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  • giant reed grass (plant)

    reed: …common, or water, reed (Phragmites australis) occurs along the margins of lakes, fens, marshes, and streams from the Arctic to the tropics. It is a broad-leafed grass, about 1.5 to 5 metres (5 to 16.5 feet) tall, with feathery flower clusters and stiff, smooth stems. Other plants of the…

  • giant schnauzer (breed of dog)

    schnauzer: The giant schnauzer, largest and most recent of the three breeds, was developed by Bavarian cattlemen who wanted a cattle dog like the standard schnauzer but larger. To produce such a dog, the standard schnauzer was crossed with various working dogs and, later, with the black…

  • giant sedge (plant)

    papyrus: …ancient times and also the plant from which it was derived, Cyperus papyrus (family Cyperaceae), also called paper plant. The papyrus plant was long cultivated in the Nile delta region in Egypt and was collected for its stalk or stem, whose central pith was cut into thin strips, pressed together,…

  • giant sensitive plant (plant)

    invasive species: A global problem: Giant sensitive tree (Mimosa pigra) may have been introduced by the Darwin Botanic Garden sometime before the 1890s; upalatable to most wildlife, it forms vast thickets and disrupts native wetland ecosystems. Cherry guava (Psidium cattleianum), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica),

  • giant sensitive tree (plant)

    invasive species: A global problem: Giant sensitive tree (Mimosa pigra) may have been introduced by the Darwin Botanic Garden sometime before the 1890s; upalatable to most wildlife, it forms vast thickets and disrupts native wetland ecosystems. Cherry guava (Psidium cattleianum), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica),

  • giant sequoia (plant)

    Giant sequoia, (Sequoiadendron giganteum), coniferous evergreen tree of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), the largest of all trees in bulk and the most massive living things by volume. The giant sequoia is the only species of the genus Sequoiadendron and is distinct from the coast redwoods

  • Giant Sequoia National Monument (region, California, United States)

    Sequoia National Forest and Giant Sequoia National Monument, large natural region of mountains and forestland in east-central California, U.S. The area is noted for its more than three dozen groves of big trees, or giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum), for which the national forest and the

  • giant silkworm moth (insect)

    Saturniid moth, (family Saturniidae), any of about 1,500 species of moths (order Lepidoptera), some of which spin thick, silken cocoons and are sometimes used to produce commercial silk. Adults have stout, hairy bodies and broad wings that are often vividly coloured and patterned. Most species have

  • giant slalom (ski race)

    Alpine skiing: …latter including the slalom and giant slalom. The speed events are contested in single runs down long, steep, fast courses featuring few and widely spaced turns. The technical events challenge the skier’s ability to maneuver over courses marked by closely spaced gates through which both skis must pass; winners are…

  • giant sleepy shark (fish)

    nurse shark: …the tawny nurse shark (N. ferrugineus) and the shorttail nurse shark (P. brevicaudatum). They are not related to the sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus)—a type of sand shark inhabiting the waters above the continental shelves in most warm and temperate regions—which is sometimes referred to as the gray nurse…

  • giant snowdrop (plant)

    snowdrop: …common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and giant snowdrop (G. elwesii), are cultivated as ornamentals for their nodding, sometimes fragrant flowers. They are commonly the earliest garden flowers to blossom in the late winter or early spring, sometimes emerging when snow is still on the ground.

  • giant solenodon (extinct mammal)

    solenodon: The giant solenodon (S. arredondoi) is represented by partial skeletons from western Cuba. Whether it survived after 1500 is unknown, as the bones may date to the Pleistocene Epoch (2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago) or the Holocene Epoch (11,700 years ago to the present). This large…

  • giant South American river turtle (turtle)

    Arrau, large and somewhat flat freshwater turtle with a neck that does not retract but instead can be tucked to the side and concealed beneath the shell (see side-necked turtle). Of the several South American Podocnemis species, arrau generally refers to the largest, P. expansa of northern South

  • giant spider crab (crustacean)

    Giant crab, (Macrocheira kaempferi), species of spider crab (q.v.) native to Pacific waters near Japan. It occurs at depths of 50 to 300 m (150 to 1,000 feet). The largest specimens may be up to 3.7 m or more from the tip of one outstretched claw to another. The body is about 37 cm (15 inches)

  • giant squid (mollusk)

    Giant squid, (genus Architeuthis), any member of a genus of large, elusive cephalopods inhabiting deep regions of temperate to subtropical marine waters. Thought to be the largest or second largest living invertebrate, next to the colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni), the giant squid has

  • giant star (astronomy)

    Giant star, any star having a relatively large radius for its mass and temperature; because the radiating area is correspondingly large, the brightness of such stars is high. Subclasses of giants are supergiants, with even larger radii and brightness for their masses and temperatures (see

  • Giant Steps (album by Coltrane)

    John Coltrane: …the virtuoso performance of “Giant Steps” (1959).

