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  • Ghazālī, al- (Muslim jurist, theologian, and mystic)

    Al-Ghazālī, Muslim theologian and mystic whose great work, I?yā? ?ulūm ad-dīn (“The Revival of the Religious Sciences”), made ?ūfism (Islāmic mysticism) an acceptable part of orthodox Islām. Al-Ghazālī was born at ?ūs (near Meshed in eastern Iran) and was educated there, then in Jorjān, and finally

  • Ghāzān Khan (Mongol ruler of Persia)

    Ma?mūd Ghāzān, most prominent of the Il-Khans (subordinate khāns) to rule the Mongol dynasty in Iran. Reigning from 1295 to 1304, he is best known for the conversion of his state to Islām and his wars against Egypt. Ghāzān’s early childhood was spent largely in the company of his grandfather, the

  • Ghāzān, Ma?mūd (Mongol ruler of Persia)

    Ma?mūd Ghāzān, most prominent of the Il-Khans (subordinate khāns) to rule the Mongol dynasty in Iran. Reigning from 1295 to 1304, he is best known for the conversion of his state to Islām and his wars against Egypt. Ghāzān’s early childhood was spent largely in the company of his grandfather, the

  • ghazel (Islamic literature)

    Ghazal, in Islamic literatures, genre of lyric poem, generally short and graceful in form and typically dealing with themes of love. As a genre the ghazal developed in Arabia in the late 7th century from the nasib, which itself was the often amorous prelude to the qa?īdah (ode). Two main types of

  • ghāzī (Ottoman soldier)

    Orhan: …northwestern Anatolia continued to attract Ghazis (warriors for the Islamic faith) from surrounding Turkish emirates fighting against Byzantium. In 1324 the Byzantine town of Brusa (later Bursa) fell to the Ottomans, followed by Nicaea (modern ?znik) in 1331 and Nicomedia (modern ?zmit) in 1337.

  • Ghāzī (king of Iraq)

    Iraq: Independence, 1932–39: …succeeded by his son, King Ghāzī (1933–39), who was young and inexperienced—a situation that gave political leaders an opportunity to compete for power. Without political parties to channel their activities through constitutional processes, politicians resorted to extraconstitutional, or violent, methods. One method was to embarrass those in power by press…

  • Ghāzī Malik (Tughluq ruler)

    India: The Tughluqs: …who ascended the throne as Ghiyāth al-Dīn Tughluq (reigned 1320–25), had distinguished himself prior to his accession by his successful defense of the frontier against the Mongols. His reign was brief but eventful. He captured Telingana, conducted raids in Jajnagar, and reconquered Bengal, which had been independent under Muslim kings…

  • Ghāzī Mu?ammad (imam of Dagestan)

    Shāmil: Under the leadership of Ghāzī Mu?ammad, the brotherhood had become involved in a holy war against the Russians, who had formally acquired control of Dagestan from Iran in 1813. After Ghāzī Mu?ammad was killed by the Russians (1832) and his successor, Gamzat Bek, was assassinated by his own followers…

  • Ghazi, Abdul Rashid (Pakistani Islamic militant)

    Abdul Rashid Ghazi, Pakistani Islamic militant (born 1964?, Pakistan?—died July 9–10, 2007, Islamabad, Pak.), was the younger son of Maulana Abdullah, founder of the Lal Masjid (Red Mosque) and its associated radical Islamic religious schools (madrassas). Against his father’s wishes, Ghazi studied

  • Ghāzī-ud-Dīn, ?Imād ul-Mulk (Mughal vizier)

    ?ālamgīr II: …throne by the imperial vizier ?Imād al-Mulk Ghāzī al-Dīn, who had deposed his predecessor. Provoked by the vizier’s attempt to reassert control over the Punjab, the Afghan ruler A?mad Shah Durrānī had his agents occupy Delhi in January 1757, which was at the time “absolutely without a single defender or…

  • Ghaziabad (India)

    Ghaziabad, city, northwestern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies just east of and is a suburb of Delhi and New Delhi. The city was founded in 1740. It later developed as an industrial centre as well as a residential suburb of the Delhi metropolis. Ghaziabad has grown dramatically since

  • Ghazipur (India)

