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  • Gardner, Gerald Brousseau (British government worker)

    witchcraft: Contemporary witchcraft: …about 1939 with an Englishman, Gerald Gardner, who constructed it from the fanciful works of the self-styled magician Aleister Crowley; the fake “ancient” document Aradia (1899); the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and other late-19th and early-20th century occult movements; and Margaret Murray’s The Witch-Cult in Western Europe (1921)…

  • Gardner, Helen (American art historian and educator)

    Helen Gardner, American art historian and educator whose exhaustive, standard-setting art history textbook remained widely read for many years. Gardner graduated from the University of Chicago with a degree in Latin and Greek in 1901 and became a teacher and later assistant principal at the Brooks

  • Gardner, Herb (American playwright)

    Herbert George Gardner, (“Herb”), American playwright (born Dec. 28, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Sept. 24, 2003, New York, N.Y.), featured eccentric characters struggling against conformity in comedies that included A Thousand Clowns (1962; filmed 1965), the Tony Award-winning I’m Not Rappaport (

  • Gardner, Herbert George (American playwright)

    Herbert George Gardner, (“Herb”), American playwright (born Dec. 28, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Sept. 24, 2003, New York, N.Y.), featured eccentric characters struggling against conformity in comedies that included A Thousand Clowns (1962; filmed 1965), the Tony Award-winning I’m Not Rappaport (

  • Gardner, Howard (American psychologist)

    Howard Gardner, American cognitive psychologist and author, best known for his theory of multiple intelligences. First presented in Frames of Mind (1983) and subsequently refined and extended in Intelligence Reframed (1999), Gardner’s theory inspired teachers, school leaders, and special educators

  • Gardner, Isabella Stewart (American arts patron)

    Isabella Stewart Gardner, eclectic American socialite and art collector, a patron of many arts, remembered largely for the distinctive collection of European and Asian artworks that she assembled in Boston. Isabella Stewart was the daughter of a wealthy businessman. In 1860 she married John L.

  • Gardner, John (American author)

    John Gardner, American novelist and poet whose philosophical fiction reveals his characters’ inner conflicts. Gardner attended Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (A.B., 1955), and the University of Iowa (M.A., 1956; Ph.D., 1958) and then taught at various colleges and universities

  • Gardner, John Champlin, Jr. (American author)

    John Gardner, American novelist and poet whose philosophical fiction reveals his characters’ inner conflicts. Gardner attended Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (A.B., 1955), and the University of Iowa (M.A., 1956; Ph.D., 1958) and then taught at various colleges and universities

  • Gardner, John Edmond (British author)

    John Edmond Gardner, British writer (born Nov. 20, 1926 , Seaton Delaval, Northumberland, Eng.—died Aug. 3, 2007, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Eng.), was the author of more than 50 thrillers but was best known for his 16 books that continued Ian Fleming’s James Bond series. Gardner’s first published

  • Gardner, John William (American activist)

    John William Gardner, American social and political activist (born Oct. 8, 1912, Los Angeles, Calif.—died Feb. 16, 2002, Palo Alto, Calif.), had a more than half-century-long career of public service highlighted by his influence on education through his presidency of the philanthropic Carnegie C

  • Gardner, Percy (British archaeologist)

    Percy Gardner, English archaeologist who was noted for his contributions to the study of Greek numismatics. Gardner was a prolific writer and lecturer on numismatics, Greek art, and religious subjects, as well as a gifted teacher. He was educated at Christ’s College, Cambridge, and while a member

  • Gardner, Tom (American entrepreneur)

    David and Tom Gardner: … at Chapel Hill in 1988; Tom attended Brown University (B.A., 1990) and did graduate work in linguistics and geography at the University of Montana. Although they had long been interested in money management (they began investing at age 18), they resisted the lure of Wall Street and instead became its…

  • Gardnerella (bacteria)

    vaginitis: …is the cause of candidiasis; Gardnerella bacteria; and Trichomonas vaginalis, a protozoan. The last two types of vaginal infections are usually transmitted through sexual contact. Candidiasis can also occur during pregnancy and can cause infant thrush in children born to infected mothers. Treatment of these infectious forms of vaginitis is