  • giant toad (amphibian)

    Anura: Annotated classification: …Indo-Australian archipelago, Polynesia, and Madagascar; Bufo marinus introduced into Australia and some Pacific islands; 27 genera, about 360 species; adult size 2 to about 25 cm (1 to 10 inches). Family Centrolenidae No fossil record; 8 presacral vertebrae; pectoral girdle arciferal; intercalary cartilages present; omosternum absent; Bidder’s organ absent; maxillary…

  • giant tortoise

    Galapagos Islands: Its giant tortoises are thought to have some of the longest life spans (up to 150 years) of any creature on Earth. The close affinities of Galapagos animals to the fauna of South and Central America indicate that most of the islands’ species originated there. Because of…

  • giant tortoise (reptile)

    migration: Reptiles and amphibians: In the Galápagos Islands, giant land tortoises (Testudo elephantopus) stay chiefly in the upper humid zone, where food is abundant, but go down to the dry zone to lay their eggs. Despite their great body weight and slow pace, they travel some 50 kilometres (30 miles) across rough country.

  • giant urticaria (pathology)

    Angioedema, allergic disorder in which large, localized, painless swellings similar to hives appear under the skin. The swelling is caused by massive accumulation of fluid (edema) following exposure to an allergen (a substance to which the person has been sensitized) or, in cases with a hereditary

  • giant water bug (insect)

    Giant water bug, any wide and flat-bodied aquatic insect of the family Belostomatidae (order Heteroptera). This family, although containing only about 100 species, includes the largest bugs in the order: sometimes exceeding 10 cm (4 inches) in the South American species Lethocerus grandis and

  • giant water scorpion (fossil arthropod)

    Giant water scorpion, any member of the extinct subclass Eurypterida of the arthropod group Merostomata, a lineage of large, scorpion-like, aquatic invertebrates that flourished during the Silurian Period (444 to 416 million years ago). Well over 200 species have been identified and divided into 18

  • giant water shrew (mammal)

    otter shrew: The giant otter shrew (Potamogale velox) has the body form, fur texture, and coloration of a river otter but is smaller. It weighs less than 400 grams (0.9 pound) and has a body 27 to 33 cm (11 to 13 inches) long and a slightly shorter…

  • giant wombat (fossil marsupial genus)

    Diprotodon, extinct genus of marsupial classified in the suborder Vombatiformes and considered to be the largest known group of marsupial mammals. Diprotodon lived during the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) in Australia and is a close relative of living wombats and koalas. Its

  • Giant’s Castle (mountain, South Africa)

    Giant’s Castle, peak in the Drakensberg mountain range, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. It rises to 10,869 feet (3,313 metres) above sea level. The peak is situated within the Giant’s Castle Game Reserve, which is part of uKhahlamba/Drakensberg Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site noted for its

  • Giant’s Castle Game Reserve (game reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa)

    Giant's Castle: …peak is situated within the Giant’s Castle Game Reserve, which is part of uKhahlamba/Drakensberg Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site noted for its natural and cultural value.

  • Giant’s Causeway (geological formation, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Giant’s Causeway, promontory of basalt columns along 4 miles (6 km) of the northern coast of Northern Ireland. It lies on the edge of the Antrim plateau between Causeway Head and Benbane Head, some 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Londonderry. There are approximately 40,000 of these stone pillars,

  • Giant, O’Brien, The (novel by Mantel)

    Hilary Mantel: …returned to historical fiction with The Giant, O’Brien, which imaginatively explores and contrasts the lives of two real 18th-century figures—a freakishly tall sideshow performer steeped in the Irish oral tradition and a Scottish surgeon in thrall to modern science.