    Ghazipur, city, southeastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is located on the Ganges (Ganga) River near the border with Bihar state, about 40 miles (65 km) northeast of Varanasi (Benares). Its ancient name of Gadhipur was changed to Ghazipur about 1330, reputedly in honour of Ghāzī Malik,

  • Ghaziuddinnagar (India)

    Ghaziabad, city, northwestern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies just east of and is a suburb of Delhi and New Delhi. The city was founded in 1740. It later developed as an industrial centre as well as a residential suburb of the Delhi metropolis. Ghaziabad has grown dramatically since

  • Ghazna (Afghanistan)

    Ghaznī, city, east-central Afghanistan. It lies beside the Ghaznī River on a high plateau at an elevation of 7,300 feet (2,225 m). Afghanistan’s only remaining walled town, it is dominated by a 150-foot- (45-metre-) high citadel built in the 13th century. Around the nearby village of Row?eh-e

  • Ghaznavid dynasty (Turkic dynasty)

    Ghaznavid dynasty, (977–1186 ce), dynasty of Turkic origin that ruled in Khorāsān (in northeastern Iran), Afghanistan, and northern India. The founder of the dynasty was Sebüktigin (ruled 977–997), a former Turkic slave who was recognized by the Sāmānids (an Iranian Muslim dynasty) as governor of

  • Ghaznī (Afghanistan)

    Ghaznī, city, east-central Afghanistan. It lies beside the Ghaznī River on a high plateau at an elevation of 7,300 feet (2,225 m). Afghanistan’s only remaining walled town, it is dominated by a 150-foot- (45-metre-) high citadel built in the 13th century. Around the nearby village of Row?eh-e

  • Ghazouani, Mohamed Ould Chiekh (president of Mauritania)

    Mauritania: Coups of 2005 and 2008 and the return to stability: Mohamed Ould Chiekh Ghazouani, Chief of Staff of the National Army. In response the military promptly staged a coup and removed him from power. In December 2008 Ould Abdallahi was released after several months’ house arrest. With the continued failure of the military government to…

  • ghazw (raid)

    ghanīmah: …society, where the ghazw (razzia, or raid) was a way of life and a point of honour, ghanīmah helped provide the material means of existence. After the leader of the ghazw received a fourth or a fifth of the booty, the rest was divided among the raiders according to…

  • Ghazzah (city, Gaza Strip)

    Gaza, city and principal urban centre of the Gaza Strip, southwestern Palestine. Formerly the administrative headquarters for the Israeli military forces that occupied the Gaza Strip, the city came under Palestinian control in 2005. Records exist indicating continuous habitation at the site for

  • Ghazzah, Qi?ā? (territory, Middle East)

    Gaza Strip, territory occupying 140 square miles (363 square km) along the Mediterranean Sea just northeast of the Sinai Peninsula. The Gaza Strip is unusual in being a densely settled area not recognized as a de jure part of any extant country. The first accurate census, conducted in September

  • Ghazzālī, al- (Muslim jurist, theologian, and mystic)

    Al-Ghazālī, Muslim theologian and mystic whose great work, I?yā? ?ulūm ad-dīn (“The Revival of the Religious Sciences”), made ?ūfism (Islāmic mysticism) an acceptable part of orthodox Islām. Al-Ghazālī was born at ?ūs (near Meshed in eastern Iran) and was educated there, then in Jorjān, and finally

  • GHB (drug)

    date rape: …“date-rape drugs” such as Rohypnol, GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), and ketamine. Such substances can be slipped into alcoholic or other drinks when a victim is not looking. The drugs are usually odourless and colourless, although Rohypnol, after it became notorious as a date-rape drug, has been altered chemically to change the…

  • GHE

    Historical school of economics, branch of economic thought, developed chiefly in Germany in the last half of the 19th century, that sought to understand the economic situation of a nation in the context of its total historical experience. Objecting to the deductively reasoned economic “laws” of

  • ghee (butterfat)

    Ghee, clarified butter, a staple food on the Indian subcontinent. As a cooking oil, ghee is the most widely used food in India, apart from wheat and rice. Ghee is produced as follows. Butter made from cow’s milk is melted over a slow fire and then heated slowly until the separated water boils off.

