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  • Gezer Calendar

    Hebrew alphabet: …of Early Hebrew writing, the Gezer Calendar, dates from the 10th century bce, and the writing used varies little from the earliest North Semitic alphabets. The Early Hebrew alphabet, like the modern Hebrew variety, had 22 letters, with only consonants represented, and was written from right to left; but the…

  • gezera shawa (Judaism)

    biblical literature: Parallelism: …religious leaders) was that of gezera shawa, “equal category,” according to which an obscure passage might be illuminated by reference to another containing the same key term. There are several examples in Paul’s Old Testament exegesis, one of the best known being in Galatians 3:10–14, where the mystery of Christ’s…

  • Gezhouba Dam (dam, China)

    Yangtze River: Hydroelectric power: …ambitious project completed was the Gezhouba hydroelectric dam above Yichang, which was the first structure to block the flow of the Yangtze. Gezhouba was superseded by the massive Three Gorges Dam project. At the time of the Three Gorges Dam’s completion in 2006, it was the largest dam structure in…

  • gezin van Paemel, Het (work by Buysse)

    Cyriel Buysse: In some—Het gezin Van Paemel (1903; “The Van Paemel Family”), for example—he again took up the cause of the oppressed peasantry. His later novels, including Tantes (1924; “Aunts”) and De schandpaal (1928; “The Pillory”), exhibit a controlled, detached style that enhances his gift for the probing…

  • Gezing (India)

    Gyalsing, town, southwestern Sikkim state, northern India. Gezing lies just west of the Rangit River on the Rathong-Kalet interfluve. The town has a hospital, a rest house, a higher secondary school, a college affiliated with Sikkim University in Gangtok, and a small hydroelectric project. Pop.

  • Gezira Scheme (irrigation project, Sudan)

    Sudan: Mechanized agriculture: …areas are centred on the Gezira Scheme (Al-Jazīrah)—with its Mangil extension—between the Blue and White Niles south of Khartoum. Other major farming areas are watered by the Khashm Al-Qirbah Dam on the Atbara River and by Al-Ru?ayri? Dam, which provides irrigation water for the Rahad Scheme.

  • Gezira, El- (region, Sudan)

    Al-Jazīrah, region, central-southeast Sudan. Al-Jazīrah lies just southeast of the confluence of the Blue and White Nile rivers; the Blue Nile runs northwestward through the central part of the region, and the White Nile lies to the west. The Blue Nile is joined by the Dinder River at the southern

  • Gezira, El- (region, Middle East)

    Al-Jazīrah, (Arabic: “Island”), the northern reaches of Mesopotamia, now making up part of northern Iraq and extending into eastern Turkey and extreme northeastern Syria. The region lies between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and is bounded on the south by a line running between Takrīt and Anbar.

  • Gezo (king of Dahomey)

    Benin: The kingdom of Dahomey: …its power under the kings Gezo (1818–58) and Glélé (1858–89). Gezo liberated Dahomey from its subjection to Oyo by defeating the latter in 1823. Dahomean attempts at expansion eastward, however, brought it up against the powerful state of Abeokuta (also in Nigeria). Dahomean attacks upon Abeokuta in 1851 and 1864…

  • Gezu (king of Dahomey)

    Benin: The kingdom of Dahomey: …its power under the kings Gezo (1818–58) and Glélé (1858–89). Gezo liberated Dahomey from its subjection to Oyo by defeating the latter in 1823. Dahomean attempts at expansion eastward, however, brought it up against the powerful state of Abeokuta (also in Nigeria). Dahomean attacks upon Abeokuta in 1851 and 1864…

  • ge?ez (vocal music)

    Ethiopian chant: …distinctly different manners of chanting: ge?ez, in which most melodies are performed; araray, presumably containing “cheerful” melodies, sung in a higher range, and used less frequently in services; and ezel, associated with periods of fasting and sorrow and used exclusively for Holy Week. According to church tradition, each style of…