  • Gardons, S. S. (American poet)

    W.D. Snodgrass, American poet whose early work is distinguished by a careful attention to form and by a relentless yet delicate examination of personal experiences. Snodgrass was educated at Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pa., and the University of Iowa. He taught at Cornell University (1955–57),

  • Gare du Nord (railway station, Paris, France)

    Western architecture: France: His Gare du Nord, Paris (1861–65), showed brilliantly how a language ultimately inspired by the triumphal arches of ancient Rome could lend an appropriate monumental emphasis to a major metropolitan railway terminus. In Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Paris (1830–46), a church with a giant portico leading to an aisled…

  • Gare Saint-Lazare (painting by Manet)

    Western painting: Impressionism: …hoping for academic success; his Gare Saint-Lazare (1873), influenced by the Impressionist palette, was accepted at the Salon. Modeling himself on Pissarro, Cézanne sublimated the turbulent emotions of his earlier work in pictures that were studied directly and closely from nature; he followed the method for the rest of his…

  • garefowl (extinct bird)

    Great auk, (Pinguinus impennis), flightless seabird extinct since 1844. Great auks belonged to the family Alcidae (order Charadriiformes). They bred in colonies on rocky islands off North Atlantic coasts (St. Kilda, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Funk Island off Newfoundland); subfossil remains

  • Garfield (comic strip by Davis)

    Garfield, American newspaper comic strip featuring a fat, lazy cat with a dry sense of humour. Garfield became the most widely syndicated comic strip of its era. Garfield is a round-bodied, orange and black tabby cat who frequently stands on two feet and communicates via cartoon “thought bubbles”

  • Garfield, Henry (American singer and writer)

    Henry Rollins, American singer, poet, monologuist, and publisher whose tenure as the lead vocalist of Los Angeles hardcore group Black Flag made him one of the most recognizable faces in the 1980s punk scene. Rollins was an avid fan of hardcore music, and, as a teenager, he performed with a number

  • Garfield, James A. (president of United States)

    James A. Garfield, 20th president of the United States (March 4–September 19, 1881), who had the second shortest tenure in U.S. presidential history. When he was shot and incapacitated, serious constitutional questions arose concerning who should properly perform the functions of the presidency.

  • Garfield, James Abram (president of United States)

    James A. Garfield, 20th president of the United States (March 4–September 19, 1881), who had the second shortest tenure in U.S. presidential history. When he was shot and incapacitated, serious constitutional questions arose concerning who should properly perform the functions of the presidency.

  • Garfield, John (American actor)

    John Garfield, American film and stage actor who is best known for his intense portrayals of rebels and antiheroes. Garfield grew up in the poor Jewish section of New York City’s Lower East Side. Street-gang involvement and numerous fistfights landed him in a reform school during his teen years,

  • Garfield, Jules (American actor)

    John Garfield, American film and stage actor who is best known for his intense portrayals of rebels and antiheroes. Garfield grew up in the poor Jewish section of New York City’s Lower East Side. Street-gang involvement and numerous fistfights landed him in a reform school during his teen years,

  • Garfield, Leon (British author)

    children's literature: Historical fiction: Leon Garfield, though not working with historical characters, created strange picaresque tales that gave children a thrilling, often chilling insight into the 18th-century England of Smollett and Fielding.

