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  • gelding (horse)

    horse: Form and function: …stallion is commonly called a gelding. Formerly, stallions were employed as riding horses, while mares were kept for breeding purposes only. Geldings were used for work and as ladies’ riding horses. Recently, however, geldings generally have replaced stallions as riding horses. Young horses are known as foals; male foals are…

  • Geldof, Bob (Irish singer and political activist)

    Live Aid: …by Boomtown Rats front man Bob Geldof and Ultravox vocalist Midge Ure, the event drew an estimated 1.5 billion television viewers and raised millions of dollars for famine relief in Ethiopia.

  • Geldzins und Güterpreise (work by Wicksell)

    Knut Wicksell: In Geldzins und Güterpreise (1898; Interest and Prices, 1936) he propounded an explanation of price-level movements by an aggregate demand–supply analysis focussed on the relations between prospective profit and interest rates. This made Wicksell a forerunner of modern monetary theory and anticipated the work of John Maynard Keynes in A…

  • gelechiid moth (insect)

    Gelechiid moth, (family Gelechiidae), any of more than 4,500 species of moths (order Lepidoptera), some of which are important pests. The brown adults have gray or silver markings and average 19 mm (34 inch) in wingspan. The hindwings have somewhat concave outer margins and pointed tips, in

  • Gelechiidae (insect)

    Gelechiid moth, (family Gelechiidae), any of more than 4,500 species of moths (order Lepidoptera), some of which are important pests. The brown adults have gray or silver markings and average 19 mm (34 inch) in wingspan. The hindwings have somewhat concave outer margins and pointed tips, in

  • Gelechioidea (insect superfamily)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Superfamily Gelechioidea More than 16,000 species worldwide; adults mostly larger and broader winged than Tineoidea; larvae seldom leaf miners; pupae relatively immobile. Family Gelechiidae (twirler moths) More than 4,500 species of small to minute moths, worldwide in distribution; larvae diverse, eating leaves,

  • Gelede (African ritual festival)

    African dance: The cultural position of dance: … at the height of the Gelede ritual festival in the Ketu-Yoruba villages of Nigeria and Benin. At midnight the mask dramatically appears to the expectant community, its wearer uttering potent incantations to placate witches. The dancer then moves into a powerful stamping dance in honour of the great Earth Mother…

  • Gelfand, Aleksandr Izrail Lazarevich (Russian socialist)

    Alexander Israel Helphand, Russian-German socialist who helped enable Lenin to reenter Russia in 1917 from exile in Switzerland, thus helping to ignite the Russian Revolution of October 1917. Helphand, the son of Jewish parents, grew up in Odessa, on the Black Sea. He was attracted to revolutionary

  • Gelfand, Boris (Israeli chess player)

    Viswanathan Anand: In 2012 he faced Boris Gelfand of Israel in the championship match. The two men were tied after the 12th game, but Anand won the rapid tiebreaker round to remain world champion.

  • Gelfand, Israil Moiseyevich (Russian mathematician)

    Israil Moiseyevich Gelfand, Soviet mathematician (born Sept. 2, 1913, Okny, Ukraine, Russian Empire [now Krasni Okny, Ukr.]—died Oct. 5, 2009, New Brunswick, N.J.), was a pioneer in several fields of mathematics; his work in integral geometry provided the mathematical foundations for computed

  • Gelfond’s theorem (mathematics)

    Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond: This statement, now known as Gelfond’s theorem, solved the seventh of 23 famous problems that had been posed by the German mathematician David Hilbert in 1900. Gelfond’s methods were readily accepted by other mathematicians, and important new concepts in transcendental number theory were rapidly developed. Much of his work, including…

  • Gelfond, Aleksandr Osipovich (Russian mathematician)

    Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond, Russian mathematician who originated basic techniques in the study of transcendental numbers (numbers that cannot be expressed as the root or solution of an algebraic equation with rational coefficients). He profoundly advanced transcendental number theory and the

