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  • Geschichte der deutschen Sprache (work by Grimm)

    Brothers Grimm: The Berlin period: …history of the German language, Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, in which he attempted to combine the historical study of language with the study of early history. Research into names and dialects was stimulated by Jacob Grimm’s work, as were ways of writing and spelling—for example, he used roman, rather than…

  • Geschichte der Juden von den ?ltesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart (work by Graetz)

    Heinrich Graetz: …English version was published as History of the Jews, 6 vol. (1891–98).

  • Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums (work by Winckelmann)

    Johann Winckelmann: His general Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums (1764; “History of the Art of Antiquity”) is virtually the first work to define in ancient art an organic development of growth, maturity, and decline; to include such cultural and technical factors as climate, freedom, and craftsmanship in explaining the…

  • Geschichte der Musik (work by Ambros)

    August Wilhelm Ambros: His Geschichte der Musik, incomplete at his death, covered antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. Scholars completed the work from his notes.

  • Geschichte der P?pste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters (work by Pastor)

    Ludwig Pastor, baron von Campersfelden: (1886–1933; History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages).

  • Geschichte der preussischen Politik (work by Droysen)

    Johann Gustav Droysen: …years on his great work, Geschichte der preussischen Politik, 14 vol. (1855–86; “History of Prussian Politics”). This history, unfinished at Droysen’s death, ends at the year 1756.

  • Geschichte der Religion Jesu Christi (work by Stolberg-Stolberg)

    Friedrich Leopold, Graf zu Stolberg-Stolberg: …final work was the immense Geschichte der Religion Jesu Christi, 15 vol. (1806–18; “History of the Religion of Jesus Christ”), which covered the development of Christianity up until the year 430. It was continued (53 vol., 1825–64) by F. von Kerz and J.N. Brischar.

  • Geschichte der Renaissance in Italien, Die (work by Burckhardt)

    Jacob Burckhardt: Works: …found only partial fulfillment in Die Geschichte der Renaissance in Italien (1867; “History of the Renaissance in Italy”), which deals with architecture only. If eventually Burckhardt’s study of the Renaissance provided a basic model for the treatment of cultural history in general, the implications for art history were best realized…

  • Geschichte der romanischen und germanischen V?lker von 1494 bis 1514 (work by Ranke)

    Leopold von Ranke: Early career.: …produced his maiden work, the Geschichte der romanischen und germanischen V?lker von 1494 bis 1514 (History of the Latin and Teutonic Nations from 1494 to 1514), which treats the struggle waged between the French and the Habsburgs for Italy as the phase that ushered in the new era. The appended…

  • Geschichte der slavischen Sprache und Literatur nach allen Mundarten (work by ?afa?ík)

    Pavel Josef ?afa?ík: …and languages of the Slavs: Geschichte der slavischen Sprache und Literatur nach allen Mundarten (1826; “History of the Slavic Languages and Literature in All Dialects”); Slovanské staro?itnosti (1837; “Slavic Antiquities”), better known in the German translation Slawische Altertümer (1843); über den Ursprung und die Heimat des Glagolitismus (1858; “Concerning the…

  • Geschichte der synoptischen Tradition (work by Bultmann)

    Rudolf Bultmann: Early career: …Geschichte der synoptischen Tradition (History of the Synoptic Tradition), an analysis of the traditional material used by the Evangelists Matthew, Mark, and Luke and an attempt to trace its history in the tradition of the church prior to their use of it. This proved to be a seminal work,…

  • Geschichte des Abfalls der vereinigten Niederlande von der spanischen Regierung (work by Schiller)

    Friedrich Schiller: Historical studies: …the requisite credentials in his Geschichte des Abfalls der vereinigten Niederlande von der spanischen Regierung (1788; “History of the Revolt of the United Netherlands against the Spanish Government”). His Geschichte des dreissigj?hrigen Krieges (1791–93; “History of the Thirty Years’ War”) further enhanced his prestige as a historian; later it also…