  • Ghee Hin (Chinese secret society)

    Ghee Hin, Chinese secret society that flourished in Malaya in the 19th and early 20th centuries. During the 1800s many Chinese migrated to Malaya, bringing their secret societies with them. The Ghee Hin had strong branch organizations in Penang. Its membership consisted primarily of Cantonese

  • Gheel (Belgium)

    Geel, commune, Flanders Region, northern Belgium, located in the Kempenland (Campine) Plateau, east of Antwerp. Renowned for its unique system of family care for the mentally ill, it is linked with the Irish martyr St. Dymphna. According to tradition, in the 7th century she was beheaded there by

  • Gheg (language)

    Albania: Languages: There are two principal dialects: Geg, spoken north of the Shkumbin River, and Tosk, spoken in the south. Geg dialects are also spoken in Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and North Macedonia, and Tosk dialects, though somewhat archaic as a result of centuries of separation from their place of origin in Albania,…

  • Gheg (people)

    Albania: Ethnic groups: …subgroups of Albanians are the Gegs (Ghegs) in the north and the Tosks in the south. Differences between the two groups were quite pronounced before World War II. Until the communist takeover in 1944, Albanian politics were dominated by the more numerous Gegs. Renowned for their independent spirit and fighting…

  • Ghelderode, Michel de (Belgian dramatist)

    Michel de Ghelderode, eccentric Belgian dramatist whose folkish morality plays resound with violence, demonism, holy madness, and Rabelaisian humour. He has affinities with Fernand Crommelynck but is bleaker and more extreme in his visions. Ghelderode was the son of Flemish parents who favoured

  • Ghent (Belgium)

    Ghent, city, Flanders Region, northwestern Belgium. Ghent lies at the junction of the canalized Lys (Leie) and Scheldt (Schelde) rivers and is the centre of an urban complex that includes Ledeberg, Gentbrugge, and Sint-Amandsberg. One of Belgium’s oldest cities and the historic capital of Flanders,

  • Ghent Altarpiece (work by Hubert and Jan van Eyck)

    Jan van Eyck: …Mystic Lamb (also called the Ghent Altarpiece, 1432). Hubert van Eyck is thought by some to have been Jan’s brother.

  • Ghent azalea (plant)

    azalea: …have been bred from the Ghent azalea (R. gandavense); the molle azalea (R. molle); the Yodogawa azalea (R. yedoense); and the torch azalea (R. kaempferi).

  • Ghent University (university, Ghent, Belgium)

    Ghent University, state-financed coeducational institution of higher learning with limited autonomy in Ghent, Belg. Founded in 1817 under King William I of the Netherlands, the university at first conducted its instruction in Latin; in 1830 the language was changed to French; in 1916, during the

  • Ghent, Pacification of (Europe [1576])

    Pacification of Ghent, (Nov. 8, 1576), declaration by which the northern and southern provinces of the Low Countries put aside their religious difference and united in revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs. The declaration was the first major expression of the Netherlands’ national

  • Ghent, Treaty of (United States-United Kingdom [1814])

    Treaty of Ghent, (Dec. 24, 1814), agreement in Belgium between Great Britain and the United States to end the War of 1812 on the general basis of the status quo antebellum (maintaining the prewar conditions). Because the military positions for each side were so well balanced, neither country could

  • Ghent-Bruges school (Flemish art)

    Ghent-Bruges school, group of manuscript illuminators and scribes active during the last quarter of the 15th and first part of the 16th centuries, principally in the Flemish cities of Ghent and Bruges. Credit for founding the tradition that included such masters as Nicolas Spierinc, Liévin van

  • Ghent-Terneuzen Canal (waterway, Belgium-Netherlands)

    Ghent-Terneuzen Canal, waterway running 31 km (19 miles) south to north between Ghent, Belg., and the Western Schelde estuary at Terneuzen, Neth. The canal was built in 1824–27 and was reconstructed in 1881. It was further enlarged during the early 20th century and reopened in 1910, and it was

  • Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (Romania)

    One?ti, city, Bac?u jude? (county), eastern Romania. The city was developed as a planned new town, begun in 1953 on the site of a 15th-century settlement. It was originally named for the communist leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and was renamed One?ti in 1996. It developed as a consequence of the

  • Gheorghiu, Angela (Romanian opera singer)