  • Gelibolu (Turkey)

    Gallipoli, seaport and town, European Turkey. It lies on a narrow peninsula where the Dardanelles opens into the Sea of Marmara, 126 miles (203 km) west-southwest of Istanbul. An important Byzantine fortress, it was the first Ottoman conquest (c. 1356) in Europe and was maintained as a naval base

  • Gelidium (genus of red algae)

    agar: …primarily from the red algae Gelidium and Gracilaria (division Rhodophyta). Best known as a solidifying component of bacteriological culture media, it is also used in canning meat, fish, and poultry; in cosmetics, medicines, and dentistry; as a clarifying agent in brewing and wine making; as a thickening agent in ice…

  • geliebte Dornrose, Die (work by Gryphius)

    Andreas Gryphius: …the best of which are Die geliebte Dornrose (1660; The Beloved Hedgerose) and Herr Peter Squentz (1663).

  • gelifluction (geology)

    Solifluction, flowage of water-saturated soil down a steep slope. Because permafrost is impermeable to water, soil overlying it may become oversaturated and slide downslope under the pull of gravity. Soil that has been opened and weakened by frost action is most susceptible. Movement is at a

  • Gelimer (king of Vandals)

    Gelimer, last Vandal king (ruled 530–534) of the area called by the Romans “Africa” (roughly, modern Tunisia). The great-grandson of the Vandal leader Gaiseric (ruled 428–477), Gelimer deposed King Hilderic, his pro-Roman cousin, in 530 and usurped the throne despite protests from the Eastern Roman

  • Gélin, Daniel (actor)

    The Man Who Knew Too Much: Cast: Assorted Referencesdiscussed in biography

  • Gélin, Marie Christine (French actress)

    Maria Schneider, (Marie Christine Gélin), French actress (born March 27, 1952, Paris, France—died Feb. 3, 2011, Paris), gained instant international stardom at age 20 with her performance as an enigmatic young Parisian woman who enters into a passionless sexual affair with a middle-aged American

  • Gélinas, Gratien (Canadian writer, actor, director)

    Gratien Gélinas, Canadian actor, director, producer, and playwright whose creation of the street urchin character Fridolin in the 1930s and performances of that character on radio and in stage revues were largely responsible for his being considered the father of modern theatre in Quebec; his

  • Gelisol (soil)

    Gelisol, one of the 12 soil orders of the U.S. Soil Taxonomy. Gelisols are perennially frozen soils of the Arctic and Antarctic regions, but they are also found at extremely high elevations in the lower latitudes. They are fragile, easily eroded soils, and their location near the polar ice caps

  • Gell-Mann, Murray (American physicist)

    Murray Gell-Mann, American physicist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1969 for his work pertaining to the classification of subatomic particles and their interactions. At age 15 Gell-Mann entered Yale University, and, after graduating from Yale with a B.S. in physics in 1948, he earned a

  • Gellar, Sarah Michelle (American actress)

    Sarah Michelle Gellar, American actress who was perhaps best known for her work on the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997–2003). Gellar’s show-business career began when, at the age of four, she was noticed by an agent. A few weeks later she began work on the made-for-television movie

  • Gellée, Claude (French artist)

    Claude Lorrain, French artist best known for, and one of the greatest masters of, ideal landscape painting, an art form that seeks to present a view of nature more beautiful and harmonious than nature itself. The quality of that beauty is governed by Classical concepts, and the landscape often

  • Gellert (Welsh folklore)

    Gellert, in Welsh tradition, the trusted hound of Prince Llewellyn the Great of Wales. Having been left to guard his master’s infant son, Gellert killed a wolf that attempted to attack the child. Llewellyn, returning home to find the baby missing and Gellert’s muzzle stained with blood, assumed

  • Gellért Hill (hill, Budapest, Hungary)