  • Garfield, Lucretia (American first lady)

    Lucretia Garfield, American first lady (March 4–September 19, 1881), the wife of James A. Garfield, 20th president of the United States. Although first lady for only a few months, she was one of the most interesting women to have held that job, and some of her early achievements and choices presage

  • Garfinkel, Zorach (American sculptor)

    William Zorach, traditionalist sculptor of simple, figurative subjects who was a leading figure in the early 20th-century revival of direct carving, whereby the sculptor seeks an image directly from the material to be carved, relying on neither the inspiration of models nor the aid of mechanical

  • Garfinkle, Jacob Julius (American actor)

    John Garfield, American film and stage actor who is best known for his intense portrayals of rebels and antiheroes. Garfield grew up in the poor Jewish section of New York City’s Lower East Side. Street-gang involvement and numerous fistfights landed him in a reform school during his teen years,

  • Garfinkle, Zorach (American sculptor)

    William Zorach, traditionalist sculptor of simple, figurative subjects who was a leading figure in the early 20th-century revival of direct carving, whereby the sculptor seeks an image directly from the material to be carved, relying on neither the inspiration of models nor the aid of mechanical

  • garfish (fish)

    Gar, any of seven species of large North American fishes of the genera Atractosteus and Lepisosteus, in the family Lepisosteidae. Gars, which are related to the bowfin in the infraclass Holostei, are confined chiefly to fresh water, though some of the species descend to brackish or even salt water.

  • garfish (fish, Belone species)

    Garfish, European species of needlefish

  • Garfunkel, Art (American singer)

    Paul Simon: Simon and Garfunkel: …classmate from Queens, New York, Art Garfunkel, to form Simon and Garfunkel (first known as Tom and Jerry). Beginning with “The Sounds of Silence,” they were the most popular folk-pop duo of the 1960s and the musical darlings of literary-minded college-age baby boomers. In 1967 their music was a key…

  • Gargallo y Catalán, Pablo (Spanish sculptor)

    Pablo Gargallo, Spanish sculptor who was among the first artists to work in iron. He introduced Pablo Picasso to metal sculpture. After studying drawing and sculpture in Barcelona, Gargallo won a scholarship in 1903 to continue his studies in Paris; he was forced to return to Barcelona shortly

  • Gargallo, Pablo (Spanish sculptor)

    Pablo Gargallo, Spanish sculptor who was among the first artists to work in iron. He introduced Pablo Picasso to metal sculpture. After studying drawing and sculpture in Barcelona, Gargallo won a scholarship in 1903 to continue his studies in Paris; he was forced to return to Barcelona shortly

  • garganey (bird)

    Lake Chad: Animal life: …region is famous—such as the garganeys, shovelers, fulvous tree ducks, Egyptian geese, pink-backed pelicans, marabou storks, glossy ibises, and African spoonbills. Included among the amphibians and reptiles are Nile crocodiles, rock pythons, and spitting cobras. The Chad basin remains an important fishery, with more than 40 species of commercial importance.…

  • Gargano (promontory, Italy)

    Gargano, mountainous promontory jutting into the Adriatic Sea from the east coast of Italy, in Foggia province, Puglia (Apulia) region. Called the “spur” of the Italian “boot” (peninsula), it is 40 miles (65 km) long and 25 miles (40 km) at its widest, with an area of 778 square miles (2,015

  • Gargano Promontory (promontory, Italy)

    Gargano, mountainous promontory jutting into the Adriatic Sea from the east coast of Italy, in Foggia province, Puglia (Apulia) region. Called the “spur” of the Italian “boot” (peninsula), it is 40 miles (65 km) long and 25 miles (40 km) at its widest, with an area of 778 square miles (2,015

  • Garganta del Diablo (gorge, South America)

    Garganta del Diablo, (Spanish: Devil’s Gorge or Devil’s Throat) spectacular cataract on the Río Iguazú (Rio Igua?u) at the border of Argentina and Brazil. The water roars down a descent of 269 feet (82

  • Garganta do Diablo (gorge, South America)

    Garganta del Diablo, (Spanish: Devil’s Gorge or Devil’s Throat) spectacular cataract on the Río Iguazú (Rio Igua?u) at the border of Argentina and Brazil. The water roars down a descent of 269 feet (82

  • Gargantua and Pantagruel (work by Rabelais)

    Gargantua and Pantagruel, collective title of five comic novels by Fran?ois Rabelais, published between 1532 and 1564. The novels present the comic and satiric story of the giant Gargantua and his son Pantagruel, and various companions, whose travels and adventures are a vehicle for ridicule of the