  • giant-cell arteritis (pathology)

    connective tissue disease: Necrotizing vasculitides: Giant-cell or temporal arteritis occurs chiefly in older people and is manifested by severe temporal or occipital headaches (in the temples or at the back of the head), mental disturbances, visual difficulties, fever, anemia, aching pains and weakness in the muscles of the shoulder and pelvic girdles…

  • giant-cell thyroiditis (pathology)

    Granulomatous thyroiditis, inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland, of unknown but presumably viral origin. It may persist from several weeks to a few months but subsides spontaneously. The disease most frequently occurs in women. The thyroid gland becomes enlarged, and most patients complain of

  • giant-fibre system (anatomy)

    nervous system: Complex mollusks: The giant-fibre system—also seen in earthworms and insects—is very well developed in the squid. The diameter of giant fibres is many times greater than the diameter of most other nerve fibres. Giant neurons in the brain send fibres to the retractor muscles of the head and…

  • giant-impact hypothesis (astronomy)

    Moon: Origin and evolution: …1980s that a model emerged—the giant-impact hypothesis—that eventually gained the support of most lunar scientists.

  • Gianti Agreement (Indonesia [1755])

    Gianti Agreement, (1755), in Indonesia, treaty between two members of the Mataram royal family as a result of a succession war in 1749–57. Pakubuwono II, king of Mataram, had backed a Chinese rebellion against the Dutch. In 1743, in payment for his restoration to power, the King ceded the north

  • Giants (American baseball team)

    San Francisco Giants, American professional baseball team based in San Francisco. The Giants have won eight World Series titles and 23 National League (NL) pennants. The franchise that would become the Giants was established in 1883 in New York City and was initially known as the Gothams. In 1885

  • Giants in the Earth (novel by R?lvaag)

    Giants in the Earth, novel by O.E. R?lvaag that chronicles the struggles of Norwegian immigrant settlers in the Dakota territory in the 1870s. First published in Norway in two volumes as I de dage (1924; “In Those Days”) and Riket grundl?ges (1925; “The Kingdom Is Founded”), the novel was published

  • Giants in the Earth: A Saga of the Prairie (novel by R?lvaag)

    Giants in the Earth, novel by O.E. R?lvaag that chronicles the struggles of Norwegian immigrant settlers in the Dakota territory in the 1870s. First published in Norway in two volumes as I de dage (1924; “In Those Days”) and Riket grundl?ges (1925; “The Kingdom Is Founded”), the novel was published

  • Giants’ Table (plateau, Hungary)

    Bükk Mountains: 5-mile (20-by-7-kilometre) limestone plateau (called Giants’ Table) with a rim of white cliffs dominating the surrounding lower mountains. The Bükk is an intensely folded and faulted block range. Along fault lines south of the Bükk are volcanic tuffs and lavas and post-volcanic hot springs. The Bükk, with a continuous tree…

  • Gianuzzi, Giulio di Pietro di Filippo de’ (Italian artist and architect)

    Giulio Romano, late Renaissance painter and architect, the principal heir of Raphael, and one of the initiators of the Mannerist style. Giulio was apprenticed to Raphael as a child and had become so important in the workshop that by Raphael’s death, in 1520, he was named with G. Penni as one of the

  • Giap, Vo Nguyen (Vietnamese general)

    Vo Nguyen Giap, Vietnamese military and political leader whose perfection of guerrilla as well as conventional strategy and tactics led to the Viet Minh victory over the French (and to the end of French colonialism in Southeast Asia) and later to the North Vietnamese victory over South Vietnam and

  • Giaquinto, Corrado (Italian painter)

    Western painting: Late Baroque and Rococo: …where he was court painter; Corrado Giaquinto, as court painter in Madrid, turned increasingly toward the Rococo, and Sebastiano Conca worked in Rome, falling increasingly victim to the academic classicism dominant there. Anton Domenico Gabbiani practiced a particularly frigid classicism in Florence, and it was mainly in Bologna and Venice…

  • Giarabub (oasis, Libya)

    Al-Jaghbūb, oasis, northeastern Libya, near the Egyptian border. Located at the northern edge of the Libyan Desert on ancient pilgrim and caravan routes, it was the centre for the Sanūsī religious order (1856–95) because of its isolation from Turkish and European influence. The sect founded there a

  • Giardello, Joey (American boxer)

    Joey Giardello, (Carmine Orlando Tilelli), American boxer (born July 16, 1930, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Sept. 4, 2008, Cherry Hill, N.J.), as undisputed world middleweight champion (1963–65), defended his title with a win by unanimous decision on Dec. 14, 1964, against Rubin (“Hurricane”) Carter and