    Budapest: Buda: …Castle Hill rises the higher Gellért Hill (771 feet), a steep limestone escarpment overlooking the Danube, which provides a panoramic view of the whole city. At the top stands the Citadel (Citadella)—built by the Austrian army in the mid-19th century in order to keep watch over the town—which serves today…

  • Gellert, Christian Fürchtegott (German writer)

    Christian Fürchtegott Gellert, poet and novelist, a prominent representative of the German Enlightenment whose works were, for a time, second in popularity only to the Bible. The son of a pastor, Gellert was reared in a poor and extremely pious family. After working as a tutor, he studied at the

  • Gellert, Hans-Georg (German chemist)

    Karl Ziegler: Polyethylene: …1952 and 1953, Ziegler and Hans-Georg Gellert, one of his former students from Halle, found that in the polymerization reaction organolithium compounds, except for lithium aluminum hydride, irreversibly decomposed into lithium hydride and an alkyl. To establish whether lithium or aluminum was the more active metal, Gellert tested organoaluminum compounds.…

  • Gellért, Szent (Venetian monk)

    St. Gerard, ; feast day September 24), Venetian Benedictine monk, one of the chief Christian evangelizers of Hungary. He was a scion of the Morosini family and served as bishop of Csanád in southern Hungary. In the struggle for the throne that followed the death of Stephen I, Gerard became a

  • Gellhorn, Martha Ellis (American journalist and novelist)

    Martha Ellis Gellhorn, American journalist and novelist (born Nov. 8, 1908, St. Louis, Mo.—died Feb. 15, 1998, London, Eng.), as one of the first female war correspondents, candidly described ordinary people in times of unrest. Though often remembered for her brief marriage to American author E

  • Gelli, Licio (Italian financier)

    Licio Gelli, Italian financier (born April 21, 1919, Pistoia, Italy—died Dec. 15, 2015, Arezzo, Italy), was from 1973 the grand master, or head, of the Masonic lodge Propaganda Due, or P2 (illegal after its official dissolution in 1976 by Italy’s Freemason ruling body), which was believed to have

  • Gelligaer (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Gelligaer, community formerly known for mining, Caerphilly county borough, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), southern Wales. It lies in the middle of the River Rhymney valley. Old Gelligaer village is located on the site of a Roman fort, on the ridge-top road northward from Cardiff, but the

  • Gellius, Aulus (Latin rhetorician)

    Aulus Gellius, Latin author remembered for his miscellany Noctes Atticae (“Attic Nights”), in which many fragments of lost works are preserved. Written in Athens to beguile the winter evenings, the work is an interesting source on the state of knowledge and scholarship of his time. Both in Rome,

  • Gellner, Ernest André (British philosopher)

    Ernest André Gellner, Czech-born British philosopher, social anthropologist, and director of the Centre for the Study of Nationalism at the Central European University in Prague (b. Dec. 9, 1925--d. Nov. 5,

  • Gelman Burichson, Juan (Argentine poet and activist)

    Juan Gelman, Argentinian poet and leftist political activist who was exiled from his home country in the 1970s. Gelman was jailed in the early 1960s during the Peronists’ struggle for control of the federal government in Argentina. From the late 1960s to the mid-1970s, he wrote for the magazines

  • Gelman, Juan (Argentine poet and activist)

    Juan Gelman, Argentinian poet and leftist political activist who was exiled from his home country in the 1970s. Gelman was jailed in the early 1960s during the Peronists’ struggle for control of the federal government in Argentina. From the late 1960s to the mid-1970s, he wrote for the magazines

  • Gelmírez, Diego (Spanish archbishop)

    Diego Gelmírez, Spanish bishop and archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, site of the supposed shrine of St. James, which he developed as a place of pilgrimage. Gelmírez was consecrated bishop of Compostela in 1101, and in 1120 Pope Calixtus II promoted him to archbishop and appointed him papal

  • Gelon (tyrant of Gela and Syracuse)

    Gelon, tyrant of the cities of Gela (491–485) and Syracuse (485–478) in Sicily. On the death of Hippocrates, the tyrant of Gela, in 491, Gelon, who had been his cavalry commander, succeeded him. Gelon early became involved in inconclusive hostilities with Carthage. In 485, taking advantage of an

  • Gelosi, Compagnia dei (Italian theatrical troupe)

    Compagnia dei Gelosi, (Italian: “Company of Jealous Ones”), one of the earliest and most famous of the commedia dell’arte companies of 16th-century Italy. The name was derived from the troupe’s motto, Virtù, fama ed honor ne fèr gelosi (“We are jealous of attaining virtue, fame, and honour”).