  • Ge?ez language

    Ge?ez language, liturgical language of the Ethiopian church. Ge?ez is a Semitic language of the Southern Peripheral group, to which also belong the South Arabic dialects and Amharic, one of the principal languages of Ethiopia. Both Ge?ez and the related languages of Ethiopia are written and read f

  • GFN (environmental organization)

    ecological footprint: The Global Footprint Network (GFN)—a nonprofit organization that partnered with hundreds of cities, businesses, and other entities to advance the EF as a metric of sustainability—calculates the per capita global footprint. In 2014 the per capita global footprint was 2.8 gha. Since global biocapacity that year…

  • GFP (chemistry)

    Martin Chalfie: …discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), a naturally occurring substance in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria that is used as a tool to make visible the actions of certain cells. Their work with GFP opened a vast set of opportunities for studying biological processes at the molecular level.

  • GFP Bunny (work by Kac)

    Eduardo Kac: …his best-known and most-controversial work, GFP Bunny. Again mixing conceptual and performance art, Kac centred the project on a rabbit engineered to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequoria victoria. The animal, named Alba by Kac and his family, was seen by the public only in photographs.…

  • GFR (medicine)

    renal system: Quantitative tests: …function is that of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR is calculated by measuring the specific clearance from the body of a substance believed to be excreted solely by glomerular filtration. The renal clearance of any substance is the volume of plasma containing that amount of the substance that…

  • GFS (computer code)

    Google: Searching for business: …proprietary pieces of computer code: Google File System (GFS), Bigtable, and MapReduce. GFS handles the storage of data in “chunks” across several machines; Bigtable is the company’s database program; and MapReduce is used by Google to generate higher-level data (e.g., putting together an index of Web pages that contain the…

  • GFTU (Iraqi labour organization)

    Iraq: Labour and taxation: …authorized labour organization is the General Federation of Trade Unions (GFTU), established in 1987, which is affiliated with the International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions and the World Federation of Trade Unions. Under the Ba?ath government, workers in the private sector were allowed to join only local unions associated with…

  • GFUSA (American company)

    Ann Marie Fudge: Fudge joined GFUSA, Kraft General Foods’ largest operating unit, in 1986 as associate director of strategic planning. She soon moved into marketing positions, where her innovative coupon campaign targeting children boosted Kool-Aid’s flagging sales. As vice president of marketing and development (1989–91) for GFUSA’s Dinners and Enhancers…

  • GFWC

    General Federation of Women’s Clubs International (GFWC), umbrella organization in the United States founded in 1890 to coordinate its members’ efforts at promoting volunteer community service. During its more than century-long existence, the federation has focused its activities on areas such as

  • Ggantija (temple, Malta)

    Gozo: The megalithic temple Ggantija, to the east of Victoria, is noteworthy. Considered to be more fertile than Malta, Gozo depends heavily on agriculture, producing fruit, vegetables, grapes, and dairy products. Fishing is also important, and there is a cottage lace industry, but tourism is fast becoming the most…

  • GGs, the (Canadian awards)

    Governor General’s Literary Awards, series of Canadian literary awards established in 1936 by the Canadian Authors Association (CAA), in association with Scottish-born Canadian writer John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, who was the author of Thirty-nine Steps (1915), governor-general of Canada

  • GH

    Growth hormone (GH), peptide hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It stimulates the growth of essentially all tissues of the body, including bone. GH is synthesized and secreted by anterior pituitary cells called somatotrophs, which release between one and two milligrams of

  • Ghāb Depression (trench, Syria)

    Syria: Relief: …of the mountains is the Ghāb Depression, a 40-mile (64-km) longitudinal trench that contains the valley of the Orontes River (Nahr Al-?ā?ī).

  • Ghāb, Al- (trench, Syria)

    Syria: Relief: …of the mountains is the Ghāb Depression, a 40-mile (64-km) longitudinal trench that contains the valley of the Orontes River (Nahr Al-?ā?ī).