    Angela Gheorghiu, Romanian operatic lyric soprano noted for her powerful voice and commanding stage presence. Gheorghiu early realized her love of singing, and she was supported by her family in working toward a career in opera. She left home at age 14 to study at the Academy of Music in Bucharest

  • Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe (prime minister of Romania)

    Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, longtime head of the Romanian Communist Party, prime minister (1952–55), and president of Romania’s State Council (1961–65). Having become a revolutionary after World War I, Gheorghiu-Dej joined the then-outlawed Romanian Communist Party in 1930 and was sentenced to 12

  • gher (shelter)

    Yurt, tentlike Central Asian nomad’s dwelling, erected on wooden poles and covered with skin, felt, or handwoven textiles in bright colours. The interior is simply furnished with brightly coloured rugs (red often predominating) decorated with geometric or stylized animal patterns. The knotted pile

  • Gherardesca family (Tuscan noble family)

    Gherardesca family, one of the foremost families of the Tuscan nobility, whose lands included the counties of Gherardesca, Donoratico, and Montescudaio, near Pisa. At the beginning of the 13th century, they led the pro-imperial Ghibelline party of the Pisan republic against the pro-papal Guelf

  • Gherea, Constantin Dobrogeanu (Romanian author)

    Romanian literature: The 20th century: The critic Constantin Dobrogeanu Gherea’s theories followed Karl Marx, although Western Modernism also influenced Romanian writers. Ovid Densu?ianu clearly followed Symbolism, as did the poets Ion Minulescu and George Bacovia, while Impressionism was taken up by the literary critic Eugen Lovinescu and the poet Nicolae Davidescu, whose

  • gherkin (plant)

    Gherkin, (Cucumis anguria), annual trailing vine of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), grown for its edible fruit. The plant is likely native to southern Africa and is grown in warm climates around the world. Gherkin fruits are served raw, cooked, or pickled, though the “gherkins” sold in commercial

  • Ghermezian, Jacob (Canadian businessman)

    Jacob Ghermezian, Canadian businessman (born 1902, Azerbaijan—died Jan. 3, 2000, Edmonton, Alta.), founded a highly successful family business, Triple Five Corp., that included the West Edmonton Mall, the world’s largest shopping and entertainment complex; the company also held a 22.5% stake in t

  • Ghesquière, Nicolas (French fashion designer)

    Nicolas Ghesquière, French fashion designer who, as creative director of Balenciaga (1997–2012) and as artistic director of Louis Vuitton (2013–), earned a reputation as the most original designer of his generation. Ghesquière was born in northern France but was raised in Loudun, in the western

  • Ghetto (district, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: Layout: …such area today is the Ghetto, the islet on which from 1516 to 1797 Venice’s Jews were confined. (Indeed, the very word ghetto was first used with reference to Venice.) The Ghetto is located in the northwestern part of the city and is surrounded by canals whose bridges were once…

  • ghetto (segregated area)

    Ghetto, formerly a street, or quarter, of a city set apart as a legally enforced residence area for Jews. One of the earliest forced segregations of Jews was in Muslim Morocco when, in 1280, they were transferred to segregated quarters called millahs. In some Muslim countries, rigid ghetto systems

  • Gheyn, Matthias van den (Flemish composer)

    Matthias van den Gheyn, Flemish organist, composer, and an outstanding virtuoso of the carillon, particularly known for his brilliant improvisations. He was born into a celebrated family of Flemish bell founders. He moved with his family to Leuven in 1726 and probably received his first musical

  • Ghezzi, Pier Leone (Italian caricaturist)

    Pier Leone Ghezzi, Italian artist and probably the first professional caricaturist. Ghezzi made religious paintings for Roman churches but was best known for penned and etched caricatures of Rome’s residents and tourists. He often portrayed a single figure with exaggerated anatomy and appropriate

  • GHG (atmospheric science)

    Greenhouse gas, any gas that has the property of absorbing infrared radiation (net heat energy) emitted from Earth’s surface and reradiating it back to Earth’s surface, thus contributing to the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapour are the most important greenhouse gases. (To

  • ghī (butterfat)

    Ghee, clarified butter, a staple food on the Indian subcontinent. As a cooking oil, ghee is the most widely used food in India, apart from wheat and rice. Ghee is produced as follows. Butter made from cow’s milk is melted over a slow fire and then heated slowly until the separated water boils off.