  • Gelpcke v. City of Dubuque (law case)

    Noah H. Swayne: …most notable opinions were in Gelpcke v. City of Dubuque, in which the court declared that general judicial principles take precedence over the decisions of local tribunals in federal judicial review, and Springer v. United States (1881), which upheld the constitutionality of a federal income tax imposed during the Civil…

  • Gelre (historical duchy, Netherlands)

    Gelderland: …began with the countship of Gelre, or Geldern, established in the 11th century around castles near Roermond and Geldern (now in Germany). The counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the countship of Zutphen. Thus had the counts of Gelre laid the foundation for a…

  • Gelsemiaceae (plant family)

    Gentianales: Gelsemiaceae: Formerly placed in Loganiaceae, Gelsemiaceae is a small family of two shrubby or lianoid genera and 11 species. Gelsemium elegans (allspice jasmine) from Indomalesia contains powerful alkaloids that have been used in murder and suicide. The sweetly scented Gelsemium sempervirens (Carolina, or yellow, jessamine)…

  • Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    Gelsenkirchen, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It lies just north of Essen. Gelsenkirchen was a village of fewer than 1,000 inhabitants in 1850, but the opening in 1853 of its first coal mine and its favourable position on the Rhine-Herne Canal stimulated its rapid

  • Geltzer, Yekaterina Vasilyevna (Russian dancer)

    Yekaterina Vasilyevna Geltzer, prima ballerina of the Moscow Bolshoi Theatre who, during the period of disorder following the Revolution of 1917, helped preserve and pass on the classical technique and repertory of the Imperial Russian Ballet. Though her father, Vasily Geltzer, an outstanding mime

  • Gelugpa (Buddhist sect)

    Dge-lugs-pa, since the 17th century, the predominant Buddhist order in Tibet and the sect of the Dalai and Pa?chen lamas. The Dge-lugs-pa sect was founded in the late 14th century by Tsong-kha-pa, who was himself a member of the austere Bka’-gdams-pa school. Tsong-kha-pa’s reforms represented a r

  • Gelukpa (Buddhist sect)

    Dge-lugs-pa, since the 17th century, the predominant Buddhist order in Tibet and the sect of the Dalai and Pa?chen lamas. The Dge-lugs-pa sect was founded in the late 14th century by Tsong-kha-pa, who was himself a member of the austere Bka’-gdams-pa school. Tsong-kha-pa’s reforms represented a r

  • GEM (vehicle)

    air-cushion machine: … (ACVs); the latter are called aerodynamic ground-effect machines (GEMs).

  • gem (mineral)

    Gemstone, any of various minerals highly prized for beauty, durability, and rarity. A few noncrystalline materials of organic origin (e.g., pearl, red coral, and amber) also are classified as gemstones. Gemstones have attracted humankind since ancient times, and have long been used for jewelry. The

  • gem cutting

    jewelry: Gem engraving, setting, and cutting: The cutting known as faceting gradually developed from the first attempts in the 15th century, probably in France and the Netherlands. During the 16th century the simple rose cut began to be used, after which there were no new developments until 1640, when, under the patronage…

  • gem engraving (decorative art)

    gemstone: …being cabochon cut, some are engraved. High-speed, diamond-tipped cutting tools are used. The stone is hand-held against the tool, with the shape, symmetry, size, and depth of cut being determined by eye. Gemstones can also be made by cementing several smaller stones together to create one large jewel. See assembled…

