles to the bracket system is painstakingly reproduced, and numerous Buddhist figures in relief cover the entire surface of the pagoda. This type of highly decorated pagoda with its…

  • Gyeonggi (province, South Korea)

    Ky?nggi, do (province), northwestern South Korea. It is bounded by the truce line (demilitarized zone) with North Korea (north), by the provinces of Kangw?n (Gangwon; east) and North Ky?ngsang (North Gyeongsang) and South Ch’ungch’?ng (South Chungcheong; south), and by the Yellow Sea (west). The

  • Gyeongju (South Korea)

    Ky?ngju, city, North Ky?ngsang (Gyeongsang) do (province), southeastern South Korea. It is 17 miles (28 km) inland from the coast of the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and 34 miles (55 km) east of the provincial capital, Taegu (Daegu). It was the capital of the Silla kingdom (57 bce–935 ce), and its

  • Gyeongpodae (South Korea)

    Kangn?ng: Ky?ngpodae (Gyeongpodae), a scenic site 4 miles (6 km) north of the city, has a good bathing beach, pine forests, and a pavilion built during the Chos?n (Yi) dynasty (built 1326; moved to its present location 1508). Silk-weaving is a traditional industry of the city,…

  • Gyeongsangbuk-do (province, South Korea)

    North Ky?ngsang, do (province), eastern South Korea. It is bounded to the east by the East Sea (Sea of Japan), to the south by South Ky?ngsang province, to the west by the provinces of North Ch?lla (North Jeolla) and North Ch’ungch’?ng (North Chungcheong), and to the north by Kangw?n (Gangwon)

  • Gyeongsangnam-do (province, South Korea)

    South Ky?ngsang, do (province), southeastern South Korea. It is bordered to the south by the Korea Strait, to the west by South and North Ch?lla (Jeolla) provinces, and to the north by North Ky?ngsang province. Pusan (Busan) and Ulsan—administratively designated metropolitan cities with

  • Gyeongseong (national capital, South Korea)

    Seoul, city and capital of South Korea (the Republic of Korea). It is located on the Han River (Han-gang) in the northwestern part of the country, with the city centre some 37 miles (60 km) inland from the Yellow Sea (west). Seoul is the cultural, economic, and political centre of South Korea.

  • Gyeryong, Mount (mountain, South Korea)

    South Ch'ungch'?ng: Mount Kyeryong (Gyeryong), 2,772 feet (845 metres) high, is in a national park that features unique rock and stone formations as well as a number of old temples. Various native religious groups assemble there. T’aean Marine National Park (1978) includes some of the best bathing…

  • Gygax, Ernest Gary (American entrepreneur)

    Ernest Gary Gygax, American entrepreneur who in 1974, together with his war-gaming friend David Arneson, created the world’s first fantasy role-playing game (RPG), Dungeons & Dragons (D&D), and ultimately paved the way for modern electronic RPGs. In 1971 Gygax introduced the game Chainmail, the

  • Gyges (king of Lydia)

    Gyges, king of Lydia, in western Anatolia (now Turkey), from about 680 to about 652 bc; he founded the Mermnad dynasty and made his kingdom a military power. According to all the ancient sources, Gyges came to the throne after slaying King Candaules and marrying his queen, but there are several

  • Gyges and His Ring (work by Hebbel)

    Friedrich Hebbel: Gyges und sein Ring (1854; Gyges and His Ring), probably his most mature and subtle work, shows Hebbel’s predilection for involved psychological problems. His other works include two comedies, a volume of novellas and stories, collections of poems, and essays in literary criticism. On his 50th birthday, nine months before…

  • Gyges und sein Ring (work by Hebbel)

    Friedrich Hebbel: Gyges und sein Ring (1854; Gyges and His Ring), probably his most mature and subtle work, shows Hebbel’s predilection for involved psychological problems. His other works include two comedies, a volume of novellas and stories, collections of poems, and essays in literary criticism. On his 50th birthday, nine months before…

  • Gylberde, William (English scientist)

    William Gilbert, pioneer researcher into magnetism who became the most distinguished man of science in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Educated as a physician, Gilbert settled in London and began to practice in 1573. His principal work, De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de

  • Gyldenl?ve, Ulrik Frederick (governor of Norway)

    Norway: The 16th and 17th centuries: …almost a generation after 1664, Ulrik Frederick Gyldenl?ve, the illegitimate son of Frederick III, was governor of Norway. He courted the Norwegian peasants and at the same time gave monopolies on trade and timber exports to restricted numbers of merchants. By applying such principles the government in Copenhagen and the…

  • Gylfaginning (Icelandic literature)

    Germanic religion and mythology: Scandinavian literary sources: …of the north in the “Gylfaginning” (“Beguiling of Gylfi”), a section describing all of the major gods and their functions. Snorri worked partly from Eddic and skaldic poetry still extant, but partly from sources that are now lost. He presents a clear, if not altogether reliable, account of the gods,…

  • Gylippus (Spartan general)

    Gylippus, Spartan general who in 414–413, during the Peloponnesian War, broke the Athenian siege of Syracuse, Sicily. Urged by the Athenian exile Alcibiades to send a general to take charge of the defense of Syracuse, the Spartans appointed Gylippus, and his arrival in 414 kept Syracuse from

  • Gyllenborg, Gustaf Fredrik, Greve (Swedish poet)

    Gustaf Fredrik, Count Gyllenborg, Swedish poet known for his satirical and reflective poetry. Although members of his family were prominent in political life, as a courtier he took no part in politics and attacked the weaknesses of modern society in the spirit of the French Romantic philosopher

  • Gyllenhaal, Jake (American actor)