  • Gargas (cave, France)

    Gargas, cave in the French Pyrenees that contains important examples of Late Paleolithic mural art, paintings, and engravings, most of them probably dating from the Gravettian Period (about 27,000 to 22,000 years ago). The cave’s decoration was discovered in 1906. Many “macaroni,” or finger

  • Gargasa?mhitā (Indian literature)

    astrology: Astral omens in Egypt, Greece, India, and China: …earliest version of the as-yet-unpublished Gargasamhita (“Compositions of Garga”) of about the 1st century ad. The original Mesopotamian material was modified so as to fit into the Indian conception of society, including the system of the four castes and the duty of the upper castes to perform the samskaras (sanctifying…

  • Gargery, Joe (fictional character)

    Joe Gargery, fictional character, the simple, kindhearted, and loyal blacksmith who is married to the hero Pip’s mean-spirited sister in the novel Great Expectations (1861) by Charles

  • gargoyle (architecture)

    Gargoyle, in architecture, waterspout designed to drain water from the parapet gutter. Originally the term referred only to the carved lions of classical cornices or to terra-cotta spouts, such as those found in the Roman structures at Pompeii. The word later became restricted mainly to the

  • gargoylism (pathology)

    Hurler’s syndrome, one of several rare genetic disorders involving a defect in the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides, the class of polysaccharides that bind water to unite cells and to lubricate joints. Onset of the syndrome is in infancy or early childhood, and the disease occurs with equal

  • Garh Gazali (forest, Bangladesh)

    Madhupur Jungle, forest extending approximately 60 miles (100 km) north-south in east-central Bangladesh. It is a slightly elevated area of older alluvium between the Meghna and Jamuna (Brahmaputra) rivers. A large part of the area has been cleared and is now intensively farmed. The most common

  • Garh Gazau (forest, Bangladesh)

    Madhupur Jungle, forest extending approximately 60 miles (100 km) north-south in east-central Bangladesh. It is a slightly elevated area of older alluvium between the Meghna and Jamuna (Brahmaputra) rivers. A large part of the area has been cleared and is now intensively farmed. The most common

  • garhapatya (Indian religion)

    Roman religion: The earliest divinities: …its correspondence with the Indian garhapatya, “house-father’s fire,” suggest an origin prior to the time of the differentiation of the Indo-European-speaking peoples. The cultic site just outside the area of the primitive Palatine settlement indicates that there had been a form of fire worship even earlier than Vesta’s (dedicated to…

  • Garian (Libya)

    Gharyān, town, in the Tripolitania region of northwestern Libya. It lies at the foot of the plateau Jabal Nafūsah, 50 miles (80 km) south of Tripoli, and was a major centre of Italian colonization in the early 1910s. After the Turko-Italian war (1911–12) and the defeat of Turkey, the Gebel, Berber,

  • garibaldi (fish)

    damselfish: …aruanus) of the Indo-Pacific; the garibaldi (Hypsypops rubicundus), a bright orange California fish about 30 cm long; the beau gregory (Eupomacentrus leucostictus), a blue-and-yellow Atlantic species; and the sergeant major (Abudefduf saxatilis), a black-banded, bluish and yellow fish of the tropical Atlantic.

  • Garibaldi, Giuseppe (Italian revolutionary)

    Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento, a republican who, through his conquest of Sicily and Naples with his guerrilla Redshirts, contributed to the achievement of Italian unification under the royal house of Savoy. Garibaldi’s family was one of fishermen and coastal

  • Garibaldi, Mount (mountain, Canada)

    Mount Garibaldi, peak in southern British Columbia, Canada, in the Coast Mountains east of the Cheakamus River. Glacier-capped, it is 8,787 ft (2,678 m) high and is the focus of Garibaldi Provincial Park (area 760 sq mi [1,968 sq km]), established in 1927 and now a popular year-round recreational

  • Garibashvili, Irakli (prime minister of Georgia)