  • Giardia intestinalis (protist)

    Giardia lamblia, single-celled parasite of the order Diplomonadida. Like those of other diplomonads, the cells of G. lamblia have two nuclei and eight flagella. The parasite attaches to human intestinal mucosa with a sucking organ, causing the diahrreal condition known as giardiasis. Acute

  • Giardia lamblia (protist)

    Giardia lamblia, single-celled parasite of the order Diplomonadida. Like those of other diplomonads, the cells of G. lamblia have two nuclei and eight flagella. The parasite attaches to human intestinal mucosa with a sucking organ, causing the diahrreal condition known as giardiasis. Acute

  • giardiasis (pathology)

    antiprotozoal drug: …choice in the treatment of giardiasis, an infection of the intestine caused by a flagellated amoeba.

  • Giardini, Felice (Italian composer)

    Felice Giardini, Italian violinist and composer who influenced the music of 18th-century England. Giardini was a chorister at Milan cathedral and studied singing, composition, and harpsichord. He then studied violin in Turin with the celebrated violinist G.B. Somis. He played in opera orchestras of

  • giardino dei Finzi-Contini, Il (film by De Sica [1970])

    Vittorio De Sica: Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini (1970; The Garden of the Finzi-Continis), winner of an Oscar for best foreign film, was an extremely successful adaptation of Giorgio Bassani’s classicnovel about the destruction of the Jews in the city of Ferrara during the Holocaust. Una breve vacanza (1973;…

  • giardino dei Finzi-Contini, Il (novel by Bassani)

    Giorgio Bassani: …Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini (1962; The Garden of the Finzi-Continis; film 1971). The narrator of this work contrasts his own middle-class Jewish family with the aristocratic, decadent Finzi-Continis, also Jewish, whose sheltered lives end in annihilation by the Nazis.

  • Giardino di Boboli (gardens, Florence, Italy)

    Boboli Gardens, approximately 111 acres (45 hectares) of lavishly landscaped gardens behind the Pitti Palace, extending to modern Fort Belvedere, in Florence. Designed in a carefully structured and geometric Italian Renaissance style, the gardens were begun in 1550 by Niccolò di Raffaello de’

  • Giashotz (Armenian liturgy)

    Armenian rite: …used by the priest; the Giashotz, the book of midday, containing the Epistle and Gospel readings for each day; and the Z’amagirq, the book of hours, containing the prayers and psalms of the seven daily offices, primarily matins, prime, and vespers.

  • Giauque, William Francis (American chemist)

    William Francis Giauque, Canadian-born American physical chemist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1949 for his studies of the properties of matter at temperatures close to absolute zero. After earning his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1922, Giauque joined the

  • Giazotto, Remo (Italian musicologist)

    Adagio in G Minor: …century creation by Italian musicologist Remo Giazotto, who claimed to have found a fragment of an Albinoni composition in the archives of a German library. According to Giazotto, the fragment contained only the low-pitched supporting continuo part and a few phrases of the melody itself. From that meager beginning, Giazotto…

  • Gibb, Barry (British-Australian musician and singer)

    the Bee Gees: The principal members were Barry Gibb (b. September 1, 1946, Isle of Man), Robin Gibb (b. December 22, 1949, Isle of Man—d. May 20, 2012, London, England), and Maurice Gibb (b. December 22, 1949, Isle of Man—d. January 12, 2003, Miami, Florida, U.S.).

  • Gibb, Maurice (British-Australian musician and singer)

    Maurice Ernest Gibb, British singer, musician, and composer (born Dec. 22, 1949, Douglas, Isle of Man—died Jan. 12, 2003, Miami, Fla.), joined with his brothers to form a pop music trio and, while living in Australia, became popular as the Bee Gees (from Brothers Gibb), and they went on to be one o

  • Gibb, Robin (British-Australian musician and singer)

    Robin Hugh Gibb, British-born singer-songwriter (born Dec. 22, 1949, Douglas, Isle of Man—died May 20, 2012, London, Eng.), joined with his fraternal twin, Maurice, and their older brother, Barry, to form the Bee Gees, one of the most successful pop groups ever. The music of the Bee Gees (shortened

  • Gibb, Robin Hugh (British-Australian musician and singer)

    Robin Hugh Gibb, British-born singer-songwriter (born Dec. 22, 1949, Douglas, Isle of Man—died May 20, 2012, London, Eng.), joined with his fraternal twin, Maurice, and their older brother, Barry, to form the Bee Gees, one of the most successful pop groups ever. The music of the Bee Gees (shortened

  • Gibbard, Ben (American musician)

    Death Cab for Cutie: Original members were lead singer Ben Gibbard (b. August 11, 1976, Bremerton, Washington, U.S.), guitarist Chris Walla (b. November 2, 1975, Bothell, Washington), bassist Nick Harmer (b. January 23, 1975, Bothell, Washington), and drummer Nathan Good. Later members included Michael Schorr and Jason McGerr.