  • Gem of Augustus (cameo)

    Gemma Augustea, (Latin: “Gem of Augustus”) sardonyx cameo depicting the apotheosis of Augustus. He is seated next to the goddess Roma, and both are trampling the armour of defeated enemies. It is one of the most impressive carved cameos of a series of Roman gems representing imperial persons. The

  • Gem of the Ocean (play by Wilson)

    August Wilson: …life in the 1980s, and Gem of the Ocean, first produced in 2003, which takes place in 1904 and centres on Aunt Ester, a 287-year-old spiritual healer mentioned in previous plays, and a man who seeks her help. Wilson completed the cycle with Radio Golf, first produced in 2005. Set…

  • Gem Puzzle (game)

    Fifteen Puzzle, puzzle consisting of 15 squares, numbered 1 through 15, which can be slid horizontally or vertically within a four-by-four grid that has one empty space among its 16 locations. The object of the puzzle is to arrange the squares in numerical sequence using only the extra space in the

  • gem setting

    jewelry: Gem engraving, setting, and cutting: The insertion of gems in jewelry can be done in various ways. The setting can have a round, square, oval, or rectangular collet (rim); in periods in which gems were mounted in their own irregular shapes, the collet followed this form. Usually, on the inside of the collet…

  • Gem State (state, United States)

    Idaho, constituent state of the United States of America. It ranks 14th among the 50 U.S. states in terms of total area. Its boundaries—with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north and the U.S. states of Montana and Wyoming to the east, Utah and Nevada to the south, and Oregon and

  • gem-dithiol (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Reactions: …add hydrogen sulfide to yield gem-dithiols (i.e., having both ―SH groups on the same carbon)—for example, propane-2,2-dithiol, CH3C(SH)2CH3, in the case of thioacetone. It is probably the gem-dithiols rather than the thioketones themselves that are responsible for the extremely offensive smell associated with low-molecular-weight thioketones. Thionocarbonates of type ROC(S)OR′, derived…

  • Gem?ldegalerie (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    Gem?ldegalerie, (German: “Picture Gallery”) art museum in Berlin, possessing one of the top collections of European paintings from the 13th to 18th centuries. Together with the Museum of Decorative Arts, the Art Library, the Kupferstichkabinett (Museum of Prints and Drawings), the New National

  • Gemara (Judaic religious commentaries)

    Gemara, a rabbinic commentary on and interpretation of the collection of Jewish law known as the Mishna. See

  • gematria (interpretative method)

    Gematria, the substitution of numbers for letters of the Hebrew alphabet, a favourite method of exegesis used by medieval Kabbalists to derive mystical insights into sacred writings or obtain new interpretations of the texts. Some condemned its use as mere toying with numbers, but others

  • Gemayel family (Lebanese family)

    Gemayel family, Maronite Christian family prominent in Lebanese politics before and after the start of that country’s civil war in 1975. Pierre Gemayel (b. November 1/6, 1905, Bikfaya?, Lebanon—d. August 29, 1984, Bikfaya) was born into a Christian family already powerful in the region immediately

  • Gemayel, Amin (president of Lebanon)

    Gemayel family: Bashir’s older brother, Amin Gemayel (b. 1942, Bikfaya), was elected president of Lebanon a week after Bashir died. In contrast to his warlike brother, Amin had shown himself to be conciliatory toward the other religious groups in Lebanon during his 12 years as a member of the Lebanese…

  • Gemayel, Bashir (Lebanese politician)

    1983 Beirut barracks bombings: …14, 1982, of Lebanese president-elect Bashir Gemayel—the Phalangist leader of the Lebanese Forces, a unified Christian militia—sparked a wave of violence. Christian militiamen retaliated for Gemayel’s death by killing hundreds of Palestinians (estimates range from several hundred to several thousand) at the ?abrā and Shātīlā refugee camps. In the wake…

