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  • Gibelet (ancient city, Lebanon)

    Byblos, ancient seaport, the site of which is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, about 20 miles (30 km) north of the modern city of Beirut, Lebanon. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited towns in the world. The name Byblos is Greek; papyrus received its early Greek name

  • Gibeon (Palestine)

    Gibeon, important town of ancient Palestine, located northwest of Jerusalem. Its inhabitants submitted voluntarily to Joshua at the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan (Josh. 9). Excavations undertaken in 1956 by a U.S. expedition revealed that the site had been occupied during parts of the

  • Giblett, Eloise R. (American hematologist)

    Eloise R. Giblett, American hematologist (born Jan. 17, 1921, Tacoma, Wash.—died Sept. 16, 2009, Seattle, Wash.), made important contributions to the science of blood-typing and matching for transfusions. Giblett also discovered genetic variations (polymorphisms) underlying the immunodeficiency

  • gibli (wind)

    Ghibli, hot and dusty wind descending from the interior highlands of Libya toward the Mediterranean Sea. Although the wind may occur throughout the year, it is most frequent during the spring and early summer. See

  • Gibney, Frank Bray (American author and journalist)

    Frank Bray Gibney, American author and journalist (born Sept. 21, 1924, Scranton, Pa.—died April 9, 2006, Santa Barbara, Calif.), as a naval intelligence officer during World War II, learned Japanese and became expert in East Asian politics and cultures. As a foreign correspondent and editor at v

  • Gibney, Sheridan (American screenwriter)
  • Gibraltar (British overseas territory, Europe)

    Gibraltar, British overseas territory occupying a narrow peninsula of Spain’s southern Mediterranean coast, just northeast of the Strait of Gibraltar, on the east side of the Bay of Gibraltar (Bay of Algeciras), and directly south of the Spanish city of La Línea. It is 3 miles (5 km) long and 0.75

  • Gibraltar candytuft (plant)

    Gibraltar: Land: The Gibraltar candytuft is a flower native only to the Rock. Wild olive and pine trees grow on the Upper Rock. Mammals include rabbits, foxes, and Barbary macaques (often erroneously identified as apes). Barbary macaques have roamed the Rock for hundreds of years and are Europe’s…

  • Gibraltar remains (human fossils)

    Gibraltar remains, Neanderthal fossils and associated materials found at Gibraltar, on the southern tip of Spain. The Gibraltar limestone is riddled with natural caves, many of which were at times occupied by Neanderthals during the late Pleistocene Epoch (approximately 126,000 to 11,700 years

  • Gibraltar, Battle of (European history [1607])

    Battle of Gibraltar, (25 April 1607). After their loss at the Battle of Ostend, the Dutch United Provinces geared up their maritime campaign against Spain. This culminated in the breathtakingly bold raid on the Spanish fleet in harbor at Gibraltar, one of the most celebrated Dutch naval victories

  • Gibraltar, Rock of (ridge, Gibraltar)

    Barbary macaque: …legend, British dominion over the Rock of Gibraltar will end only when this macaque is gone. Because it has no tail, this monkey is sometimes incorrectly called the Barbary ape.

  • Gibraltar, Strait of (channel)

    Strait of Gibraltar, channel connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, lying between southernmost Spain and northwesternmost Africa. It is 36 miles (58 km) long and narrows to 8 miles (13 km) in width between Point Marroquí (Spain) and Point Cires (Morocco). The strait’s western

  • Gibran, Kahlil (Lebanese-American author)

    Khalil Gibran, Lebanese American philosophical essayist, novelist, poet, and artist. Having received his primary education in Beirut, Gibran immigrated with his parents to Boston in 1895. He returned to Lebanon in 1898 and studied in Beirut, where he excelled in the Arabic language. On his return

  • Gibran, Khalil (Lebanese-American author)