  • gibber (geological feature)

    Gibber, rock- and pebble-littered area of arid or semi-arid country in Australia. The rocks are generally angular fragments formed from broken up duricrust, usually silcrete, a hardened crust of soil cemented by silica (SiO2). The gravel cover may be only one rock fragment deep, or it may consist

  • Gibberella fujikuroi (fungus)

    malformation: Exaggerated growth: …is caused by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Diseased plants are often conspicuous in a field because of their extreme height and pale, spindly appearance. This exaggerated growth response was found to be due to specific substances, known as gibberellins, which were produced by the fungus. Evidence is now available to…

  • gibberellic acid (chemical compound)

    beer: Germination: …secretes a plant hormone called gibberellic acid, which initiates the synthesis of α-amylase. The α- and β-amylases then convert the starch molecules of the corn into sugars that the embryo can use as food. Other enzymes, such as the proteases and β-glucanases, attack the cell walls around the starch grains,…

  • gibberellin (biochemistry)

    Gibberellin, any of a group of plant hormones that occur in seeds, young leaves, and roots. The name is derived from Gibberella fujikuroi, a hormone-producing fungus in the phylum Ascomycota that causes excessive growth and poor yield in rice plants. Evidence suggests that gibberellins stimulate

  • gibbet (capital punishment)

    Gibbet, a primitive form of gallows. It was a custom at one time—though not part of the legal sentence—to hang the body of an executed criminal in chains. This was known as gibbeting. The word gibbet is taken from the French gibet (“gallows”). Its earliest use in English appears to have meant a

  • Gibbet Island (island, New York, United States)

    Ellis Island, island in Upper New York Bay, formerly the United States’ principal immigration reception centre. The island lies about 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of Manhattan Island, New York City, and about 1,300 feet (400 metres) east of the New Jersey shore. It has an area of about 27 acres (11

  • gibbeting (capital punishment)

    gibbet: This was known as gibbeting.

  • gibbon (primate)

    Gibbon, (family Hylobatidae), any of approximately 20 species of small apes found in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. Gibbons, like the great apes (gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, and bonobos), have a humanlike build and no tail, but gibbons seem to lack higher cognitive abilities and

  • Gibbon, Edward (British historian)

    Edward Gibbon, English rationalist historian and scholar best known as the author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–88), a continuous narrative from the 2nd century ce to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Gibbon’s grandfather, Edward, had made a considerable fortune

  • Gibbon, John H., Jr. (American surgeon)

    artificial heart: Heart-lung machine: …was reported by American surgeon John H. Gibbon, Jr., in 1953. During this operation for the surgical closure of an atrial septal defect, cardiopulmonary bypass was achieved by a machine equipped with an oxygenator developed by Gibbon and a roller pump developed in 1932 by American surgeon Michael E. DeBakey.…

  • Gibbon, Lardner (American explorer)

    Amazon River: Early European exploration: …the report that he and Lardner Gibbon—both lieutenants in the U.S. Navy—had made to Congress under the title of Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon.

  • Gibbon, Lewis Grassic (Scottish author)

    Lewis Grassic Gibbon, Scottish novelist whose inventive trilogy published under the collective title A Scots Quair (1946) made him a significant figure in the 20th-century Scottish Renaissance. Mitchell quit school at the age of 16 and worked as a junior reporter in Aberdeen and Glasgow before

  • Gibbons v. Ogden (law case)

    Gibbons v. Ogden, (1824), U.S. Supreme Court case establishing the principle that states cannot, by legislative enactment, interfere with the power of Congress to regulate commerce. The state of New York agreed in 1798 to grant Robert Fulton and his backer, Robert R. Livingston, a monopoly on

  • Gibbons, Abigail Hopper (American social reformer)

    Abigail Hopper Gibbons, American social reformer, remembered especially for her activism in the cause of prison reform. Abigail Hopper was born into a pious Quaker family with a deep tradition of good works, which was reflected throughout her life in her devotion to social causes. She attended

  • Gibbons, Beth (British singer)

    Portishead: Principal members included lead singer Beth Gibbons (b. Jan. 4, 1965, Keynsham, Bath and North East Somerset, Eng.), producer Geoff Barrow (b. Dec. 9, 1971, Walton-in-Gordano, North Somerset, Eng.), and guitarist Adrian Utley (b. April 27, 1957, Northampton, Northamptonshire, Eng.).