    Georgia: Georgian Dream government: He personally selected his successor, Irakli Garibashvili, who resigned in 2015 without explanation. The next prime minister, Giorgi Kvirikashvili, served until 2018, when he resigned after falling out with Ivanishvili (who had become party chairman just months before). Kvirikashvili was replaced by Mamuka Bakhtadze. Days before the second-round runoff in…

  • Garibay, Ricardo (Mexican writer and journalist)

    Ricardo Garibay, Mexican writer and journalist who vividly depicted modern-day Mexico in more than 50 books, including the novels Beber un cáliz (1965) and La casa que arde de noche (1971); a frequent contributor to major Mexican newspapers and magazines, he also appeared regularly on television,

  • Garībnāmeh (work by A?ik Pa?a)

    A??k Pa?a: …most famous work is the Gharībnāmeh, a long didactic, mystical poem written in over 11,000 mas?navī (rhymed couplets) and divided into 10 chapters, each with 10 subsections. Each of the chapters is associated with a subject in relation to its number. For example, the fifth chapter deals with the five…

  • Gariep Dam (dam, South Africa)

    Orange River: Physiography: From the Gariep (formerly Hendrik Verwoerd) Dam the Orange swings to the northwest to its confluence with the Vaal River. The Vaal, which rises in Eastern Transvaal province, flows west through the major population and industrial core of South Africa before turning south and joining the Orange…

  • Gariep Reservoir (reservoir, South Africa)

    Orange River: Physiography: …at the head of the Gariep (formerly Hendrik Verwoerd) Reservoir.

  • Gariep River (river, Africa)

    Orange River, river in southern Africa, one of the longest rivers on the continent and one of the longest south of the Tropic of Capricorn. After rising in the Lesotho Highlands, less than 125 miles (200 kilometres) from the Indian Ocean, the river flows to the Atlantic Ocean in a generally

  • Garifuna (people)

    Latin American dance: Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela: …is the punta of the Garifuna—a cultural group of mixed Amerindian and African origin—found on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Punta is a social dance of joy and festivity, as well as an emblem of cultural survival. In its festive aspect, punta allows dancers to interact…

  • Garifuna Collective (Belizean musical group)

    Andy Vivien Palacio: …that was known as the Garifuna Collective, Palacio produced several influential albums, notably Paranda (1999) and Wátina (2007). He was awarded Belize’s Order of Meritorious Service in September 2007, and two months later he was named a UNESCO Artist for Peace.

  • Garífuna language

    Garífuna language, an Arawakan language spoken by approximately 190,000 people in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, and also by many who have emigrated to the United States. The language’s presence in Central America is relatively recent. African slaves mingled with the Caribs of Saint

  • Garig Gunak Barlu National Park (national park, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Cobourg Peninsula: It is now Garig Gunak Barlu National Park, administered jointly by the traditional Aboriginal owners and the Northern Territory government.

  • garigue (plant)

    maquis: Garigue, or garrigue, a poorer version of this vegetation, is found in areas with a thin, rocky soil. Maquis occurs primarily on the lower slopes of mountains bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Many of the shrubs are aromatic, such as mints, laurels, and myrtles. Olives, figs,…

  • Garimara, Nugi (Australian Aboriginal writer)

    Doris Pilkington Garimara, (Nugi Garimara), Australian Aboriginal writer (born 1937?, Balfour Downs Station, W.Aus., Australia—died April 10, 2014, Perth, Australia), chronicled in her book Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence (1996) the harrowing nine-week, 1,600-km (1,000-mi) trek across Western

  • garimpeireo (mining)

    Brazil: Mining and quarrying: …where tens of thousands of garimpeiros swarmed during gold rushes in the 1980s and ’90s. Minas Gerais, Bahia, and Espírito Santo are the major sources of Brazil’s enormous range of gems—topazes, amethysts, opals, aquamarines, tourmalines, emeralds, and others—that make Brazil a world leader in precious and semiprecious stones.