    Khalil Gibran, Lebanese American philosophical essayist, novelist, poet, and artist. Having received his primary education in Beirut, Gibran immigrated with his parents to Boston in 1895. He returned to Lebanon in 1898 and studied in Beirut, where he excelled in the Arabic language. On his return

  • Gibrā?īl (archangel)

    Gabriel, in the three Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—one of the archangels. Gabriel was the heavenly messenger sent to Daniel to explain the vision of the ram and the he-goat and to communicate the prediction of the Seventy Weeks. He was also employed to announce the birth of

  • Gibson Desert (desert, Western Australia, Australia)

    Gibson Desert, arid zone in the interior of Western Australia. The desert lies south of the Tropic of Capricorn between the Great Sandy Desert (north), the Great Victoria Desert (south), the Northern Territory border (east), and Lake Disappointment (west). The area now constitutes Gibson Desert

  • Gibson girl (illustration motif by Gibson)

    Charles Dana Gibson: ), artist and illustrator, whose Gibson girl drawings delineated the American ideal of femininity at the turn of the century.

  • Gibson Les Paul Standard (musical instrument)

    Les Paul: However, by the time the Les Paul Standard was ready for production by the Gibson Guitar Company in 1952, Leo Fender had already mass-produced the Fender Broadcaster four years earlier, thus beating Paul to popular credit for the invention. Nonetheless, the Les Paul acquired a devoted following, and its versatility…

  • Gibson v. Florida Legislative Commission (law case)

    legislative investigative powers: In Gibson v. Florida Legislative Commission (1963) the Supreme Court held that a state legislative investigation of the Miami National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was a violation of First Amendment rights. Writing for the majority, Justice Arthur Goldberg stated that “groups which…

  • Gibson, Althea (American tennis player)

    Althea Gibson, American tennis player who dominated women’s competition in the late 1950s. She was the first black player to win the French (1956), Wimbledon (1957–58), and U.S. Open (1957–58) singles championships. Gibson grew up in New York City, where she began playing tennis at an early age

  • Gibson, Bob (American baseball player)

    Bob Gibson, American professional right-handed baseball pitcher, who was at his best in crucial games. In nine World Series appearances, he won seven games and lost two, and he posted an earned run average (ERA) of 1.92. At Omaha (Neb.) Technical High School Gibson was a star in basketball and

  • Gibson, Charles Dana (American artist)

    Charles Dana Gibson, artist and illustrator, whose Gibson girl drawings delineated the American ideal of femininity at the turn of the century. After studying for a year at the Art Students’ League in New York City, Gibson began contributing to the humorous weekly Life. His Gibson girl drawings,

  • Gibson, Colin (Australian production designer)
  • Gibson, Don (American singer-songwriter)

    Donald Eugene Gibson, (“Don”), American singer-songwriter (born April 3, 1928, Shelby, N.C.—died Nov. 17, 2003, Nashville, Tenn.), was one of the creators of the “Nashville sound” and, because of his usually unhappy love songs, became known as the “sad poet.” Three of his songs—“Sweet Dreams,” “

  • Gibson, Donald Eugene (American singer-songwriter)

    Donald Eugene Gibson, (“Don”), American singer-songwriter (born April 3, 1928, Shelby, N.C.—died Nov. 17, 2003, Nashville, Tenn.), was one of the creators of the “Nashville sound” and, because of his usually unhappy love songs, became known as the “sad poet.” Three of his songs—“Sweet Dreams,” “

  • Gibson, Edmund (British bishop)

    United Kingdom: Religious policy: …came to an agreement with Edmund Gibson, Bishop of London. Gibson was to ensure that only clergymen sympathetic to the Whig administration were appointed to influential positions in the Church of England. In return, Walpole undertook that no further extensive concessions would be made to Protestant dissenters. This arrangement continued…

  • Gibson, Edward (American astronaut)

    Edward Gibson, U.S. astronaut who was science pilot for the Skylab 4 mission, which established a new manned spaceflight record of 84 days. Gibson received a doctorate in engineering from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena in 1964. The next year he was selected to be an