  • Geschichte des Agathon (work by Wieland)

    bildungsroman: …Wieland’s Geschichte des Agathon (1766–67; History of Agathon). It was followed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (1795–96; Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship), which remains the classic example of the genre. Other examples are Adalbert Stifter’s Nachsommer (1857; Indian Summer) and Gottfried Keller’s Der

  • Geschichte des Chassidismus (work by Dubnow)

    Simon Markovich Dubnow: This work appeared in Geschichte des Chassidismus (1931; “History of ?asidism”). The mature fruit of Dubnow’s historical studies is his monumental Die Weltgeschichte des jüdischen Volkes, 10 vol. (1925–30; “The World History of the Jewish People”; Eng. trans. History of the Jews), which was translated into several languages. The…

  • Geschichte des deutschen Volkes seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters (work by Janssen)

    Johannes Janssen: …Janssen decided to write his Geschichte des deutschen Volkes seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, 8 vol. (1876–94; “History of the German People from the Close of the Middle Ages”). His work, which ended on the eve of the Thirty Years’ War (1618), was based on the thesis that the harmonious…

  • Geschichte des dreissigj?hrigen Krieges (work by Schiller)

    Friedrich Schiller: Historical studies: His Geschichte des dreissigj?hrigen Krieges (1791–93; “History of the Thirty Years’ War”) further enhanced his prestige as a historian; later it also provided him with the material for his greatest drama, Wallenstein, published in 1800.

  • Geschichte des Fr?uleins von Sternheim (work by La Roche)

    Sophie von La Roche: …first and most important work, Geschichte des Fr?uleins von Sternheim (1771; History of Lady Sophia Sternheim), was the first German novel written by a woman and is considered to be among the best works from the period in which English novels, particularly those of Samuel Richardson, had great influence on…

  • Geschichte des Herrn William Lovell, Die (work by Tieck)

    Ludwig Tieck: …early German Romanticism are Tieck’s Die Geschichte des Herrn William Lovell, 3 vol. (1795–96; “The Story of Mr. William Lovell”), a novel in letter form that describes the moral self-destruction of a sensitive young intellectual; Karl von Berneck (1797), a five-act tragedy set in the Middle Ages; and Franz Sternbalds…

  • Geschichte des r?mischen Rechts im Mittelalter (work by Savigny)

    Friedrich Karl von Savigny: Legal philosophy: …year, he began publishing his Geschichte des r?mischen Rechts im Mittelalter (1815–31; “History of Roman Law in the Middle Ages”). This monumental work, in which Savigny used rigorous critical techniques and consulted a vast body of primary sources, became the foundation of the modern study of medieval law.

  • Geschichte und Beschreibung von Japan (work by K?mpfer)

    Engelbert K?mpfer: …first published in English (The History of Japan, 1727) after his death and appeared in the original German only after additional translations into Latin, Dutch, and French had already appeared. K?mpfer’s manuscripts are in the British Museum.

  • Geschichte und Klassenbewusstsein (work by Lukacs)

    Gy?rgy Lukács: During this period he wrote History and Class Consciousness (1923), in which he developed a unique Marxist philosophy of history and laid the basis for his critical literary tenets by linking the development of form in art with the history of the class struggle. Turning his back on the claims…

  • Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem sch?nen Annerl (work by Brentano)

    Clemens Brentano: …dem sch?nen Annerl (1817; The Story of the Just Casper and Fair Annie) displays themes from German folklore within a fantasy atmosphere. His other major works include the dramas Ponce de Leon (1801) and Die Gründung Prags (1815; “The Foundation of Prague”) and the novel Godwi (1801), which forms an…

  • Geschichte von B?hmen (work by Palacky)

    Franti?ek Palacky: Published as Geschichte von B?hmen, 5 vol. (1836–67), and Dějiny národu ?eského (1848–76), the work lucidly presents Palacky’s conception of the nature of Czech history as “the constant contact and conflict between the Slavs on the one hand and Rome and the Germans on the other.” Thus…

  • Geschichten hellenischer St?mme und St?dte (work by Müller)

    Karl Otfried Müller: His most important work, Geschichten hellenischer St?mme und St?dte (1820; “History of Greek Peoples and Cities”), provides a cultural history of the civilizations of ancient Greece and emphasizes the study of myths, successfully combining the historical and allegorical methods. His other works include numerous archaeological papers, historical surveys on…