  • Ghābat al-?aqq (work by Marrāsh)

    Arabic literature: The novel: …the novel in Arabic were Ghābat al-?aqq (1865; “Forest of Truth”), an idealistic allegory about freedom that was published in Syria by Fransīs Marrāsh, and Al-Huyām fī jinān al-shām (1870; “Passion in Syrian Gardens”), a work set during the 7th-century Islamic conquest of Syria, by Salīm al-Bustānī. The latter work…

  • gha?ā (shrub)

    Arabian Desert: Soils: …the area, called ?abl and gha?ā, send out long, shallow roots to catch the slightest bit of moisture. The roots of those plants make good firewood.

  • Ghadames (oasis, Libya)

    Ghadames, oasis, northwestern Libya, near the Tunisian and Algerian borders. It lies at the bottom of a wadi bordered by the steep slopes of the stony al-?amrā? Plateau. Located at the junction of ancient Saharan caravan routes, the town was the Roman stronghold Cydamus (whose ruins remain). It was

  • Ghadāmis (oasis, Libya)

    Ghadames, oasis, northwestern Libya, near the Tunisian and Algerian borders. It lies at the bottom of a wadi bordered by the steep slopes of the stony al-?amrā? Plateau. Located at the junction of ancient Saharan caravan routes, the town was the Roman stronghold Cydamus (whose ruins remain). It was

  • Ghadr (Sikh political organization)

    Ghadr, (Urdu: “Revolution”), an early 20th-century movement among Indians, principally Sikhs living in North America, to end British rule in their homeland of India. The movement originated with an organization of immigrants in California called the Hindustani Workers of the Pacific Coast. Shortly

  • Ghadr Party (Sikh political organization)

    Ghadr, (Urdu: “Revolution”), an early 20th-century movement among Indians, principally Sikhs living in North America, to end British rule in their homeland of India. The movement originated with an organization of immigrants in California called the Hindustani Workers of the Pacific Coast. Shortly

  • Ghaffar Khan, Khan Abdul (Pashtun leader)

    Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the foremost 20th-century leader of the Pashtuns (Pakhtuns, or Pathans; a Muslim ethnic group of Pakistan and Afghanistan), who became a follower of Mahatma Gandhi and was called the “Frontier Gandhi.” Ghaffar Khan met Gandhi and entered politics in 1919 during agitation over

  • Ghāfirī (tribal confederation, Oman)

    Oman: The Ibā?ī imamate: …to be known as the Ghāfirīs and the Hināwīs.

  • Ghaggar River (river, India)

    Ghaggar River, river, northern India. The Ghaggar rises in the Siwalik (Shiwalik) Range, in northwestern Himachal Pradesh state and flows about 200 miles (320 km) southwest through Haryana state, where it receives the Saraswati River. It eventually dries up in the Great Indian (Thar) Desert. Just

  • Ghagghar River (river, India)

    Ghaggar River, river, northern India. The Ghaggar rises in the Siwalik (Shiwalik) Range, in northwestern Himachal Pradesh state and flows about 200 miles (320 km) southwest through Haryana state, where it receives the Saraswati River. It eventually dries up in the Great Indian (Thar) Desert. Just

  • Ghaghara River (river, Asia)

    Ghaghara River, major left-bank tributary of the Ganges River. It rises as the Karnali River (Chinese: Kongque He) in the high Himalayas of southern Tibet Autonomous Region, China, and flows southeast through Nepal. Cutting southward across the Siwalik Range, it splits into two branches that rejoin

  • ghaghra (garment)

    dress: South Asia: …an open-front pleated skirt, or ghaghra, worn with a long apronlike panel over the front opening, and a short-sleeved, breast-length blouse called a coli. The ghaghra and coli continue to be basic elements of Muslim women’s dress, the loose front panel replaced by the traditional sari, which is worn as…

  • Ghaghra River (river, Asia)

    Ghaghara River, major left-bank tributary of the Ganges River. It rises as the Karnali River (Chinese: Kongque He) in the high Himalayas of southern Tibet Autonomous Region, China, and flows southeast through Nepal. Cutting southward across the Siwalik Range, it splits into two branches that rejoin

  • Ghagra River (river, Asia)

    Ghaghara River, major left-bank tributary of the Ganges River. It rises as the Karnali River (Chinese: Kongque He) in the high Himalayas of southern Tibet Autonomous Region, China, and flows southeast through Nepal. Cutting southward across the Siwalik Range, it splits into two branches that rejoin

  • Ghagra, battle of (India [1529])

    India: Conquest of Hindustan: …of Bengal in 1529 at Ghagra, near Varanasi. Bābur won the battles, but the expedition there too, like the one on the southern borders, was left unfinished. Developments in Central Asia and Bābur’s failing health forced him to withdraw. He died near Lahore in December 1530.