  • Gemayel, Pierre (Lebanese politician)

    Gemayel family: Pierre Gemayel (b. November 1/6, 1905, Bikfaya?, Lebanon—d. August 29, 1984, Bikfaya) was born into a Christian family already powerful in the region immediately north of Beirut. He attended St. Joseph University in Beirut and trained as a pharmacist. On a visit to Berlin to…

  • Gemayel, Pierre Amin (Lebanese politician)

    Gemayel family: Amin’s eldest son, Pierre Amin Gemayel, played a leading role in the Phalange Party until his assassination in 2006. After Amin stepped down as head of the Phalange Party in 2015, the position passed to another of his sons, Samy Gemayel.

  • Gembloux, Battle of (Belgium [1578])

    Alessandro Farnese, duke of Parma and Piacenza: Heritage and early career: …Farnese fought energetically in the Battle of Gembloux, in which the rebellious Dutch forces were routed, and punished a number of towns with a harshness that contrasts with his subsequent attitude.

  • gemcitabine (drug)

    pancreatic cancer: Treatment: …the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine (Gemzar), an antimetabolite that inhibits the synthesis of genetic material in dividing cells, patient survival is improved, although only modestly. Several other targeted drugs such as cetuximab (Erbitux), a monoclonal antibody that binds to EGFR and thus prevents kinase activation and cell division, are being…

  • gemeen (social position)

    history of the Low Countries: Town opposition to the prince: …lower class formed, called the gemeen (“common,” in the strict sense of the word), which embraced the artisans and organized into crafts such tradesmen as butchers, bakers, tailors, carpenters, masons, weavers, fullers, shearers, and coppersmiths. These crafts, or guilds, originally developed out of charitable organizations of people in the same…

  • Gemeinde (German political unit)

    Germany: Regional and local government: …are further subdivided into the Gemeinden (roughly “communities” or “parishes”), which through long German tradition have achieved considerable autonomy and responsibility in the administration of schools, hospitals, housing and construction, social welfare, public services and utilities, and cultural amenities. Voters may pass laws on certain issues via referenda at the…

  • Gemeindekind, Das (novel by Ebner-Eschenbach)

    Marie, baroness von Ebner-Eschenbach: …her masterpiece, Das Gemeindekind (1887; The Child of the Parish), she graphically depicted the surroundings of her Moravian home and showed a true sympathy for the poor and an unsentimental understanding of children. Lotti, die Uhrmacherin (1879; “Lotti, the Watchmaker”), Zwei Comtessen (1885; “Two Countesses”), and Unsühnbar (1890; “Inexpiable,” or…

  • gemeines Recht (German law)

    German Civil Code: …in the code was the gemeines Recht, the common law based on the 6th-century codification of Roman law put in force by the emperor Justinian. In family law and to some extent in the law of property, some elements of Germanic tribal law also influenced the code. Although altered to…

  • Gemeinsames Leben (work by Bonhoeffer)

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Opponent of the Nazis: …his book Gemeinsames Leben (1939; Life Together). From this period also dates Nachfolge (1937; The Cost of Discipleship), a study of the Sermon on the Mount and the Pauline epistles in which he attacked the “cheap grace” being marketed in Protestant (especially Lutheran) churches—i.e., an unlimited offer of forgiveness, which…

  • Gemeinschaft (society)

    communitarianism: The common good versus individual rights: …oppressive but nurturing communities (Gemeinschaft) to liberating but impersonal societies (Gesellschaft). They warned of the dangers of anomie (normlessness) and alienation in modern societies composed of atomized individuals who had gained their liberty but lost their social moorings. Essentially the theses of T?nnies and Durkheim were supported with contemporary…

  • Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft (social theory)

    Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, ideal types of social organizations that were systematically elaborated by German sociologist Ferdinand T?nnies in his influential work Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (1887; Community and Society). T?nnies’s conception of the nature of social systems is based on his

  • Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (work by T?nnies)

    Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft: …work Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (1887; Community and Society).