  • Garinagu (people)

    Latin American dance: Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela: …is the punta of the Garifuna—a cultural group of mixed Amerindian and African origin—found on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Punta is a social dance of joy and festivity, as well as an emblem of cultural survival. In its festive aspect, punta allows dancers to interact…

  • Garinei, Pietro (Italian playwright and impresario)

    Pietro Garinei, Italian playwright and impresario (born Feb. 25, 1919, Trieste, Italy—died May 9, 2006, Rome, Italy), introduced (with his longtime writing partner, Sandro Giovannini) the Broadway-style musical comedy to the Italian stage. Garinei originally trained as a pharmacist. He met G

  • Garip movement (Turkish literature)

    Turkish literature: Modern Turkish literature: …and Melih Cevdet Anday—initiated the Garip (“Strange”) movement with publication of a volume of poetry by the same name. In it they emphasized simplified language, folkloric poetic forms, and themes of alienation in the modern urban environment. Later, Anday broke with this style, treating philosophical and aesthetic issues in his…

  • Garis, Howard R. (American author)

    Howard R. Garis, American author, creator of the Uncle Wiggily series of children’s stories. Garis began his career as a newspaperman with the Newark Evening News in 1896. Shortly after, he began writing a daily bedtime story about Uncle Wiggily—a rabbit hero—and his friends. He averaged a story a

  • Garis, Howard Roger (American author)

    Howard R. Garis, American author, creator of the Uncle Wiggily series of children’s stories. Garis began his career as a newspaperman with the Newark Evening News in 1896. Shortly after, he began writing a daily bedtime story about Uncle Wiggily—a rabbit hero—and his friends. He averaged a story a

  • Garissa (Kenya)

    Garissa, town, east-central Kenya. The town is a market centre situated on the Tana River, and its industries process food, beverages, and tobacco products; manufactures include plastic containers. It is located about 215 miles (350 km) east of Nairobi and is linked by road with Nairobi, Mombasa,

  • Garland (Texas, United States)

    Garland, city, Dallas county, northern Texas, U.S. Adjacent to Dallas (west), it was founded in 1887, when two rival railroad communities, Duck Creek and Embree, were consolidated by an act of the U.S. Congress and named for Attorney General Augustus H. Garland. In May 1927 a tornado destroyed much

  • garland (floral decoration)

    Garland, a band, or chain, of flowers, foliage, and leaves; it may be joined at the ends to form a circle (wreath), worn on the head (chaplet), or draped in loops (festoon or swag). Garlands have been a part of religious ritual and tradition from ancient times: the Egyptians placed garlands of

  • garland crab (tree)

    crabapple: …species are the garland, or sweet crab (M. coronaria); Oregon crabapple (M. fusca); prairie crabapple (M. ioensis); and southern crabapple (M. angustifolia).

  • garland flower (plant)

    Ginger lily, any ornamental plant of the genus Hedychium, of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). About 50 species occur in tropical and subtropical regions (e.g., India, southwestern China). The rhizomes (underground stems) are gingerlike (i.e., fleshy with a yellow or bluish interior). Several

  • garland flower (plant, Daphne cneorum)

    Daphne: The garland flower (D. cneorum) is a hardy evergreen trailing shrub, or ground cover, with pink, sweet-scented flowers. Popular greenhouse subjects include the several varieties of winter daphne (D. odora), which have very fragrant white to purplish flowers in crowded clusters. D. indica, with red blossoms,…

  • Garland Sutra (Buddhist text)

    Avatamsaka-sutra, voluminous Mahayana Buddhist text that some consider the most sublime revelation of the Buddha’s teachings. Scholars value the text for its revelations about the evolution of thought from early Buddhism to fully developed Mahayana. The sutra speaks of the deeds of the Buddha and

  • Garland the Computist (medieval logician)

    history of logic: St. Anselm and Peter Abelard: 730–804) and Garland the Computist (flourished c. 1040). But it was not until late in the 11th century that serious interest in logic revived. St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109) discussed semantical questions in his De grammatico and investigated the notions of possibility and necessity in surviving fragments,…