  • Gibson, Edward George (American astronaut)

    Edward Gibson, U.S. astronaut who was science pilot for the Skylab 4 mission, which established a new manned spaceflight record of 84 days. Gibson received a doctorate in engineering from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena in 1964. The next year he was selected to be an

  • Gibson, Eleanor J. (American psychologist)

    Eleanor J. Gibson, American psychologist whose work focused on perceptual learning and reading development. Gibson received a B.A. (1931) and an M.S. (1933) from Smith College and a Ph.D. (1938) from Yale University. She taught and did research primarily at Smith (1931–49) and Cornell University

  • Gibson, Eleanor Jack (American psychologist)

    Eleanor J. Gibson, American psychologist whose work focused on perceptual learning and reading development. Gibson received a B.A. (1931) and an M.S. (1933) from Smith College and a Ph.D. (1938) from Yale University. She taught and did research primarily at Smith (1931–49) and Cornell University

  • Gibson, Henry (American actor and comedian)

    Henry Gibson, (James Bateman), American actor and comedian (born Sept. 21, 1935, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa.—died Sept. 14, 2009, Malibu, Calif.), won audiences over with his sly deadpan delivery as a placid reciter of ridiculous self-penned poetry in the 1960s television variety show Rowan &

  • Gibson, J. L. (American dentist)

    ice hockey: Early organization: …owned by a dentist named J.L. Gibson, who imported Canadian players. In 1904 Gibson formed the first acknowledged professional league, the International Pro Hockey League. Canada accepted professional hockey in 1908 when the Ontario Professional Hockey League was formed. By that time Canada had become the centre of world hockey.

  • Gibson, Jack (American disc jockey and publisher)

    Jack the Rapper: Jack the Rapper (Jack Gibson) helped open the first African-American-owned radio station in the United States, WERD in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1949. Gibson learned about radio while working as a gofer for deejay Al Benson in Chicago. He learned even more while at WERD, where…

  • Gibson, James J. (American psychologist and philosopher)

    James J. Gibson, American psychologist whose theories of visual perception were influential among some schools of psychology and philosophy in the late 20th century. After receiving a Ph.D. in psychology at Princeton University in 1928, Gibson joined the faculty of Smith College. He married Eleanor

  • Gibson, James Jerome (American psychologist and philosopher)

    James J. Gibson, American psychologist whose theories of visual perception were influential among some schools of psychology and philosophy in the late 20th century. After receiving a Ph.D. in psychology at Princeton University in 1928, Gibson joined the faculty of Smith College. He married Eleanor

  • Gibson, John (British sculptor)

    John Gibson, British Neoclassical sculptor who tried to revive the ancient Greek practice of tinting marble sculptures. In 1804 Gibson was apprenticed to a monument mason in Liverpool, where he remained until 1817. One of his first Royal Academy submissions, Psyche Borne on the Wings of Zephyrus

  • Gibson, Josh (American baseball player)

    Josh Gibson, American professional baseball catcher who was one of the most prodigious home run hitters in the game’s history. Known as “the black Babe Ruth,” Gibson is considered to be the greatest player who never played in the major leagues, there being an unwritten rule (enforced until the year

  • Gibson, Kenneth A. (American politician)

    Newark: History: …elected its first black mayor, Kenneth A. Gibson. Newark has faced increasing rates of poverty, infant mortality, and citizens infected by the AIDS virus.

  • Gibson, Kirk (American baseball player)

    Los Angeles Dodgers: Veteran slugger Kirk Gibson joined NL Cy Young Award-winning pitcher Orel Hershiser in 1988. At the end of that season, the Dodgers defeated the Oakland A’s in the World Series, which featured a dramatic game-winning pinch-hit home run by Gibson in game one.