  • Gemignani, Elvira (wife of Puccini)

    Giacomo Puccini: Early life and marriage: …Lucca with a married woman, Elvira Gemignani. Finding in their passion the courage to defy the truly enormous scandal generated by their illegal union, they lived at first in Monza, near Milan, where a son, Antonio, was born. In 1890 they moved to Milan, and in 1891 to Torre del…

  • gemilut ?asadim (Judaism)

    Gemilut ?esed, (Hebrew: “bestowing kindness”, ) (“bestowing kindnesses”), in Judaism, an attribute of God said to be imitated by those who in any of countless ways show personal kindness toward others. A Jew who does not manifest sensitive concern for others is considered no better than an atheist,

  • gemilut ?esed (Judaism)

    Gemilut ?esed, (Hebrew: “bestowing kindness”, ) (“bestowing kindnesses”), in Judaism, an attribute of God said to be imitated by those who in any of countless ways show personal kindness toward others. A Jew who does not manifest sensitive concern for others is considered no better than an atheist,

  • Gémina Aamlet (Spain)

    Jumilla, city, Murcia provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southeastern Spain. It lies at the foot of Mount Castillo (near Mount Carche and Sierra de Santa Ana) and on the Arroyo del Judío, a tributary of the Segura River, northwest of Murcia city. The Roman author

  • geminal dihalide (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: Dehydrohalogenation of a dihalide: Treatment of a geminal dihalide (both halogens on the same carbon) or a vicinal dihalide (halogens on adjacent carbons) with a base such as sodium ethoxide (NaOCH2CH3) yields a vinylic halide.

  • Geminalet (Spain)

    Jumilla, city, Murcia provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southeastern Spain. It lies at the foot of Mount Castillo (near Mount Carche and Sierra de Santa Ana) and on the Arroyo del Judío, a tributary of the Segura River, northwest of Murcia city. The Roman author

  • Geminga (pulsar)

    Geminga, isolated pulsar (a rapidly rotating neutron star) about 800 light-years from Earth in the constellation Gemini, unique in that about 99 percent of its radiation is in the gamma-ray region of the spectrum. Geminga is also a weak X-ray emitter, but it was not identified in visible light (as

  • Gemini (constellation and astrological sign)

    Gemini, (Latin: “Twins”) in astronomy, zodiacal constellation lying in the northern sky between Cancer and Taurus, at about 7 hours right ascension and 22° north declination. Its brightest stars are Castor and Pollux (Alpha and Beta Geminorum); Pollux is the brighter of the two, with a magnitude of

  • Gemini (spacecraft and space program)

    Gemini, any of a series of 12 two-man spacecraft launched into orbit around Earth by the United States between 1964 and 1966. The Gemini (Latin: “Twins”) program was preceded by the Mercury series of one-man spacecraft and was followed by the Apollo series of three-man spacecraft. The Gemini

  • Gemini (novel by Tournier)

    Michel Tournier: Les Météores (1975; Gemini) involves the desperate measures one man takes to be reunited with his identical twin brother, who has broken away from their obsessive, singular world. Tournier’s two subsequent novels recast ancient stories with a modern twist: Gaspard, Melchior &amp; Balthazar (1980; The Four Wise Men)…

  • Gemini Man (film by Lee [2019])

    Ang Lee: …Smith in the action drama Gemini Man, in which a hit man is hunted by his clone.