  • Garland, Beverly (American actress)

    D.O.A.: Cast: Assorted Referencesdiscussed in biography

  • Garland, Ex parte (law case)

    Salmon P. Chase: Missouri and Ex parte Garland (both 1867), state and federal loyalty oaths prerequisite to the practice of learned professions. In various cases in 1872–73 (near the end of his life), in a court whose majority narrowly construed the postwar Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, he…

  • Garland, Hamlin (American writer)

    Hamlin Garland, American author perhaps best remembered for his short stories and his autobiographical “Middle Border” series of narratives. As his farming family moved progressively westward from Wisconsin to Iowa and then to the Dakotas, Garland rebelled against the vicissitudes of pioneering and

  • Garland, Hank (American musician)

    Hank Garland, (Walter Louis Garland), American musician (born Nov. 11, 1930, Cowpens, S.C.—died Dec. 27, 2004, Orange Park, Fla.), was a legendary country, jazz, and rock guitarist, best known for his studio work with such performers as Elvis Presley, Roy Orbison, the Everly Brothers, and Patsy C

  • Garland, Hannibal Hamlin (American writer)

    Hamlin Garland, American author perhaps best remembered for his short stories and his autobiographical “Middle Border” series of narratives. As his farming family moved progressively westward from Wisconsin to Iowa and then to the Dakotas, Garland rebelled against the vicissitudes of pioneering and

  • Garland, Judy (American singer and actress)

    Judy Garland, American singer and actress whose exceptional talents and vulnerabilities combined to make her one of the most enduringly popular Hollywood icons of the 20th century. Frances Gumm was the daughter of former vaudevillians Frank Gumm and Ethel Gumm, who operated the New Grand Theatre in

  • Garland, Merrick (American jurist)

    Neil Gorsuch: …by Obama as Scalia’s replacement—Merrick Garland, chief judge of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, who was widely viewed as a judicial moderate. Despite vigorous complaints from Democratic leaders, who accused Republicans of cynically shirking their constitutional responsibility and of violating democratic norms, the seat remained empty through the…

  • Garland, Merrick Brian (American jurist)

    Neil Gorsuch: …by Obama as Scalia’s replacement—Merrick Garland, chief judge of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, who was widely viewed as a judicial moderate. Despite vigorous complaints from Democratic leaders, who accused Republicans of cynically shirking their constitutional responsibility and of violating democratic norms, the seat remained empty through the…

  • Garland, Walter Louis (American musician)

    Hank Garland, (Walter Louis Garland), American musician (born Nov. 11, 1930, Cowpens, S.C.—died Dec. 27, 2004, Orange Park, Fla.), was a legendary country, jazz, and rock guitarist, best known for his studio work with such performers as Elvis Presley, Roy Orbison, the Everly Brothers, and Patsy C

  • garlic (plant)

    Garlic, (Allium sativum), perennial plant of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), grown for its flavourful bulbs. The plant is native to central Asia but grows wild in Italy and southern France and is a classic ingredient in many national cuisines. The bulbs have a powerful onionlike aroma and

  • garlic fruit (tree)

    Garcinia: Garlic fruit, or bitter garcinia (G. spicata), is planted as an ornamental in tropical salt-spray oceanfront areas. Orange dyes (gamboge) are extracted from the bark of G. xanthochymus and G. cowa. A number of species are listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List of

  • Garlock, John Harry (American surgeon)

    history of medicine: Anesthesia and thoracic surgery: …generally poor until, in 1944, John Garlock of New York showed that it is possible to excise the esophagus and to bring the stomach up through the chest and join it to the pharynx. Lengths of colon were also used as grafts to bridge the gap.

  • garment (clothing)

    Dress, clothing and accessories for the human body. The variety of dress is immense. The style that a particular individual selects is often linked to that person’s sex, age, socioeconomic status, culture, geographic area, and historical era. This article considers the chronological development of

  • garment industry

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