  • Gibson, Leonie Judith (Australian literary scholar)

    Dame Leonie Judith Kramer, Australian literary scholar and educator. Kramer studied at the University of Melbourne and at the University of Oxford and thereafter taught on Australian literature at various universities, serving as professor at the University of Sydney in 1968–89. She wrote several

  • Gibson, Mel (American-born Australian actor, director, and producer)

    Mel Gibson, American-born Australian actor who became an international star with a series of action-adventure films in the 1980s and later earned acclaim as a director and producer. When he was 12 years old, Gibson’s family moved to Australia. In 1974 he enrolled in the National Institute of

  • Gibson, Mel Columcille Gerard (American-born Australian actor, director, and producer)

    Mel Gibson, American-born Australian actor who became an international star with a series of action-adventure films in the 1980s and later earned acclaim as a director and producer. When he was 12 years old, Gibson’s family moved to Australia. In 1974 he enrolled in the National Institute of

  • Gibson, Pack Robert (American baseball player)

    Bob Gibson, American professional right-handed baseball pitcher, who was at his best in crucial games. In nine World Series appearances, he won seven games and lost two, and he posted an earned run average (ERA) of 1.92. At Omaha (Neb.) Technical High School Gibson was a star in basketball and

  • Gibson, Ralph (American photographer)

    Ralph Gibson , American photographer whose work reveals a fascination for geometric elements found in everyday life, such as the meeting of two walls or the curve of a human arm. Gibson grew up in Los Angeles, leaving home to enlist in the U.S. Navy at the age of 16. He was admitted to the

  • Gibson, Robert (American astronaut)

    Bruce McCandless: Astronaut Robert Gibson’s photograph of McCandless flying in space, with Earth in the background, became a symbol of the space program. The crew also deployed two communications satellites into orbit and returned to Earth on February 11, 1984.

  • Gibson, Wilfred Wilson (British poet)

    Wilfred Wilson Gibson, British poet who drew his inspiration from the workaday life of ordinary provincial English families. Gibson was educated privately, served briefly in World War I, and thereafter devoted his life to poetry. A period in London in 1912 brought him into contact with Lascelles

  • Gibson, William (American-Canadian author)

    William Gibson, American-Canadian writer of science fiction who was the leader of the genre’s cyberpunk movement. Gibson grew up in southwestern Virginia. After dropping out of high school in 1967, he traveled to Canada and eventually settled there, earning a B.A. (1977) from the University of

  • Gibson, William (American playwright)

    William Gibson, American playwright (born Nov. 13, 1914, Bronx, N.Y.—died Nov. 25, 2008, Stockbridge, Mass.), won instant acclaim for his play The Miracle Worker (1959), which was based on the life of Helen Keller, a deaf and blind child whose determined teacher, Annie Sullivan, taught her to

  • Gibson, William Ford (American-Canadian author)

    William Gibson, American-Canadian writer of science fiction who was the leader of the genre’s cyberpunk movement. Gibson grew up in southwestern Virginia. After dropping out of high school in 1967, he traveled to Canada and eventually settled there, earning a B.A. (1977) from the University of

  • Gibson, William Hamilton (American illustrator and author)

    William Hamilton Gibson, American illustrator, author, and naturalist whose well-received images reached a large audience through the popular magazines of his day. As a child, Gibson sketched flowers and insects, developed an interest in botany and entomology, and acquired great skill in making wax

  • Gichtel, Johann Georg (German mystic)

    Johann Georg Gichtel, Protestant visionary and theosophist, who promoted the quasi-pantheistic teaching of the early 17th-century Lutheran mystic Jakob B?hme and compiled the first complete edition of B?hme’s works (1682–83, 10 vol.). Alienated from orthodox Lutheran doctrine and worship by his

  • GID (psychology)

    Gender dysphoria (GD), formal diagnosis given by mental health professionals to people who experience distress because of a significant incongruence between the gender with which they personally identify and the gender with which they were born. The GD diagnosis appears in the Diagnostic and