  • Ghali, Butros Boutros (Egyptian statesman and secretary-general of the United Nations)

    Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Egyptian scholar and statesman, secretary-general of the United Nations (UN) from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1996. He was the first Arab and first African to hold the leading UN post. A descendant of one of Egypt’s most distinguished Coptic Christian families,

  • Ghālī, Bu?rus (prime minister of Egypt)

    Egypt: ?Abbās ?ilmī II, 1892–1914: …was followed by a Copt, Bu?rus Ghālī. When Gorst died prematurely in July 1911, he had attained only limited success. Many British officials resented his policies, which at the same time failed to conciliate the nationalists. Mu??afa Kāmil had died in 1908 and had been succeeded by Mu?ammad Farīd, who…

  • Ghālib (Umayyad general)

    Abū ?āmir al-Man?ūr: …aid of his father-in-law, General Ghālib, he overthrew and succeeded the vizier (chief minister). By giving African territories local independence under Umayyad suzerainty, Man?ūr reduced the drain on government resources. He replaced Slavs in the Cordoban army with Berber and Christian mercenaries and conducted a series of successful campaigns against…

  • Ghālib (imam of Oman)

    Jebel Akhdar War: …died and was succeeded by Ghālib. After the sultan granted an oil concession in the part of Oman that was under the imam’s control, Ghālib declared Oman to be independent of Muscat. The sultan responded by invading the Omani interior, with the support of British forces, and, after gaining control…

  • Ghālib, Mīrzā Asadullāh Khān (Indian poet)

    Mīrzā Asadullāh Khān Ghālib, the preeminent Indian poet of his time writing in Persian, equally renowned for poems, letters, and prose pieces in Urdu. Born into an aristocratic family, Ghālib passed his youth in luxury. Subsequently, he was granted a small pension by the British government but had

  • Ghaljai (people)

    Ghilzay, one of the largest of the Pashto-speaking tribes in Afghanistan, whose traditional territory extended from Ghazni and Kalat-i-Ghilzai eastward into the Indus Valley. They are reputed to be descended at least in part from the Khalaj or Khilji Turks, who entered Afghanistan in the 10th

  • Ghana (historical West African empire)

    Ghana, first of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (fl. 7th–13th century). It was situated between the Sahara and the headwaters of the Sénégal and Niger rivers, in an area that now comprises southeastern Mauritania and part of Mali. Ghana was populated by Soninke clans of

  • Ghana

    Ghana, country of western Africa, situated on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. Although relatively small in area and population, Ghana is one of the leading countries of Africa, partly because of its considerable natural wealth and partly because it was the first black African country south of the

  • Ghana Drama Studio (Ghanaian theatrical group)

    Efua Sutherland: …Experimental Theatre, which became the Ghana Drama Studio, and directed the University of Ghana’s traveling theatre group. The Drama Studio produced a number of her plays, including the well-known Foriwa (1962), a play which stresses the alliance of new ways and old traditions, and Edufa (1967), based on Alcestis by…

  • Ghana Museum and Monuments Board (Ghanaian organization)

    Ghana: Cultural institutions: The Ghana Museum and Monuments Board is also based in Accra, where it maintains the National Museum, which houses collections of ethnography, archaeology, and art, and the Museum of Science and Technology. The Monuments Board also has several other museums throughout the country and is also…

  • Ghana, flag of

    horizontally striped red-yellow-green national flag with a central black star. The width-to-length ratio of the flag is 2 to 3.When Kwame Nkrumah organized the Convention People’s Party in 1949 to work toward more self-government for the native African peoples of the British Gold Coast, a flag was

  • Ghana, history of

    Ghana: History: As elsewhere in Africa, the climate of Ghana varied during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). With greater precipitation, the forest spread northward and humans retreated toward the Sahara; when precipitation diminished, they occupied even the present forest. Apart…

  • Ghana, University of (university, Legon, Ghana)

    Accra: The University of Ghana (1948) is located at Legon, to the north. In addition, there are a football (soccer) stadium and a race course in the city. Independence Arch, in Black Star Square, is used for ceremonial parades.