  • Geschichten Schweizerischer Eidgenossenschaft (work by Müller)

    Johannes von Müller: His most important work was Geschichten Schweizerischer Eidgenossenschaft (1786–1808; “History of the Swiss Confederation”). In it he combined a comprehensive knowledge of chronicle sources (especially Aegidius Tschudi) with a terse elegance that earned him the title of the Swiss Tacitus; Tacitus, the 1st-century-ad Roman historian, was indeed his model. His…

  • Geschichtklitterung (work by Fischart)

    Johann Fischart: Fischart’s principal work is the Affentheurliche und ungeheurliche Geschichtsschrift (1575)—renamed Geschichtklitterung in later editions (1582, 1590)—a greatly expanded prose version of Fran?ois Rabelais’s Gargantua. Also noteworthy is his Das glückhafft Schiff von Zürich (1576; “The Ship of Good Fortune from Zurich”), one of the most carefully constructed 16th-century narrative poems,…

  • Geschke, Charles (American computer scientist)

    Adobe Inc.: Founding of Adobe: …1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke. While employed at Xerox Corporation’s Palo Alto (California) Research Center (PARC), the two computer scientists had developed a programming language specially designed to describe the precise position, shape, and size of objects on a computer-generated page. This page description language, later known as…

  • Geschlecht und Charakter (work by Weininger)

    Otto Weininger: …work, Geschlecht und Charakter (1903; Sex and Character), served as a sourcebook for anti-Semitic propagandists.

  • Geschlecht, Ein (work by Unruh)

    Fritz von Unruh: …mythical level, in the tragedy Ein Geschlecht (1916; “A Family”)—strengthened his antimilitaristic attitude and led to such later works as Heinrich von Andernach (1925), a festival play and a great plea for love among men.

  • Geschlossene Handelsstaat, Der (work by Fichte)

    Johann Gottlieb Fichte: Years in Berlin: …conscious of himself in individuals; Der geschlossene Handelsstaat (also 1800), an intensely socialistic treatise in favour of tariff protection; two new versions of the Wissenschaftslehre (composed in 1801 and in 1804; published posthumously), marking a great change in the character of the doctrine; Die Grundzüge des gegenw?rtigen Zeitalters (1806; lectures…

  • Geschonneck, Erwin (German actor)

    Erwin Geschonneck, German actor (born Dec. 27, 1906, Bartenstein, East Prussia, Ger. [now Bartoszyce, Pol.]—died March 12, 2008, Berlin, Ger.), was one of East Germany’s most respected character actors on the stage—in Hamburg (1946–49) and as a member (1949–56) of Bertolt Brecht’s Berliner

  • Gesch?pfe des Prometheus, Die (work by Beethoven)

    Ludwig van Beethoven: Beethoven and the theatre: …Die Gesch?pfe des Prometheus (The Creatures of Prometheus). Two years later he was offered a contract for an opera on a classical subject with a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder, who had achieved fame and wealth as the librettist of Mozart’s The Magic Flute and who was then impresario of…

  • Gesell Institute of Child Development (American organization)

    Louise Bates Ames: …Ames and colleagues cofounded the Gesell Institute of Child Development in New Haven, Connecticut, to continue and promote Gesell’s work. There Ames served as director of research, as associate director, and later as director. After retirement she was president of the institute’s board.

  • Gesell, Arnold (American psychologist)

    Arnold Gesell, American psychologist and pediatrician, who pioneered the use of motion-picture cameras to study the physical and mental development of normal infants and children and whose books influenced child rearing in the United States. As director of the Clinic of Child Development at Yale

  • Gesell, Arnold Lucius (American psychologist)

    Arnold Gesell, American psychologist and pediatrician, who pioneered the use of motion-picture cameras to study the physical and mental development of normal infants and children and whose books influenced child rearing in the United States. As director of the Clinic of Child Development at Yale

  • Gesell, Gerhard A. (American jurist)