  • gidayū (Japanese music)

    Japanese music: Samisen music: …of the narrative styles is gidayū, named after Takemoto Gidayū (1651–1714), who worked with Chikamatsu Monzaemon in the founding of the most popular puppet-theatre tradition (known as Bunraku) of ōsaka. The gidayū samisen and its plectrum are the largest of the samisen family. The singer-narrator is required to speak all…

  • gidda (dance)

    Giddha, traditional pastoral dance performed by women of the Punjab, India, and Pakistan at festival times and at the sowing and reaping of the harvest. Patterned on a circle, it is notable for the bodily grace of the women’s movements (especially of the arms and hands) and for the charming melody

  • Giddens, Anthony (British sociologist)

    Anthony Giddens, British political adviser and educator. Trained as a sociologist and social theorist, he lectured at universities in Europe, North America, and Australia before cofounding an academic publishing house, Polity Press, in 1985. In 1997 he became director of the London School of

  • Giddens, Anthony, Baron Giddens (British sociologist)

    Anthony Giddens, British political adviser and educator. Trained as a sociologist and social theorist, he lectured at universities in Europe, North America, and Australia before cofounding an academic publishing house, Polity Press, in 1985. In 1997 he became director of the London School of

  • giddha (dance)

    Giddha, traditional pastoral dance performed by women of the Punjab, India, and Pakistan at festival times and at the sowing and reaping of the harvest. Patterned on a circle, it is notable for the bodily grace of the women’s movements (especially of the arms and hands) and for the charming melody

  • Giddings, Franklin H. (American sociologist)

    Franklin H. Giddings, one of the scholars responsible for transforming American sociology from a branch of philosophy into a research science utilizing statistical and analytic methodology. Giddings was noted for his doctrine of the “consciousness of kind,” which he derived from Adam Smith’s

  • Giddings, Franklin Henry (American sociologist)

    Franklin H. Giddings, one of the scholars responsible for transforming American sociology from a branch of philosophy into a research science utilizing statistical and analytic methodology. Giddings was noted for his doctrine of the “consciousness of kind,” which he derived from Adam Smith’s

  • Giddings, J. Calvin (chemist)

    chromatography: Subsequent developments: In 1964 the American chemist J. Calvin Giddings, referring to a theory largely worked out for gas chromatography, summarized the necessary conditions that would give liquid chromatography the resolving power achievable in gas chromatography—that is, very small particles with a thin film of stationary phase in small-diameter columns. The development…

  • Giddy, Davies (British scientist)

    Sir Humphry Davy: Early life: ” He was befriended by Davies Giddy (later Gilbert; president of the Royal Society, 1827–30), who offered him the use of his library in Tradea and took him to a chemistry laboratory that was well equipped for that day. There he formed strongly independent views on topics of the moment,…

  • Gide, André (French writer)

    André Gide, French writer, humanist, and moralist who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1947. Gide was the only child of Paul Gide and his wife, Juliette Rondeaux. His father was of southern Huguenot peasant stock; his mother, a Norman heiress, although Protestant by upbringing, belonged

  • Gide, André-Paul-Guillaume (French writer)

    André Gide, French writer, humanist, and moralist who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1947. Gide was the only child of Paul Gide and his wife, Juliette Rondeaux. His father was of southern Huguenot peasant stock; his mother, a Norman heiress, although Protestant by upbringing, belonged

  • Gideon (biblical figure)

    Gideon, a judge and hero-liberator of Israel whose deeds are described in the Book of Judges. The author apparently juxtaposed two traditional accounts from his sources in order to emphasize Israel’s monotheism and its duty to destroy idolatry. Accordingly, in one account Gideon led his clansmen

  • Gideon v. Wainwright (law case)

    Gideon v. Wainwright, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on March 18, 1963, ruled (9–0) that states are required to provide legal counsel to indigent defendants charged with a felony. The case centred on Clarence Earl Gideon, who had been charged with a felony for allegedly burglarizing a pool