  • Ghani, Ashraf (president of Afghanistan)

    Ashraf Ghani, In 2014 Afghan scholar and politician Ashraf Ghani was involved in a protracted stalemate with former foreign minister Abdullah Abdullah over the results of the election to succeed Hamid Karzai as president of Afghanistan. After easily defeating the rest of the field in the first

  • ghanīmah (spoils of war)

    Ghanīmah, in the early Islāmic community (7th century ad), booty taken in battle in the form of weapons, horses, prisoners, and movable goods. In pre-Islāmic Bedouin society, where the ghazw (razzia, or raid) was a way of life and a point of honour, ghanīmah helped provide the material means of

  • Ghāniya, Banū (Berber tribe)

    North Africa: The Maghrib under the Almoravids and the Almohads: The Banū Ghāniyah invaded eastern Algeria in 1184 and, with local Arab tribal support, brought Almohad authority in the region to an end. In 1203 they took control of Tunisia as well. The Almohad caliph al-Nā?ir (Mu?ammad ibn Abī Yūsuf Ya?qūb) restored the empire’s authority in…

  • ghanja (drug)

    drug use: Types of cannabis preparations: …made from the pure resin, ghanja is prepared from the flowering tops, stems, leaves, and twigs, which have less resin and thus less potency. Ghanja is nevertheless one of the more potent forms of cannabis. It is prepared from specially cultivated plants in India and the flowering tops have a…

  • Ghannouchi, Mohamed (prime minister of Tunisia)

    Democratic Constitutional Rally: …including the interim prime minister, Mohammed Ghannouchi, resigned from the RCD. However, protesters continued to demand that the RCD be banned in Tunisia. After a violent protest in the city of Kef in early February, Farhat Rajhi, the minister of the interior, officially suspended the party. On March 9 a…

  • Ghannouchi, Mohammed (prime minister of Tunisia)

    Democratic Constitutional Rally: …including the interim prime minister, Mohammed Ghannouchi, resigned from the RCD. However, protesters continued to demand that the RCD be banned in Tunisia. After a violent protest in the city of Kef in early February, Farhat Rajhi, the minister of the interior, officially suspended the party. On March 9 a…

  • Ghannouchi, Rachid al- (Tunisian political activist)

    Rachid al-Ghannouchi, Tunisian political activist and cofounder of the political party Ennahda (Arabic: al-Nah?ah [“the Renaissance”]). After studying philosophy in Damascus and at the Sorbonne in Paris, he returned to Tunisia and joined the Qur?ānic Preservation Society (1970). In 1981 he helped

  • Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- (Tunisian political activist)

    Rachid al-Ghannouchi, Tunisian political activist and cofounder of the political party Ennahda (Arabic: al-Nah?ah [“the Renaissance”]). After studying philosophy in Damascus and at the Sorbonne in Paris, he returned to Tunisia and joined the Qur?ānic Preservation Society (1970). In 1981 he helped

  • ghanta (Indian bell)

    ceremonial object: Sound devices: …types of bells; the Indian ghanta, or Tibetan dril-bu, a metal handbell with a handle shaken during prayers in order to attract beneficent spirits and to frighten away evil ones, is used particularly during Brahmanic and Mahayana Buddhist ceremonies.