  • Ghiaurov, Nicolai (Bulgarian opera singer)

    Nicolai Ghiaurov, (Nikolay Georgiev Gyaurov), Bulgarian opera singer (born Sept. 13, 1929, Velingrad, Bulg.—died June 2, 2004, Modena, Italy), enraptured audiences worldwide with his commanding onstage presence and his tremendous bass voice. Considered one of the 20th century’s greatest bass v

  • Ghibellines (European history)

    Ghibelline, in medieval Italy, member of the pro-imperial party, opponents of the pro-papal Guelfs. See Guelf and

  • Ghiberti, Lorenzo (Italian sculptor)

    Lorenzo Ghiberti, early Italian Renaissance sculptor, whose doors (Gates of Paradise; 1425–52) for the Baptistery of the cathedral of Florence are considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Italian art in the Quattrocento. Other works include three bronze statues for Orsanmichele (1416–25) and

  • ghibli (wind)

    Ghibli, hot and dusty wind descending from the interior highlands of Libya toward the Mediterranean Sea. Although the wind may occur throughout the year, it is most frequent during the spring and early summer. See

  • Ghica, Ion (prime minister of Romania)

    Ion Ghica, member of a great Romanian princely family, prominent man of letters, economist, and prime minister of Romania (1866–67, 1870–71). Ghica was descended from the Walachian prince Grigore III Ghica. He figured prominently in the revolutionary activity of 1848 and was subsequently forced

  • Ghil, René (French poet)

    Symbolism: Symbolist literature: Laforgue, Henri de Régnier, René Ghil, and Gustave Kahn; the Belgians émile Verhaeren and Georges Rodenbach; the Greek-born Jean Moréas; and Francis Viélé-Griffin and Stuart Merrill, who were

  • Ghilzai (people)

    Ghilzay, one of the largest of the Pashto-speaking tribes in Afghanistan, whose traditional territory extended from Ghazni and Kalat-i-Ghilzai eastward into the Indus Valley. They are reputed to be descended at least in part from the Khalaj or Khilji Turks, who entered Afghanistan in the 10th

  • Ghilzay (people)

    Ghilzay, one of the largest of the Pashto-speaking tribes in Afghanistan, whose traditional territory extended from Ghazni and Kalat-i-Ghilzai eastward into the Indus Valley. They are reputed to be descended at least in part from the Khalaj or Khilji Turks, who entered Afghanistan in the 10th

  • ghinā? al-?an?ānī, al- (song genre)

    Yemen: The arts: …?ūd) and genres (such as al-ghinā? al-?an?ānī, or Sanaani song) are quite unique.

  • Ghiordes carpet

    Ghiordes carpet, floor covering handwoven in the town of Ghiordes (G?rdes), northeast of ?zmir in western Anatolia (now in Turkey). The prayer rugs of Ghiordes, together with those of Kula and Ladik, have long been especially prized in the Middle East, as well as in Europe and the United States.

  • Ghiordes knot (carpet-making)

    rug and carpet: Materials and technique: The Turkish, or symmetrical, knot is used mainly in Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Iran (formerly Persia), and Europe. This knot was also formerly known as the Ghiordes knot. The Persian, or asymmetrical, knot is used principally in Iran, India, China, and Egypt. This knot was formerly known as the…

  • Ghiorso, Albert (American chemist)

    lawrencium: …first produced (1961) by chemists Albert Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, A.E. Larsh, and R.M. Latimer at the University of California, Berkeley, by bombarding a mixture of the longest-lived isotopes of californium (atomic number 98) with boron ions (atomic number 5) accelerated in a heavy-ion linear accelerator. The element was named after…

  • Ghirardi, G. C. (Italian physicist)

    philosophy of physics: The theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber: …forward in the 1980s by Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber and is thus sometimes referred to as “GRW”; it was subsequently developed by Philip Pearle and John Stewart Bell (1928–90).

  • Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber theory (quantum mechanics)

    philosophy of physics: The theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber: The second proposed solution to the measurement problem, as noted above, affirms that wave functions are complete representations of physical systems but denies that they are always governed by the linear differential equations of motion. The strategy behind this…

  • Ghirlandaio, Domenico (Italian painter)

    Domenico Ghirlandaio, early Renaissance painter of the Florentine school noted for his detailed narrative frescoes, which include many portraits of leading citizens in contemporary dress. Domenico was the son of a goldsmith, and his nickname, “Ghirlandaio,” was derived from his father’s skill in

  • Ghirlandajo, Domenico (Italian painter)

    Domenico Ghirlandaio, early Renaissance painter of the Florentine school noted for his detailed narrative frescoes, which include many portraits of leading citizens in contemporary dress. Domenico was the son of a goldsmith, and his nickname, “Ghirlandaio,” was derived from his father’s skill in

  • Ghisi, Giorgio (Italian artist)

    printmaking: Italy: One of the exceptions was Giorgio Ghisi of Mantua, who in his isolated regional development escaped the corrupting influence of Rome. His 1550 visit to Antwerp made Ghisi an important link between Italian and northern engraving.

  • Ghislieri, Antonio (pope)

    Saint Pius V, ; canonized May 22, 1712; feast day April 30), Italian ascetic, reformer, and relentless persecutor of heretics, whose papacy (1566–72) marked one of the most austere periods in Roman Catholic church history. During his reign, the Inquisition was successful in eliminating

  • Ghitani, Gamal al- (Egyptian author)

    Gamal al-Ghitani, (Jamāl al-Ghī?ānī), Egyptian novelist and editor (born May 9, 1945, Juhaynah, Suhaj governorate, Egypt—died Oct. 18, 2015, Cairo, Egypt), was a major figure in the avant-garde Egyptian literary movement called Gallery (or Galliri) 68 as well as an outspoken opponent of both

  • Ghī?ānī, Jamāl al- (Egyptian author)

    Gamal al-Ghitani, (Jamāl al-Ghī?ānī), Egyptian novelist and editor (born May 9, 1945, Juhaynah, Suhaj governorate, Egypt—died Oct. 18, 2015, Cairo, Egypt), was a major figure in the avant-garde Egyptian literary movement called Gallery (or Galliri) 68 as well as an outspoken opponent of both

  • Ghiyās ad-Dīn Kay Khusraw I (sultan of Rūm)

    Theodore I Lascaris: …the Seljuq sultan of Rūm, Kay-Khusraw, who had given asylum to the emperor Alexius, failed to persuade Theodore to abdicate, he invaded Theodore’s territory in the spring of 1211. Theodore, however, defeated and killed Kay-Khusraw in battle and also captured and imprisoned Alexius.

  • Ghiyās ad-Dīn Kay Khusraw II (Seljuq sultan)

    Anatolia: Seljuq expansion: …his eldest son Ghiyās? al-Dīn Kay-Khusraw II (1237–46), who reached the throne by killing his two half brothers and their Ayyūbid mother along with many military commanders and dignitaries. Although he initially obtained some successes in the southeastern part of his realm by annexing Amida (Diyarbak?r), thus pushing the boundaries…

  • Ghiyās ad-Dīn Kay Khusraw III (Seljuq sultan)

    Anatolia: Division and decline: …enthroned the child Ghiyās? al-Dīn Kay-Khusraw III (1265–84) in his father’s place.

  • Ghiyās ad-Dīn Mas?ūd II (Seljuq sultan of Rūm)

    Anatolia: Division and decline: …was occupied by Ghiyās? al-Dīn Mas?ūd II (1285–98, 1303–08), a son of ?Izz al-Dīn Kay-Kā?ūs, who had come from Crimea to claim his patrimony. However, he made Kayseri, not Konya, the seat of his government. His reign marks the definitive rise to power of the Turkmen frontier chieftains, especially the…

  • Ghiyās ad-Dīn Mas?ūd III (Seljuq sultan)

    Anatolia: Division and decline: …of his son Ghiyās? al-Dīn Mas?ūd III, who assumed the rule in 1307, is obscure. Though some sources mention the existence of Seljuq scions in later years in various parts of Anatolia, Mas?ūd III may be considered the last member of the dynasty to have exercised sovereignty. In 1328 the…

  • Ghiyās al Dīn Tughluq (Tughluq ruler)