  • Gideon’s Sacrifice (painting by Eeckhout)

    Gerbrand van den Eeckhout: …earliest signed works, such as Gideon’s Sacrifice (1647), show the clear influence of Rembrandt in their subjects as well as in their brushwork and use of chiaroscuro. In their concern with light and atmosphere in landscape, they also owe something to Rembrandt’s teacher Pieter Lastman, with whom van den Eeckhout…

  • Gideons International (religious organization)

    Gideons International, organization of Protestant business and professional lay men that places copies of the Bible or New Testament in hotel rooms, hospitals, penal institutions, schools, and other locations. Organized by three travelling salesmen in Janesville, Wis., on July 1, 1899, the

  • Gidget (American television series)

    Television in the United States: Escapism: …1965–66 season reflects this transformation: Gidget (ABC, 1965–66), a beach comedy about an energetic 15-year-old playing in the California sun; F Troop (ABC, 1965–67), which offered up an assortment of Native American stereotypes in a comedy set at a military fort in the post-Civil War West; I Dream of Jeannie…

  • Gidley, Philip (governor of New South Wales, Australia)

    Melbourne: Early settlement: …Wales, and the colony’s governor, Philip Gidley King, instructed the surveyor-general, Charles Grimes, to examine the shores of the bay with a view to identifying sites for future settlement. In 1803 Grimes and his party discovered the Yarra River and traveled along its lower course. Unlike some members of the…

  • Gidzenko, Yury (Russian cosmonaut)

    International Space Station: Russian cosmonauts Sergey Krikalyov and Yuri Gidzenko and American astronaut William Shepherd, who flew up in a Soyuz spacecraft. The ISS has been continuously occupied since then. A NASA microgravity laboratory called Destiny and other elements were subsequently joined to the station, with the overall plan calling for the assembly,…

  • Giedroyc, Jerzy (Polish editor and publisher)

    Jerzy Giedroyc, Russian-born Polish editor and publisher (born July 27, 1906, Minsk, Russia [now in Belarus]—died Sept. 14, 2000, Paris, France), saw the political value of literature and, while living in Warsaw, founded (1929) the right-wing magazine Bunt Mlodych (“The Rebellion of the Young”), w

  • Gielgud, John (British actor and director)

    John Gielgud, English actor, producer, and director, who is considered one of the greatest performers of his generation on stage and screen, particularly as a Shakespearean actor. He was knighted in 1953 for services to the theatre. (Click here to hear Gielgud reading from A Midsummer Night’s Dream

  • Gielgud, Sir Arthur John (British actor and director)

    John Gielgud, English actor, producer, and director, who is considered one of the greatest performers of his generation on stage and screen, particularly as a Shakespearean actor. He was knighted in 1953 for services to the theatre. (Click here to hear Gielgud reading from A Midsummer Night’s Dream

  • Giemsa banding (cytogenetics)

    cytogenetics: …various staining techniques, such as Giemsa banding (G-banding), quinacrine banding (Q-banding), reverse banding (R-banding), constitutive heterochromatin (or centromere) banding (C-banding), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). G-banding is one of the most-used chromosomal staining methods. In this approach, chromosomes are first treated

  • Giemsa smear (medicine)

    herpes simplex: HSV-2: The Pap smear and Giemsa smear are two techniques commonly used to diagnose genital herpes. There is a blood test to measure the level of antibodies to the virus, but its results are not always conclusive.