  • Ghanzi (Botswana)

    Ghanzi, village, west-central Botswana. The village is located at the northern rim of the Kalahari (desert) and is the starting point of a 500-mile- (800-km-) long cattle trek—one of the longest such routes remaining active in the world; cattle are driven on horseback or by truck across the

  • gharana (Indian music)

    Gharana, (Hindi: “family” or “lineage”) in Hindustani music of India, a community of performers who share a distinctive musical style that traces to a particular instructor or region. The notion of a gharana arose in the 19th century, but it was not until the 20th century that the gharana took

  • Gharapuri (island, India)

    Elephanta Island, island located in Mumbai (Bombay) Harbour of the Arabian Sea, about 6 miles (10 km) east of Mumbai and 2 miles (3 km) west of the mainland coast of Maharashtra state, western India. Elephanta Island has an area of 4 to 6 square miles (10 to 16 square km), varying with the tide. In

  • Gharb (region, Morocco)

    Gharb, coastal lowland plain of northwestern Morocco. Crossed from east to west by the Sebou River, the Gharb extends about 50 miles (80 km) along the Atlantic coast and reaches some 70 miles (110 km) inland. The lowland, which is bordered by the Rif Mountains to the northeast, has gradually been

  • Gharbī, Jabal al- (mountain range, Lebanon)

    Lebanon Mountains, mountain range, extending almost the entire length of Lebanon, paralleling the Mediterranean coast for about 150 mi (240 km), with northern outliers extending into Syria. The northern section, north of the saddle, or pass, of ?ahr al-Baydar (through which the Beirut–Damascus

  • Gharbīyah, A?-?a?rā? al- (desert, Egypt)

    Egypt: Relief: …flows into two unequal sections—the Western Desert, between the river and the Libyan frontier, and the Eastern Desert, extending to the Suez Canal, the Gulf of Suez, and the Red Sea. Each of the two has a distinctive character, as does the third and smallest of the Egyptian deserts, the…

  • Gharbiyyah, Al- (governorate, Egypt)

    Al-Gharbiyyah, mu?āfa?ah (governorate) in the middle Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. It is bounded to the east and west by the Damietta and the Rosetta branches of the Nile, to the north by Kafr al-Shaykh governorate, and by Al-Minūfiyyah governorate to the south. The governorate’s capital has been

  • Gharda?a (Algeria)

    Gharda?a, chief town of the M?zab Oasis, north-central Algeria. It lies along the left bank of the Wadi Mzab in the northern Sahara (desert). Founded in the 11th century, it was built around the cave (ghār) reputedly inhabited by the female saint Da?a (the cave is still venerated by M?zabite

  • Ghardaqah, Al- (Egypt)

    Al-Ghardaqah, capital of Al-Ba?r al-A?mar mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Egypt. The town is a small Red Sea port, but its main industry is oil exploration and production. It is the site of a large oil field and serves as the administrative and support centre for the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez oil fields. A

  • gharial (reptile)

    Gavial, (Gavialis gangeticus), an exceptionally long and narrow-snouted crocodilian classified as the sole species in the separate family Gavialidae (order Crocodilia). The gavial inhabits the rivers of northern India and Nepal. Like other crocodilians, it reproduces by means of hard-shelled eggs

  • Gharibnameh (work by A?ik Pa?a)

    A??k Pa?a: …most famous work is the Gharībnāmeh, a long didactic, mystical poem written in over 11,000 mas?navī (rhymed couplets) and divided into 10 chapters, each with 10 subsections. Each of the chapters is associated with a subject in relation to its number. For example, the fifth chapter deals with the five…

  • Gharī?, al- (Berber musician)

    Islamic arts: The Umayyad and ?Abbāsid dynasties: classical Islamic music: …and improvisations (murtajal); his pupil al-Gharī?, born of a Berber family; and the Negro Ma?bad. Like Ibn Surayj, Ma?bad cultivated a special personal style adopted by following generations of singers.