    Gerhard A. Gesell, U.S. judge (born June 16, 1910, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.—died Feb. 19, 1993, Washington, D.C.), upheld citizens’ rights over the power of the government while presiding over landmark legal cases, including the Watergate scandal, the Iran-contra affair, the legalization of

  • Gesellschaft (society)

    communitarianism: The common good versus individual rights: …liberating but impersonal societies (Gesellschaft). They warned of the dangers of anomie (normlessness) and alienation in modern societies composed of atomized individuals who had gained their liberty but lost their social moorings. Essentially the theses of T?nnies and Durkheim were supported with contemporary social-scientific data in Bowling Alone: The…

  • Gesellschaft and Gemeinschaft (social theory)

    Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, ideal types of social organizations that were systematically elaborated by German sociologist Ferdinand T?nnies in his influential work Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (1887; Community and Society). T?nnies’s conception of the nature of social systems is based on his

  • Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (German organization)

    Johannes Brahms: The young pianist and music director: …was principal conductor of the Society of Friends of Music (Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde), and for three seasons he directed the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. His choice of music was not as conservative as might have been expected, and though the “Brahmins” continued their war against Wagner, Brahms himself always spoke of…

  • Gesellschaft für ?ltere deutsche Geschichtskunde

    Karl, Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein: Last years.: …für ?ltere deutsche Geschichtskunde (Society for Earlier German History) was founded on Jan. 20, 1819, at his house in Frankfurt am Main, with him as its head and its coordinating force. The Gesellschaft has remained the most important organization for the publication of source materials on German medieval history.…

  • Gesellschaft für empirische Philosophie (German organization)

    Vienna Circle: …of a cognate group, the Gesellschaft für empirische Philosophie (“Society for Empirical Philosophy”), which met in Berlin, were Carl Hempel and Hans Reichenbach. A formal declaration of the group’s intentions was issued in 1929 with the publication of the manifesto Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis (“Scientific Conception of the World:…

  • Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (laboratory, Darmstadt, Germany)

    copernicium: In 1996 scientists at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung [GSI]) in Darmstadt, Ger., announced the production of atoms of copernicium from fusing zinc-70 with lead-208. The atoms of copernicium had an atomic weight of 277 and decayed after 0.24 millisecond by emission of an alpha particle…

  • Gesellschaft im Herbst (play by Dorst)

    Tankred Dorst: His 1960 drama Gesellschaft im Herbst (“Party in Autumn”), about a crafty businessman who fools the owner of an ancestral castle into thinking that the castle holds buried treasure, is a satire on contemporary German society’s obsession with romantic myths. During the mid- to late 1960s, Dorst introduced…

  • Gesenius, Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm (German biblical critic)

    Wilhelm Gesenius, German biblical critic and an important figure in Hebrew and other Semitic language studies. He was a pioneer of critical Hebrew lexicography and grammar. Educated at Helmstedt and at G?ttingen, in 1811 Gesenius became professor of theology at Halle. Though accused of rationalism,

  • Gesenius, Wilhelm (German biblical critic)

    Wilhelm Gesenius, German biblical critic and an important figure in Hebrew and other Semitic language studies. He was a pioneer of critical Hebrew lexicography and grammar. Educated at Helmstedt and at G?ttingen, in 1811 Gesenius became professor of theology at Halle. Though accused of rationalism,

  • Gesetz der Serie, Das (work by Kammerer)

    Paul Kammerer: …in the scientific community, was Das Gesetz der Serie (1919; “The Law of Seriality”), an attempt to explain coincidence as the manifestation of a natural principle operating independently of known physical causation laws.