    Rachel McAdams: …wife of a boxer (Jake Gyllenhaal) in the drama Southpaw and as an investigative journalist in Spotlight (both 2015), about the The Boston Globe exposé on the child molestation cover-up by the city’s Roman Catholic archdiocese. For her work in the latter film, McAdams received her first Academy Award…

  • Gyllensten, Lars Johan Wictor (Swedish author)

    Lars Gyllensten, Swedish intellectual, professor of histology, poet, and prolific philosophical novelist. Gyllensten was reared and educated in Stockholm. He earned a medical degree (1953) at Karolinska Institute, where he later served as a professor of medicine (1955–73). In 1966 he was elected to

  • Gyllenstierna, Johan, Greve (Swedish statesman)

    Johan, Count Gyllenstierna, statesman and chief adviser of King Charles XI of Sweden. From the beginning of his career (at the Riksdag, or Parliament, of 1660), Gyllenstierna advocated a strong royal authority and opposition to the nobles of the Riksr?d (Council of the Realm). During Charles XI’s

  • gymel (music)

    Gymel, (from Latin cantus gemellus, “twin song”), medieval musical style of two-part polyphonic composition, possibly of popular origin, in which the voices move mainly in consecutive intervals of a third or a sixth. Crossing of parts is a common characteristic. Although gymel compositions have

  • Gymir (Norse mythology)

    Freyr: Gerd, daughter of the giant Gymir, was his wife. Worshiped especially in Sweden, he was also well-known in Norway and Iceland. His sister and female counterpart, Freyja, was goddess of love, fertility, battle, and death. The boar was sacred to both. Freyr and Freyja figure in many lays and stories…

  • gymkhana (motor sport)

    Gymkhana, originally in 19th-century India and England, a display of athletics and equestrian events; in the 20th century, also a form of automobile sport in which a series of events is planned to test driving skill and demonstrate accurate car handling. Auto gymkhanas usually are held on parking

  • Gymnadenia (work by Undset)

    Norwegian literature: Poetry and the novel: Her later novels, Gymnadenia (1929; The Wild Orchid) and Den br?ndende busk (1930; The Burning Bush), were overtly influenced by her conversion to Roman Catholicism. Olav Duun, also of the midnorth region, revealed his insight into life as endless conflict in a six-volume novel cycle about the development of a…

  • Gymnarchus (fish genus)

    osteoglossomorph: Behaviour and ecology: …organs in navigation and detection; Gymnarchus, for example, swims with its body held straight, propulsion being provided by undulations of the dorsal, or back, fin. Since electrical organs lie near the tail, side-to-side movements of the tail end (as in normal swimming movement) would constantly change their position relative to…

  • Gymnarchus niloticus (fish)

    osteoglossomorph: Life cycle and reproduction: In contrast, Gymnarchus niloticus (Gymnarchidae) prepares a large floating nest from the matted stems of swamp grasses, biting off the stems and fashioning them into a trough-shaped structure with an internal length of about 50 cm (20 inches). Spawning takes place in the nest, and one or…

  • Gymnasia (Swedish education)

    Gustavus Adolphus: Resolution of internal problems: Gustavus’s creation of the Gymnasia in the 1620s gave Sweden, for the first time, an effective provision for secondary education; his splendid munificence to the University of Uppsala gave it the financial security that was essential to its development; and his foundation of the University of Tartu provided the…

  • gymnasial class (ancient Egyptian aristocracy)

    ancient Egypt: Society, religion, and culture: …urban aristocracy, known as the gymnasial class. Members of this group were entitled to lower rates of poll tax, subsidized or free distributions of food, and maintenance at the public expense when they grew old. If they or their descendants were upwardly mobile, they might gain Alexandrian citizenship, Roman citizenship,…

  • gymnasieskola (Swedish school)

    Sweden: Education: …curriculum in this school (gymnasieskola) is divided between several theoretical programs, which are university-oriented, and a variety of vocationally oriented programs. Certain core subjects are common to all programs.

  • gymnasium (sports)

    Gymnasium, large room used and equipped for the performance of various sports. The history of the gymnasium dates back to ancient Greece, where the literal meaning of the Greek word gymnasion was “school for naked exercise.” The gymnasiums were of great significance to the ancient Greeks, and every

  • gymnasium (school)

    gymnasium: The Greek gymnasiums also held lectures and discussions on philosophy, literature, and music, and public libraries were nearby.

  • Gymnasium (German school)

    Gymnasium, in Germany, state-maintained secondary school that prepares pupils for higher academic education. This type of nine-year school originated in Strassburg in 1537. Although the usual leaving age is 19 or 20, a pupil may terminate his studies at the age of 16 and enter a vocational school.

  • Gymnast (World War II)

    20th-century international relations: The turning point, 1942: …first” strategy and conceived “Gymnast,” a plan for Anglo-American landings in North Africa. They also created a Combined Chiefs of Staff Committee and issued, on January 1, 1942, the United Nations Declaration in the spirit of the Atlantic Charter. But Sir Anthony Eden had traveled to Moscow in late…

  • gymnastics

    Gymnastics, the performance of systematic exercises—often with the use of rings, bars, and other apparatus—either as a competitive sport or to improve strength, agility, coordination, and physical conditioning. The term gymnastics, derived from a Greek word meaning “to exercise naked,” applied in

  • Gymnastics for Youth (work by Guts Muths)

    gymnastics: History: …Gymnastik für die Jugend (1793; Gymnastics for Youth), Guts Muths envisioned two main divisions of gymnastics: natural gymnastics and artificial gymnastics. These two divisions may be thought of as utilitarian and nonutilitarian gymnastics. The former disciplines emphasize the health of the body, similar to the exercises developed in Sweden and…

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