  • Gemini North (telescope, Hawaii, United States)

    Gemini Observatory: 1-metre (27-foot) telescopes: the Frederick C. Gillett Gemini Telescope (also called Gemini North), located on the dormant volcano Mauna Kea (4,213 metres [13,822 feet]) on the island of Hawaii in the Northern Hemisphere, and Gemini South, located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory on Cerro Pachon (2,725 metres [8,940…

  • Gemini Observatory (observatory, United States and Chile)

    Gemini Observatory, observatory consisting of two 8.1-metre (27-foot) telescopes: the Frederick C. Gillett Gemini Telescope (also called Gemini North), located on the dormant volcano Mauna Kea (4,213 metres [13,822 feet]) on the island of Hawaii in the Northern Hemisphere, and Gemini South, located

  • Gemini South (telescope, Chile)

    Gemini Observatory: …in the Northern Hemisphere, and Gemini South, located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory on Cerro Pachon (2,725 metres [8,940 feet]) in Chile in the Southern Hemisphere. The observatory is named after the constellation Gemini, which represents the twins Castor and Pollux. One telescope was built in each hemisphere so…

  • Geminiani, Francesco (Italian musician)

    Francesco Geminiani, Italian composer, violinist, teacher, writer on musical performance, and a leading figure in early 18th-century music. Geminiani studied under Corelli. He established his reputation as a brilliant performer in England, publishing (1716) his Opus 1 sonatas for violin and

  • Geminid meteor shower (astronomy)

    asteroid: Asteroids in unusual orbits: …the parent body of the Geminid meteor stream, the concentration of meteoroids responsible for the annual Geminid meteor shower seen on Earth each December. Because the parent bodies of all other meteor streams identified to date are comets, Phaethon is considered by some to be a defunct comet—one that has…

  • Gemistus Pletho, George (Byzantine philosopher)

    George Gemistus Plethon, Byzantine philosopher and humanist scholar whose clarification of the distinction between Platonic and Aristotelian thought proved to be a seminal influence in determining the philosophic orientation of the Italian Renaissance. Plethon studied in Constantinople and at the

  • Gemistus Plethon, George (Byzantine philosopher)

    George Gemistus Plethon, Byzantine philosopher and humanist scholar whose clarification of the distinction between Platonic and Aristotelian thought proved to be a seminal influence in determining the philosophic orientation of the Italian Renaissance. Plethon studied in Constantinople and at the

  • gemma (botany)

    fern: Vegetative reproduction: …Hymenophyllaceae) produce specialized filaments, or gemmae, that break off and are carried away by water droplets, wind, or possibly insects or spiders to initiate new colonies.

  • Gemma Augustea (cameo)

    Gemma Augustea, (Latin: “Gem of Augustus”) sardonyx cameo depicting the apotheosis of Augustus. He is seated next to the goddess Roma, and both are trampling the armour of defeated enemies. It is one of the most impressive carved cameos of a series of Roman gems representing imperial persons. The

  • gemma cup (botany)

    liverwort: …in special organs known as gemma cups and are dispersed by rainfall. Fragmentation of the thallus can also result in new plants. Single-celled structures called rhizoids anchor most liverworts to their substrata.

  • gemmae (botany)

    fern: Vegetative reproduction: …Hymenophyllaceae) produce specialized filaments, or gemmae, that break off and are carried away by water droplets, wind, or possibly insects or spiders to initiate new colonies.

  • gemmail (stained glass technique)

    Gemmail, in stained glass, technique employing fused layers of coloured glass fragments illuminated from behind, creating an illusion of three-dimensionality in the design. Gemmail is frequently used to reproduce works from other pictorial media. The technique was developed in the late 1930s by

  • gemmaux (stained glass technique)

    Gemmail, in stained glass, technique employing fused layers of coloured glass fragments illuminated from behind, creating an illusion of three-dimensionality in the design. Gemmail is frequently used to reproduce works from other pictorial media. The technique was developed in the late 1930s by

  • Gemmell, David (British author)

    David Gemmell, British fantasy novelist (born Aug. 1, 1948, London, Eng.—died July 28, 2006, Udimore, East Sussex, Eng.), wrote more than 30 historic fantasy adventure stories, notably his first novel, Legend (1984), and its sequels; Waylander (1986); and the Drenai saga. Although his novels were o

  • Gemmingen, Uriel von (German archbishop)

    Matthias Grünewald: …elector of Mainz, the archbishop Uriel von Gemmingen.

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