    India: The Tughluqs: …who ascended the throne as Ghiyāth al-Dīn Tughluq (reigned 1320–25), had distinguished himself prior to his accession by his successful defense of the frontier against the Mongols. His reign was brief but eventful. He captured Telingana, conducted raids in Jajnagar, and reconquered Bengal, which had been independent under Muslim kings…

  • Ghiyā?-ud-Dīn (Ghūrid emperor)

    Mu?izz al-Dīn Mu?ammad ibn Sām: Mu?izz al-Dīn’s elder brother, Ghiyāth al-Dīn, acquired power east of Herāt in the region of Ghūr (Ghowr, in present Afghanistan) about 1162. Mu?izz al-Dīn always remained his brother’s loyal subordinate. Thus Mu?izz al-Dīn expelled the O?uz Turkmen nomads from Ghazna (Ghaznī) in 1173 and came as required to his…

  • Ghiyā?-ud-Dīn Tughluq (Tughluq ruler)

    India: The Tughluqs: …who ascended the throne as Ghiyāth al-Dīn Tughluq (reigned 1320–25), had distinguished himself prior to his accession by his successful defense of the frontier against the Mongols. His reign was brief but eventful. He captured Telingana, conducted raids in Jajnagar, and reconquered Bengal, which had been independent under Muslim kings…

  • Ghiyās?, Mīrak Mīrzā (Persian architect)

    Humāyūn's Tomb: …was designed by Persian architect Mīrak Mīrzā Ghiyās?. The structure inspired several other significant architectural achievements, including the Taj Mahal.

  • Ghiyāth ad-Din Abū al-Fat? ?Umar ibn Ibrahīm al-Khaiyāmī an-Nīshaburi (Persian poet and astronomer)

    Omar Khayyam, Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet, renowned in his own country and time for his scientific achievements but chiefly known to English-speaking readers through the translation of a collection of his robā?īyāt (“quatrains”) in The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám (1859), by the English

  • Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Mas?ūd al-Kāshī (Persian astronomer and mathematician)

    Al-Kāshī, ranks among the greatest mathematicians and astronomers in the Islamic world. The first event known with certainty in al-Kāshī’s life is his observation of a lunar eclipse on June 2, 1406, from Kāshān. His earliest surviving work is Sullam al-samā? (1407; “The Stairway of Heaven”), an

  • Ghiyath al-Din Mu?ammad (Ghūrid emperor)

    Mu?izz al-Dīn Mu?ammad ibn Sām: Mu?izz al-Dīn’s elder brother, Ghiyāth al-Dīn, acquired power east of Herāt in the region of Ghūr (Ghowr, in present Afghanistan) about 1162. Mu?izz al-Dīn always remained his brother’s loyal subordinate. Thus Mu?izz al-Dīn expelled the O?uz Turkmen nomads from Ghazna (Ghaznī) in 1173 and came as required to his…

  • Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad ?z Beg (Mongolian leader)

    ?z Beg, Mongol leader and khan of the Golden Horde, or Kipchak empire, of southern Russia, under whom it attained its greatest power; he reigned from 1312 to 1341. ?z Beg was a convert to Islām, but he also welcomed Christian missionaries from western Europe into his realm. ?z Beg encouraged the

  • Ghiyāth al-Dīn Tughluq (Tughluq ruler)

    India: The Tughluqs: …who ascended the throne as Ghiyāth al-Dīn Tughluq (reigned 1320–25), had distinguished himself prior to his accession by his successful defense of the frontier against the Mongols. His reign was brief but eventful. He captured Telingana, conducted raids in Jajnagar, and reconquered Bengal, which had been independent under Muslim kings…

  • Ghiyāth ibn Ghawth ibn al-?alt al-Akh?al (Umayyad poet)

    Al-Akh?al, poet of the Umayyad period (661–750), esteemed for his perfection of Arabic poetic form in the old Bedouin tradition. Al-Akh?al (“The Loquacious”) was a Christian but did not take the duties of his religion seriously, being addicted to drink and women. He was a favourite panegyrist and

  • Ghiyāth-al-Dīn (Bahmanī ruler)