  • Gharnā?a (historical kingdom, Spain)

    Granada, kingdom founded early in the 13th century out of the remnants of Almoravid power in Spain by Abū ?Abd Allāh ibn Yūsuf ibn Na?r al-A?mar, who became king as Mu?ammad I (ruled 1232–73) and founded the Na?rid dynasty. The kingdom comprised, principally, the area of the modern provinces of

  • Gharnā?ah (Spain)

    Granada, city, capital of Granada provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain. It lies along the Genil River at the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada, 2,260 feet (689 metres) above sea level. The Darro River, much reduced by irrigation

  • Gharyān (Libya)

    Gharyān, town, in the Tripolitania region of northwestern Libya. It lies at the foot of the plateau Jabal Nafūsah, 50 miles (80 km) south of Tripoli, and was a major centre of Italian colonization in the early 1910s. After the Turko-Italian war (1911–12) and the defeat of Turkey, the Gebel, Berber,

  • Ghaselen (work by Platen)

    August, Graf von Platen: …a little book of poems, Ghaselen (1821; “Ghazals”), in which he imitated the style of his friend Friedrich Rückert. This was soon followed by other volumes.

  • Ghashmī, A?mad al- (president of Yemen [?an?ā?])

    Yemen: Two Yemeni states: …and, only eight months later, A?mad al-Ghashmī in 1978). The People’s Constituent Assembly, which had been created somewhat earlier, selected Col. Ali Abdullah Saleh as al-Ghashmī’s successor. Despite early public skepticism and a serious coup attempt in late 1978, Saleh managed to conciliate most factions, to improve relations with Yemen’s…

  • Ghasidas (Indian religious leader)

    Satnami sect: …region of middle India by Ghasidas, a farm servant and member of the Chamar caste (a Dalit caste whose hereditary occupation was leather tanning, a task regarded by Hindus as polluting). His Satnam Panth (“Path of the True Name”) succeeded in providing a religious and social identity for large numbers…

  • Ghassān (ancient kingdom, Arabia)

    Ghassān, Arabian kingdom prominent as a Byzantine ally (symmachos) in the 6th century. From its strategic location in portions of modern Syria, Jordan, and Israel, it protected the spice trade route from the south of the Arabian Peninsula and acted as a buffer against the desert Bedouin. The

  • Ghassaniy, Muyaka bin Haji al- (Kenyan author)

    Muyaka bin Haji al-Ghassaniy, Kenyan poet who was the first Swahili-language secular poet known by name. Ghassaniy is known particularly as an outstanding composer of quatrains (the most popular Swahili verse form for both philosophical and topical themes). Although he experimented little with

  • Ghassulian culture

    Ghassulian culture, archaeological stage dating to the Middle Chalcolithic Period in southern Palestine (c. 3800–c. 3350 bc). Its type-site, Tulaylāt al-Ghassūl, is located in the Jordan Valley near the Dead Sea in modern Jordan and was excavated (1929–38) by the Jesuits. The Ghassulian stage was

  • Ghastly Good Taste (work by Betjeman)

    John Betjeman: …his first book on architecture, Ghastly Good Taste, appeared in 1933. Churches, railway stations, and other elements of a townscape figure largely in both books. Four more volumes of poetry appeared before the publication of Collected Poems (1958). His later collections were High and Low (1966), A Nip in the…

  • ghat (architecture)

    Nashik: …city’s riverbanks are lined with ghats (stepped bathing places). Nashik is the site of the Pandu (Buddhist) and Chamar (Jain) cave temples dating to the 1st century ce. Of its many Hindu temples, Kala Ram and Gora Ram are among the holiest. Tryambakeshvar, a village 14 miles (22 km) from…

  • Ghāt (oasis, Libya)

    Ghāt, oasis, southwestern Libya, near the Algerian border. Located on an ancient Saharan caravan route, it was a slave-trading centre and the object of European exploration in the 19th century. Ghāt lies west of the Wadi Tanezzuft in hilly sandstone country, near the Jibāl Mountains and the Tadrārt

  • gha?a-pallava (Indian art)

    Gha?a-pallava, in Indian art, important decorative motif consisting of a pot filled with flowers and leaves. In Vedic literature it is the symbol of life, the source of vegetation, a meaning that is still retained. The motif occurred in Indian art almost from its inception and has been used

  • Ghatak, Ritwik (Indian director)

    history of the motion picture: India: The Marxist intellectual Ritwik Ghatak received much less critical attention than his contemporary Ray, but through such films as Ajantrik (1958; Pathetic Fallacy) he created a body of alternative cinema that greatly influenced the rising generation.