  • Gesetz zum Schutze des Deutschen Blutes und der Deutschen Ehre (German history)

    Nürnberg Laws: ” The other, the Gesetz zum Schutze des Deutschen Blutes und der Deutschen Ehre (“Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour”), usually called simply the Blutschutzgesetz (“Blood Protection Law”), forbade marriage or sexual relations between Jews and “citizens of German or kindred blood.” These measures were…

  • Gesher party (political party, Israel)

    David Levy: In 1995 Levy founded the Gesher (“Bridge”) party, with a secular Sephardic base, and in 1999 he was named minister of foreign affairs and deputy prime minister in Benjamin Netanyahu’s cabinet. He resigned both posts the following year over differences with Netanyahu but in 2002 served briefly as minister without…

  • Geshov, Ivan Evstatiev (prime minister of Bulgaria)

    Ivan Evstatiev Geshov, Bulgarian statesman and founder of the Bulgarian National Bank. He was prime minister from March 1911 to July 1913. After being educated at Robert College in Constantinople (modern Istanbul) and Owens College in Manchester, Eng., Geshov took an active part in the Bulgarian

  • Geshtinanna (Mesopotamian deity)

    Tammuz: His sister, Geshtinanna, eventually finds him, and the myth ends with Inanna decreeing that Tammuz and his sister may alternate in the netherworld, each spending half of the year among the living.

  • Gesner, Conrad (Swiss physician and naturalist)

    Conrad Gesner, Swiss physician and naturalist best known for his systematic compilations of information on animals and plants. Noting his learning ability at an early age, his father, an impecunious furrier, placed him for schooling in the household of a great-uncle, who augmented his income by

  • Gesner, Jean (Swiss physician and botanist)

    botanical garden: History: In the early 1800s Jean Gesner, a Swiss physician and botanist, noted that by the end of the 18th century there were 1,600 botanical gardens in Europe. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the science of botany took form, and many of the important botanists of the period were…

  • Gesner, Johann Matthais (German scholar)

    Johann Sebastian Bach: Nonmusical duties: …tact of the new rector, Johann Matthias Gesner, who admired Bach and had known him at Weimar; but Gesner stayed only until 1734 and was succeeded by Johann August Ernesti, a young man with up-to-date ideas on education, one of which was that music was not one of the humanities…

  • Gesner, Konrad (Swiss physician and naturalist)

    Conrad Gesner, Swiss physician and naturalist best known for his systematic compilations of information on animals and plants. Noting his learning ability at an early age, his father, an impecunious furrier, placed him for schooling in the household of a great-uncle, who augmented his income by

  • Gesneria family (plant family)

    Gesneriaceae, one of 23 families in the flowering plant order Lamiales, consisting of 147 genera and about 3,200 species of mostly tropical and subtropical herbaceous or slightly woody plants. Many are of economic importance as horticultural ornamentals. Among these are the African violets

  • Gesneriaceae (plant family)

    Gesneriaceae, one of 23 families in the flowering plant order Lamiales, consisting of 147 genera and about 3,200 species of mostly tropical and subtropical herbaceous or slightly woody plants. Many are of economic importance as horticultural ornamentals. Among these are the African violets

  • Gespr?chbüchlein (work by Ulrich von Hutten)

    Ulrich von Hutten: …translated into German in his Gespr?chbüchlein (1522; “Little Conversation Book”).

  • Gespr?che mit Goethe in den letzten Jahren seines Lebens, 1823–32 (work by Eckermann)

    Johann Peter Eckermann: von Goethe; his Gespr?che mit Goethe in den letzten Jahren seines Lebens, 1823–32, 3 vol. (1836–48; “Conversations with Goethe in the Last Years of His Life”), is comparable in importance with James Boswell’s Life of Johnson.

  • Gessi, Romolo (Italian explorer and soldier)

    Romolo Gessi, Italian soldier and explorer who served in the Egyptian Sudan under Gen. Charles George Gordon (governor general of the Sudan) and participated in the final stages of the exploration of the Nile River. By becoming the first person to circumnavigate and map Lake Albert Nyanza (in

  • Gessler, Otto (German statesman)

    Otto Gessler, German minister of war during the Weimar Republic who was instrumental in rebuilding the country’s armed forces after World War I. A student of law, Gessler became mayor of Regensburg (1910–11) and Nürnberg (1913–19). After the German revolution of November 1918, he helped found the

  • Gessler, Otto Karl (German statesman)

    Otto Gessler, German minister of war during the Weimar Republic who was instrumental in rebuilding the country’s armed forces after World War I. A student of law, Gessler became mayor of Regensburg (1910–11) and Nürnberg (1913–19). After the German revolution of November 1918, he helped found the