  • Gibbons, Billy (American musician)

    ZZ Top: The members are singer-guitarist Billy Gibbons (b. December 16, 1949, Houston, Texas, U.S.), bass player Dusty Hill (original name Joe Michael Hill, b. May 19, 1949, Dallas, Texas) and drummer Frank Beard (b. June 11, 1949, Frankston, Texas).

  • Gibbons, Cedric (American art director)

    Cedric Gibbons, Irish American art director for the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) motion-picture studio; his name appears on nearly 1,500 films produced by that studio during the 32 years (1924–56) that he worked there. Credit is usually given to Gibbons for designing the Oscar statuette that is

  • Gibbons, Dave (English artist)

    Watchmen: …writer Alan Moore and artist Dave Gibbons, published as a 12-part series by DC Comics from September 1986 to October 1987. The complex characters and mature story line were unlike anything previously seen in the superhero genre.

  • Gibbons, Grinling (British sculptor)

    Grinling Gibbons, British wood-carver known for his decorative woodwork and for much stone ornamentation at Blenheim and Hampton Court palaces and at St. Paul’s Cathedral. After a childhood in the Netherlands, where his English father had settled, Gibbons went to England and took up residence in

  • Gibbons, James (American prelate)

    James Cardinal Gibbons, American prelate who, as archbishop of Baltimore from 1877 to 1921, served as a bridge between Roman Catholicism and American Catholic values. Gibbons was taken by his parents from Baltimore to Ireland in 1837. He returned to the United States 10 years later and spent the

  • Gibbons, James Cardinal (American prelate)

    James Cardinal Gibbons, American prelate who, as archbishop of Baltimore from 1877 to 1921, served as a bridge between Roman Catholicism and American Catholic values. Gibbons was taken by his parents from Baltimore to Ireland in 1837. He returned to the United States 10 years later and spent the

  • Gibbons, Orlando (English composer)

    Orlando Gibbons, organist and composer, one of the last great figures of the English polyphonic school. Gibbons was the most illustrious of a large family of musicians that included his father, William Gibbons (c. 1540–95), and two of his brothers, Edward and Ellis. From 1596 to 1599 Orlando

  • Gibbons, Stella (British writer)

    Stella Gibbons, English novelist and poet whose first novel, Cold Comfort Farm (1932), a burlesque of the rural novel, won for her in 1933 the Femina Vie Heureuse Prize and immediate fame. The daughter of a London doctor who worked in the poor section of London, she experienced many unhappy years

  • Gibbons, Stella Dorothea (British writer)

    Stella Gibbons, English novelist and poet whose first novel, Cold Comfort Farm (1932), a burlesque of the rural novel, won for her in 1933 the Femina Vie Heureuse Prize and immediate fame. The daughter of a London doctor who worked in the poor section of London, she experienced many unhappy years

  • gibbous starlet (sea star)

    sea star: …stony-bottomed European waters is the gibbous starlet (Asterina gibbosa). The sea bat (Patiria miniata) usually has webbed arms; it is common from Alaska to Mexico. Sun stars of the genera Crossaster and Solaster are found in northern waters; they have numerous short rays and a broad, often sunburst-patterned disk. The…

  • Gibbs free energy (physics)

    thermodynamics: Gibbs free energy and chemical reactions: All batteries depend on some chemical reaction of the form reactants → products for the generation of electricity or on the reverse reaction as the battery is recharged. The change in free energy (?ΔG) for a reaction could be determined…

  • Gibbs function (physics)

    thermodynamics: Gibbs free energy and chemical reactions: All batteries depend on some chemical reaction of the form reactants → products for the generation of electricity or on the reverse reaction as the battery is recharged. The change in free energy (?ΔG) for a reaction could be determined…

  • Gibbs phase rule (physics)