  • ghatam (musical instrument)

    Ghatam, large, narrow-mouthed earthenware water pot used as a percussion instrument in India. Unlike other Indian percussion instruments, such as the tabla and mridangam, the ghatam does not have a membrane over its mouth. Ghatam produce a distinctive metallic sound and are made in several sizes,

  • Ghats (mountain ranges, India)

    Ghats, two mountain ranges forming the eastern and western edges, respectively, of the Deccan plateau of peninsular India. The two ranges run roughly parallel to the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea coasts, respectively, from which they are separated by strips of fairly level coastal land. In Hindi

  • Ghaudesh (island, Malta)

    Gozo, second largest of the Maltese islands (after the island of Malta), in the Mediterranean Sea, 3.25 mi (5.25 km) northwest of the nearest point of Malta. It is 9 mi long and 4.5 mi wide and has an area of 26 sq mi (67 sq km). It is also known as the “Island of the Three Hills,” but in fact, the

  • Ghawār, Al- (oil field, Saudi Arabia)

    Saudi Arabia: Petroleum: Al-Ghawār, just south of Dhahran and west of Al-Hufūf, is one of the world’s largest oil fields. The first portion of the Al-Ghawār oil field was discovered at ?Ayn Dār in 1948. Intensive exploration of the Rub? al-Khali began in 1950, and oil fields were…

  • Ghawdex (island, Malta)

    Gozo, second largest of the Maltese islands (after the island of Malta), in the Mediterranean Sea, 3.25 mi (5.25 km) northwest of the nearest point of Malta. It is 9 mi long and 4.5 mi wide and has an area of 26 sq mi (67 sq km). It is also known as the “Island of the Three Hills,” but in fact, the

  • Ghawr ash-Sharqiyah Canal (canal, Jordan)

    Yarmūk River: The Ghawr ash-Sharqiyah (East Ghor) Canal, completed in 1966, diverts water from the Yarmūk to irrigate the eastern Jordan River valley in Jordan.

  • Ghawr Plain (plain, Middle East)

    Jordan River: Physical environment: …that area, known as the Ghawr (Ghor), are cut here and there by wadis or rivers into rocky towers, pinnacles, and badlands, forming a maze of ravines and sharp crests that resemble a lunar landscape.

  • ghaybah (Islam)

    Ghaybah, (Arabic: “absence,” or “concealment”), Islāmic doctrine, especially among such Shī?ite sects as the Ithnā ?Asharīyah, or “Twelvers.” The term refers to the disappearance from view of the 12th and last imam (leader), Mu?ammad al-Mahdī al-?ujjah, in 878. Ghaybah is applied loosely to anyone

  • ghazal (Islamic literature)

    Ghazal, in Islamic literatures, genre of lyric poem, generally short and graceful in form and typically dealing with themes of love. As a genre the ghazal developed in Arabia in the late 7th century from the nasib, which itself was the often amorous prelude to the qa?īdah (ode). Two main types of

  • Ghazāl River, Al- (river, South Sudan)

    Ba?r al-Ghazāl, river, South Sudan, chief western affluent of the Nile River. It is 445 miles (716 km) long and joins the Mountain Nile (Ba?r al-Jabal) through Lake No, from which it flows eastward as the White Nile (Ba?r al-Abya?). Vaguely known to early Greek geographers, the river was mapped in

  • Ghazal River, El- (river, Africa)

    Lake Chad: Geology and physiography: …overflows into the generally intermittent El-Ghazal River leading into the depression, but it is usually confined by the dune fields of Kanem.

  • Ghazal, Bahr el- (river, South Sudan)

    Ba?r al-Ghazāl, river, South Sudan, chief western affluent of the Nile River. It is 445 miles (716 km) long and joins the Mountain Nile (Ba?r al-Jabal) through Lake No, from which it flows eastward as the White Nile (Ba?r al-Abya?). Vaguely known to early Greek geographers, the river was mapped in

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