  • Gessner, Joy-Friederike Victoria (conservationist)

    Joy Adamson, conservationist who pioneered the movement to preserve African wildlife. Following an education in Vienna, she relocated to Kenya (1939), where she married George Adamson (1944), a British game warden who had worked in Kenya as a gold prospector, goat trader, and safari hunter from

  • Gessner, Salomon (Swiss writer and artist)

    Salomon Gessner, Swiss writer, translator, painter, and etcher, known throughout Europe for literary works of pastoral themes and rococo style. Gessner was a town councillor and a forestry superintendent who also ran an important publishing house, from which he published his books with his own

  • gesso (art)

    Gesso, (Italian: “gypsum” or “chalk”) fluid white coating, composed of plaster of paris, chalk, gypsum, or other whiting mixed with glue, applied to smooth surfaces such as wood panels, plaster, stone, or canvas to provide the ground for tempera and oil painting or for gilding and painting carved

  • gest (literature)

    Gest, a story of achievements or adventures. Among several famous medieval collections of gests are Fulcher of Chartres’s Gesta Francorum, Saxo Grammaticus’s Gesta Danorum, and the compilation known as the Gesta Romanorum. The term was also used to refer to a romance in verse. The word is

  • Gesta annalia (work by John of Fordun)

    John Of Fordun: …of book 5 is his Gesta annalia (Scotland, 1153–1363). These were all completed by 1363; thereafter John travelled until 1383, wrote books 1–3 (legendary) and book 4 (814–1057), and brought the Gesta annalia down to 1384. Walter Bower’s Scotichronicon, completed 1447, is in part an expansion and continuation of John’s…

  • Gesta Collationis Carthaginensis (work by Augustine)

    St. Augustine: Controversial writings: …most effectively, but the stenographic Gesta Collationis Carthaginensis (411; “Acts of the Council of Carthage”) offers a vivid view of the politics and bad feelings of the schism.

  • Gesta Danorum (work by Saxo Grammaticus)

    Hamlet: …story is narrated in the Gesta Danorum, Saxo Grammaticus’s late 12th-century history of Denmark. But the character’s famous hesitation—his reluctance or unreadiness to avenge his father’s murder—is central and peculiar to Shakespeare’s conception of Hamlet. This hesitation has fascinated critics, but none of the explanations offered, such as unconscious Oedipal…

  • Gesta Dei per Francos (work by Bongars)

    Jacques Bongars, seigneur de Bauldry et de La Chesnaye: …by the far more important Gesta Dei per Francos (“God’s Work Through the Franks”), a collection of contemporary accounts of the Crusades. An edition of his letters, in Latin, appeared in 1647, a French translation in 1668–70. His diary of his journey to Constantinople was printed in 1874.

  • Gesta Francorum Jherusalem peregrinantium (work by Fulcher of Chartres)

    Fulcher Of Chartres: His Gesta Francorum Jherusalem peregrinantium (written in three installments, 1101, 1106, and 1124–27) is a vivid and reliable account of the First Crusade, Baldwin’s journey to Jerusalem, and the kingdom of Jerusalem to 1127.

  • Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (work by Adam of Bremen)

    Germanic religion and mythology: Early medieval records: …Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen), which included a description of the lands in the north, then part of the ecclesiastical province of Hamburg. Adam’s work is particularly rich in descriptions of the festivals and sacrifices of the Swedes, who were still largely pagan in…

  • Gesta Innocentii III (Roman Catholic literature)

    Innocent III: Early pontificate: …registers and in a chronicle, Gesta Innocentii III (“The Deeds of Innocent III”), written about 1208 by an anonymous member of Innocent’s curia who apparently knew the pope very well. In one of his first letters, Innocent ordered King Philip Augustus of France to take back his wife, whom the…

  • Gesta Karoli magni (work by Notker of St. Gall)

    Charlemagne legend: A Gesta Karoli magni, written by the monk Notker of St. Gall (in Switzerland) in 884–887, seems to owe as much to popular anecdotes and oral tradition as to Charlemagne’s biographer, Einhard. By the 12th century, lives of Charlemagne were attributing miracles to him before and…