  • Gierek, Edward (Polish leader)

    Edward Gierek, Communist Party organizer and leader in Poland, who served as first secretary from 1970 to 1980. After his father, a coal miner, was killed in a mine disaster in Silesia, Gierek emigrated with his mother to France, where in 1931 he joined the French Communist Party. In 1937 he joined

  • Gierke, Otto Friedrich von (German legal philosopher)

    Otto Friedrich von Gierke, legal philosopher who was a leader of the Germanist school of historical jurisprudence in opposition to the Romanist theoreticians of German law (e.g., Friedrich Karl von Savigny). An incomplete knowledge of his work led some advocates of a pluralistic, decentralized

  • Giers, Nikolay Karlovich (Russian statesman)

    Nikolay Karlovich Giers, statesman and foreign minister of Russia during the reign of Alexander III (ruled 1881–94). He guided Russia into a rapprochement with France and thereby formed the basis of the Russo-Franco-British alliance that fought against the Central Powers in World War I. Having

  • Gies, Miep (Austrian-born heroine)

    Miep Gies, (Hermine Santrouschitz; Hermine Santruschitz), Austrian-born heroine (born Feb. 15, 1909, Vienna, Austria-Hungary—died Jan. 11, 2010, Hoorn, Neth.), was the last surviving member of the group of five non-Jewish people who concealed eight Jews, including Anne Frank and her family, from

  • Giesebrecht, Friedrich Wilhelm Benjamin von (German historian)

    Wilhelm von Giesebrecht, German historian, author of the first general history of medieval Germany based on modern critical methods, and a student of Leopold von Ranke. In 1857 Giesebrecht became professor at K?nigsberg and in 1862 succeeded Heinrich von Sybel at Munich. In Geschichte der deutschen

  • Giesebrecht, Wilhelm von (German historian)

    Wilhelm von Giesebrecht, German historian, author of the first general history of medieval Germany based on modern critical methods, and a student of Leopold von Ranke. In 1857 Giesebrecht became professor at K?nigsberg and in 1862 succeeded Heinrich von Sybel at Munich. In Geschichte der deutschen

  • Gieseking, Walter (German pianist)

    Walter Gieseking, German pianist acclaimed for his interpretations of works by Classical, Romantic, and early 20th-century composers. The son of German parents living in France, Gieseking began study at the Hannover Municipal Conservatory in 1911 and made his debut in 1913. During World War I he

  • Gieseler, Johann Karl Ludwig (German historian)

    doctrine and dogma: Distinctions between doctrine and dogma: According to J.K.L. Gieseler, a 19th-century German church historian, in Dogmengeschichte,

  • Giessen (Germany)

    Giessen, city, Hessen Land (state), west-central Germany. It lies on the Lahn River between the Westerwald and Vogelsberg (mountains), north of Frankfurt am Main. First mentioned in 1197, it was chartered in 1248 and sold to the landgraves of Hesse in 1267. It was part of independent Hesse-Marburg

  • GIF (digital file format)

    GIF, digital file format devised in 1987 by the Internet service provider CompuServe as a means of reducing the size of images and short animations. Because GIF is a lossless data compression format, meaning that no information is lost in the compression, it quickly became a popular format for

  • Giffard, Henri (French engineer)

    airship: …successful airship was constructed by Henri Giffard of France in 1852. Giffard built a 160-kilogram (350-pound) steam engine capable of developing 3 horsepower, sufficient to turn a large propeller at 110 revolutions per minute. To carry the engine weight, he filled a bag 44 metres (144 feet) long with hydrogen…

  • Gifford, Edward W. (American anthropologist)

    Edward W. Gifford, American anthropologist, archaeologist, and student of California Indian ethnography who developed the University of California Museum of Anthropology, Berkeley, into a major U.S. collection. A competent naturalist, Gifford accompanied expeditions of the California Academy of

  • Gifford, Edward Winslow (American anthropologist)

    Edward W. Gifford, American anthropologist, archaeologist, and student of California Indian ethnography who developed the University of California Museum of Anthropology, Berkeley, into a major U.S. collection. A competent naturalist, Gifford accompanied expeditions of the California Academy of

  • Gifford, Francis Newton (American football player and broadcaster)