    Phase rule, law relating variables of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, deduced by the American physicist J. Willard Gibbs in his papers on thermodynamics (1875–78). Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are generally considered to be isolated from their environment in some kind of closed c

  • Gibbs, Frederick H. (American engineer)

    William Francis Gibbs: …in partnership with his brother Frederick H. Gibbs, he designed a transatlantic liner. On the strength of that design, the brothers were given positions with the International Mercantile Marine Company, where they continued on their project until the outbreak of World War I. Wartime design work for the U.S. government…

  • Gibbs, J. Willard (American scientist)

    J. Willard Gibbs, theoretical physicist and chemist who was one of the greatest scientists in the United States in the 19th century. His application of thermodynamic theory converted a large part of physical chemistry from an empirical into a deductive science. Gibbs was the fourth child and only

  • Gibbs, James (Scottish architect)

    James Gibbs, Scottish architect whose synthesis of Italian and English modes, exemplified in his church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London, set a standard for 18th-century British and American church architecture. Gibbs studied in Rome with Carlo Fontana, a leading exponent of the Italian Baroque

  • Gibbs, Joe (American football coach)

    Washington Redskins: …the team hired head coach Joe Gibbs, winner of more games than any other coach in Redskins’ history. Gibbs’s record includes eight playoff appearances and four NFC championships along with three Super Bowl victories (1983, 1988, 1992). A testament to Gibbs’s coaching ability—and to the overall quality of his teams—is…

  • Gibbs, Jonathan (American politician)

    African Americans: Reconstruction and after: Jonathan Gibbs served as Florida’s secretary of state and superintendent of education. Between 1869 and 1901, 20 African American representatives and 2 African American senators—Hiram R. Revels and Blanche K. Bruce of Mississippi—sat in the U.S. Congress.

  • Gibbs, Josiah Willard (American scientist)

    J. Willard Gibbs, theoretical physicist and chemist who was one of the greatest scientists in the United States in the 19th century. His application of thermodynamic theory converted a large part of physical chemistry from an empirical into a deductive science. Gibbs was the fourth child and only

  • Gibbs, Lance (West Indian cricketer)

    Lance Gibbs, West Indian cricketer who was one of the most successful bowlers of the 1960s and the longtime record holder for most wickets taken in Test (international two-innings, five-day) matches. He is remembered as one of the most effective spin bowlers in the history of international cricket.

  • Gibbs, Lancelot Richard (West Indian cricketer)

    Lance Gibbs, West Indian cricketer who was one of the most successful bowlers of the 1960s and the longtime record holder for most wickets taken in Test (international two-innings, five-day) matches. He is remembered as one of the most effective spin bowlers in the history of international cricket.

  • Gibbs, Sir Harry Talbot (Australian judge)

    Sir Harry Talbot Gibbs, Australian judge (born Feb. 7, 1917, Sydney, Australia—died June 25, 2005, Sydney), served 17 years (1970–87) on the High Court of Australia, becoming chief justice in 1981. He was much admired for his striking ability to deliver articulate, convincing arguments, along w

  • Gibbs, William Francis (American architect and engineer)

    William Francis Gibbs, naval architect and marine engineer who directed the mass production of U.S. cargo ships during World War II, designed the famous, standardized cargo-carrying Liberty ships, and made many improvements in ship design and construction, notably in the passenger liner “United

  • Gibbs-Duhem equation (chemistry)

    Gibbs-Duhem equation, thermodynamic relationship expressing changes in the chemical potential of a substance (or mixture of substances in a multicomponent system) in terms of changes in the temperature T and pressure P of the system. The chemical potential μ represents the Gibbs free energy per

  • Gibbs-Helmholtz equation (physics)

    Walther Nernst: Third law of thermodynamics: …which obtained when integrating the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation relating the free energy change ΔF to the heat content change ΔH and the entropy change ΔS, ΔF = ΔH ? TΔS.

  • gibbsite (mineral)

    Gibbsite, the mineral aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] an important constituent of bauxite (q.v.) deposits, particularly those in the Western Hemisphere, where it occurs as white, glassy crystals, earthy masses, or crusts. In significant deposits it is of secondary origin, but small-scale hydrothermal

  • Gibeah (ancient city, Israel)

    Gibeah, ancient town of the Israelite tribe of Benjamin, located just north of Jerusalem. The site, severely denuded by wind and rain, was partly excavated by William F. Albright in 1922 and 1933. A summit fortress had originally been built in the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2000–1550 bc) and was

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