  • Gesta Philippi Augusti (work by Rigord)

    Rigord: The first section of the Gesta Philippi Augusti (1196; “The Deeds of Philip Augustus”) began with Philip’s coronation in 1179 and showed enthusiastic partiality toward him. An addition to the work, continuing to 1207, marked a shift in Rigord’s attitude to one of rather severe censure, probably a result of…

  • Gesta regum (work by Gervase of Canterbury)

    Gervase Of Canterbury: A second history, the Gesta regum, traces in less detail the political and military fortunes of Britain from the 1st century bc to 1209 or 1210. The earlier portions of both works are derivative, but Gervase is an independent authority for events from 1188 or 1189.

  • Gesta Romanorum (Latin literature)

    Gesta Romanorum, Latin collection of anecdotes and tales, probably compiled early in the 14th century. It was one of the most popular books of the time and the source, directly or indirectly, of much later literature, including that of Chaucer, John Gower, Thomas Hoccleve, Shakespeare, and many

  • Gestalt psychology

    Gestalt psychology, school of psychology founded in the 20th century that provided the foundation for the modern study of perception. Gestalt theory emphasizes that the whole of anything is greater than its parts. That is, the attributes of the whole are not deducible from analysis of the parts in

  • Gestalt therapy (psychology)

    Gestalt therapy, a humanistic method of psychotherapy that takes a holistic approach to human experience by stressing individual responsibility and awareness of present psychological and physical needs. Frederick (“Fritz”) S. Perls, a German-born psychiatrist, founded Gestalt therapy in the 1940s

  • Gestapo (Nazi political police)

    Gestapo, the political police of Nazi Germany. The Gestapo ruthlessly eliminated opposition to the Nazis within Germany and its occupied territories and, in partnership with the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; “Security Service”), was responsible for the roundup of Jews throughout Europe for deportation to

  • gestation (biology)

    Gestation, in mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or fetus is developing in the uterus. This definition raises occasional difficulties because in some species (e.g., monkeys and man) the exact time of conception may not be known. In these cases the beginning of

  • gestational age

    Gestational age, length of time that a fetus grows inside the mother’s uterus. Gestational age is related to the fetus’s stage of growth as well as its cognitive and physical development. The gestational age of a fetus is particularly important when determining the potential negative effects of a

  • gestational diabetes mellitus (medical disorder)

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, temporary condition in which blood sugar (glucose) levels increase during pregnancy and return to normal after delivery. A healthy pregnancy is characterized by increased nutrient utilization, increased insulin resistance, and increased insulin secretion. Blood

  • gestational edema-proteinuria-hypertension (medicine)

    Preeclampsia and eclampsia, hypertensive conditions that are induced by pregnancy. Preeclampsia, also called gestational edema-proteinuria-hypertension (GEPH), is an acute toxic condition arising during the second half of the gestation period or in the first week after delivery and generally occurs

  • gestational trophoblastic disease (disease)

    Gestational trophoblastic disease, any of a group of rare conditions in which tumours develop in the uterus from the cells that normally would form the placenta during pregnancy. The main types of gestational trophoblastic disease include choriocarcinoma, epithelioid trophoblastic tumour,

  • geste (literature)

    Gest, a story of achievements or adventures. Among several famous medieval collections of gests are Fulcher of Chartres’s Gesta Francorum, Saxo Grammaticus’s Gesta Danorum, and the compilation known as the Gesta Romanorum. The term was also used to refer to a romance in verse. The word is

  • Geste de Doon de Mayence (French epic poem)

    epic: Chansons de geste: The so-called Cycle of the Revolted Knights groups those poems that tell of revolts of feudal subjects against the emperor (Charlemagne or, more usually, his son, Louis). The Cycle of the King consists of the songs in which Charlemagne himself is a principal figure.