    Frank Gifford, (Francis Newton Gifford), American football player and sports broadcaster (born Aug. 16, 1930, Santa Monica, Calif.—died Aug. 9, 2015, Greenwich, Conn.), was an outstanding and versatile player for the NFL’s New York Giants in the 1950s and ’60s prior to achieving even greater fame

  • Gifford, Frank (American football player and broadcaster)

    Frank Gifford, (Francis Newton Gifford), American football player and sports broadcaster (born Aug. 16, 1930, Santa Monica, Calif.—died Aug. 9, 2015, Greenwich, Conn.), was an outstanding and versatile player for the NFL’s New York Giants in the 1950s and ’60s prior to achieving even greater fame

  • Gifford, Josh (British jockey and trainer)

    Josh Gifford, (Joshua Thomas Gifford), British racehorse jockey and trainer (born Aug. 3, 1941, Huntingdon, Eng.—died Feb. 9, 2012, Findon, West Sussex, Eng.), was the trainer of the great steeplechase horse Aldaniti, which Gifford nursed back from what most observers believed to be career-ending

  • Gifford, Joshua Thomas (British jockey and trainer)

    Josh Gifford, (Joshua Thomas Gifford), British racehorse jockey and trainer (born Aug. 3, 1941, Huntingdon, Eng.—died Feb. 9, 2012, Findon, West Sussex, Eng.), was the trainer of the great steeplechase horse Aldaniti, which Gifford nursed back from what most observers believed to be career-ending

  • Gifford, Kathie Lee (American entertainer)

    Regis Philbin: …and, with the addition of Kathie Lee Gifford in 1985, Morning became a huge success. Much of its popularity centred on the on-air chemistry between Philbin and Gifford. The duo’s unscripted banter during the opening chat sequence was a highlight of the show, and Philbin became noted for his comical…

  • Gifford, William (British editor and scholar)

    William Gifford, English satirical poet, classical scholar, and early editor of 17th-century English playwrights, best known as the first editor (1809–24) of the Tory Quarterly Review, founded to combat the liberalism of the Whig Edinburgh Review. Gifford owed his editorship to his connection with

  • Giffords, Gabrielle (American politician)

    Gabrielle Giffords, American Democratic politician who served in the U.S. House of Representatives (2007–12). In January 2011 she was the victim of an assassination attempt. Giffords grew up in Tucson and attended Scripps College in Claremont, California, where in 1993 she received a B.A. in

  • Giffords, Gabrielle Dee (American politician)

    Gabrielle Giffords, American Democratic politician who served in the U.S. House of Representatives (2007–12). In January 2011 she was the victim of an assassination attempt. Giffords grew up in Tucson and attended Scripps College in Claremont, California, where in 1993 she received a B.A. in

  • Gift (work by Kielland)

    Norwegian literature: Toward the modern breakthrough: Skipper Worse), Gift (“Poison”), and Fortuna (“Fortune”; Eng. trans. Professor Lovdahl). The foremost stylist of his age, Kielland was an elegant, witty novelist with a strong social conscience and an active reforming zeal stemming from an admiration for English philosopher John Stuart Mill.

  • gift (law)

    Gift, in law, a present or thing bestowed gratuitously. The term is generally restricted to mean gratuitous transfers inter vivos (among the living) of real or personal property. A valid gift requires: (1) a competent donor; (2) an eligible donee; (3) an existing identifiable thing or interest;

  • gift economy (sociology)

    generalized exchange: …one another is also called network-generalized or chain-generalized exchange. In addition, this form of generalized exchange is sometimes referred to as a gift economy. However, generalized exchange systems do not have explicit reciprocity between participants (as some gift economies do). The indirect nature of generalized exchange distinguishes it from similar…

  • gift exchange (social custom)

    Gift exchange, the transfer of goods or services that, although regarded as voluntary by the people involved, is part of the expected social behaviour. Gift exchange may be distinguished from other types of exchange in several respects: the first offering is made in a generous manner and there is

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