    India: Bahmanī consolidation of the Deccan: …among Persian newcomers by Sultan Ghiyāth al-Dīn (Mu?ammad II’s oldest son, who ruled for about two months) in 1397 was seen as a threat by the old nobles and Turks and was probably a major reason for his assassination. Later the addition of Hindu converts and Hindus to the nobility…

  • Ghiz, Joseph A. (Canadian politician)

    Joseph A. Ghiz, Canadian premier (1986–93) of Prince Edward Island and eloquent advocate for the failed Meech Lake and Charlottetown accords, which would have granted special powers to Quebec in an attempt to quell the separatist movement (b. Jan. 27, 1945—d. Nov. 9,

  • Ghizeghem, Hayne van (composer)

    rondeau: …the long, fine songs of Hayne van Ghizeghem, written in the last years of the supremacy of the Burgundian dukes. The end of the 15th century saw the abandonment of the medieval formes fixes. The rondeau was the only form to have survived 200 years without any significant change; it…

  • Ghonim, Wael (Egyptian activist and computer engineer)

    Wael Ghonim, Egyptian democracy activist and computer engineer who was one of the organizers of a social media campaign that helped spur mass demonstrations in 2011 in Egypt, forcing Pres. ?osnī Mubārak from power. (See Egypt Uprising of 2011.) After being held in secret detention by Egyptian

  • ghoomar (dance)

    South Asian arts: Folk dance: …dance of Rajasthan is the ghoomar, danced by women in long full skirts and colourful chuneris (squares of cloth draping head and shoulders and tucked in front at the waist). Especially spectacular are the kachchi ghori dancers of this region. Equipped with shields and long swords, the upper part of…

  • ghop bagi (game)

    jacks: …of eastern Europe traditionally played ghop bagi with five bones. On the first play, from the bones scattered on the ground or carpet, one was tossed up and the other four garnered before it fell. In the second play of the set, three were on the floor and two in…

  • Ghor Plain (plain, Middle East)

    Jordan River: Physical environment: …that area, known as the Ghawr (Ghor), are cut here and there by wadis or rivers into rocky towers, pinnacles, and badlands, forming a maze of ravines and sharp crests that resemble a lunar landscape.

  • ghorfa (granary)

    Medenine: The honeycomb-like aboveground granaries (ghorfas) that belonged to the Ouerghemma are features of the locality. The town is now a trade centre for dates, olives, cereals, and esparto grass and is a road hub with links to Gabès (Qābis), 40 miles (64 km) northwest.

  • Ghosananda, Maha (Cambodian Buddhist patriarch)

    Maha Ghosananda, (Somdet Phra Maha Ghosananda), Cambodian Buddhist patriarch (born 1929? , Takeo province, Cambodia, French Indochina—died March 12, 2007 , Northampton, Mass.), devoted his life to the search for peace, especially for reconciliation and peaceful coexistence in his homeland after the

  • Ghosananda, Somdet Phra Maha (Cambodian Buddhist patriarch)

    Maha Ghosananda, (Somdet Phra Maha Ghosananda), Cambodian Buddhist patriarch (born 1929? , Takeo province, Cambodia, French Indochina—died March 12, 2007 , Northampton, Mass.), devoted his life to the search for peace, especially for reconciliation and peaceful coexistence in his homeland after the

  • Ghose, Aurobindo (Indian philosopher and yogi)

    Sri Aurobindo, yogi, seer, philosopher, poet, and Indian nationalist who propounded a philosophy of divine life on earth through spiritual evolution. Aurobindo’s education began in a Christian convent school in Darjeeling (Darjiling). While still a boy, he was sent to England for further schooling.

  • Ghose, Rash Behari (Indian political leader)

    India: Moderate and militant nationalism: …address of its moderate president-elect, Rash Behari Ghose (1845–1921). The division of the Congress reflected broad tactical differences between the liberal evolutionary and militant revolutionary wings of the national organization and those aspiring to the presidency. Young militants of Tilak’s New Party wanted to extend the boycott movement to the…

  • Ghose, Zulfikar (American author)

    Zulfikar Ghose, Pakistani American author of novels, poetry, and criticism about cultural alienation. Ghose grew up a Muslim in Sialkot and in largely Hindu Bombay (Mumbai) and then moved with his family to England. He graduated from Keele (England) University in 1959 and married Helena de la

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