  • Geste de Garin de Monglane (French epic)

    French literature: The chansons de geste: Dominating the Geste de Garin de Monglane is Garin’s great-grandson, Guillaume d’Orange, whose historical prototype was the count of Toulouse and Charlemagne’s cousin. His dogged loyalty to an unworthy monarch (Charlemagne’s son Louis) is the subject of a group of poems that include the Chanson de Guillaume…

  • Geste de Guillaume D’Orange (French epic)

    French literature: The chansons de geste: Dominating the Geste de Garin de Monglane is Garin’s great-grandson, Guillaume d’Orange, whose historical prototype was the count of Toulouse and Charlemagne’s cousin. His dogged loyalty to an unworthy monarch (Charlemagne’s son Louis) is the subject of a group of poems that include the Chanson de Guillaume…

  • Geste de Liège, La (work by Outremeuse)

    Jean d'Outremeuse: La Geste de Liège is an account—partly in prose, partly in verse—of the mythical history of his native city, Liège. Ly Myreur des histors (“The Mirror of History”) is more ambitious, purporting to be a history of the world from the Flood up to the…

  • Geste du Roi (French epic)

    epic: Chansons de geste: The Cycle of the King consists of the songs in which Charlemagne himself is a principal figure.

  • Geste, Beau (fictional character)

    Beau Geste, fictional character, the English protagonist of the novel Beau Geste (1924) by Percival C. Wren. The work is probably best known through its three film adaptations and a BBC television

  • geste, chanson de (Old French epic)

    Chanson de geste, (French: “song of deeds”) any of the Old French epic poems forming the core of the Charlemagne legends. More than 80 chansons, most of them thousands of lines long, have survived in manuscripts dating from the 12th to the 15th century. They deal chiefly with events of the 8th and

  • Gestión de Activos Procedentes de la Reestructuración Bancaria, Sociedad de (financial institution, Spain)

    Spain: The Rajoy administration: …de la Reestructuración Bancaria (SAREB) became operational in November 2012 with the stated mission of managing and disposing of up to €90 billion (about $120 billion) of nonperforming real-estate loans over a period of 15 years. In the months following SAREB’s creation, Spain’s nationalized and partially nationalized banks transferred…

  • gestogen (hormone)

    therapeutics: Hormones: Progestins combined with estrogens constitute the oral contraceptives that inhibit ovulation by affecting the hypothalamus and pituitary. Progestin-only pills and injections are also effective contraceptives; they work by forming a thick cervical mucus that is relatively impenetrable to sperm. The

  • Gestos (work by Sarduy)

    Severo Sarduy: Sarduy’s first novel, Gestos (1963; “Gestures”), is about a young woman involved in terrorist activities against the Batista regime in the Cuba of the 1950s. It was well received. His most important book, however, was the highly experimental novel De donde son los cantantes (1967; From Cuba with…

  • gesture (communications)

    Christianity: New liturgical forms and antiliturgical attitudes: …kinds and preserves the liturgical gestures of the early church. The Orthodox worshippers pray while standing (because they stand throughout the service), with arms hanging down, crossing themselves at the beginning and ending of the prayer.

  • Gestures (work by Sarduy)

    Severo Sarduy: Sarduy’s first novel, Gestos (1963; “Gestures”), is about a young woman involved in terrorist activities against the Batista regime in the Cuba of the 1950s. It was well received. His most important book, however, was the highly experimental novel De donde son los cantantes (1967; From Cuba with…

  • Gesù (church, Rome, Italy)

    Gesù, mother church in Rome of the Jesuit order, designed by Giacomo da Vignola in 1568. The facade, which was the work of Giacomo della Porta, was added in 1575. The Gesù—a single-aisle, Latin-cross-plan church with side chapels and a dome over the crossing of the nave and the transepts—became the

  • Gesù Nuovo, Piazza del (piazza, Naples, Italy)

    Naples: Via Toledo: …Calata Trinità Maggiore rises to Piazza del Gesù Nuovo, a principal means of access to Spaccanápoli.

  • Gesualdo, Carlo, principe di Venosa, conte di Conza (Italian composer and lutenist)

    Carlo Gesualdo, principe di Venosa, conte di Conza, Italian composer and lutenist. Until the late 20th century his fame rested chiefly on his dramatic, unhappy, and often bizarre life. Since the late 20th century, however, his reputation as a musician has grown, based on his highly individual and

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