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  • Gift of Perseverance, The (work by Augustine)

    St. Augustine: Controversial writings: …and De dono perseverantiae (429; The Gift of Perseverance).

  • Gift of the Magi, The (story by O. Henry)

    The Gift of the Magi, short story by O. Henry, published in the New York Sunday World in 1905 and then collected in The Four Million (1906). The story concerns James and Della Dillingham Young, a young couple who, despite their poverty, individually resolve to give each other an elegant gift on

  • gift tax

    Gift tax, a levy imposed on gratuitous transfers of property—i.e., those made without compensation. Provisions for such taxes are common in national tax systems. In the tax systems of many nations, gift taxes are integrated to some degree with an estate (inheritance) tax. The relationship stems not

  • Gift, The (work by Mauss)

    anthropology: Anthropology in Europe: …Essai sur le don (1925; The Gift), an analysis of “the gift,” including an examination of the concepts of reciprocity and exchange. The long-term work on West African worldviews (Dieu d’eau: entretiens avec Ogotemmêli [1948]) by the group around Marcel Griaule has perhaps been more admired than really influential. For…

  • Gift, The (novel by Nabokov)

    The Gift, novel by Vladimir Nabokov, originally published serially (in expurgated form in Russian) as Dar in 1937–38. It was published in its complete form as a book in 1952. The Gift is set in post-World War I Berlin, where Nabokov himself had been an émigré. Steeped in satiric detail about the

  • Gift, The (story by Steinbeck)

    The Red Pony: In “The Gift,” the best-known story, young Jody Tiflin is given a red pony by his rancher father. Under ranch hand Billy Buck’s guidance, Jody learns to care for and train his pony, which he names Gabilan. Caught in an unexpected rain, Gabilan catches a cold…

  • Gift, The (work by Man Ray)

    Man Ray: Among his best-known ready-mades is The Gift (1921), a flatiron with a row of tacks glued to the bottom.

  • giftbook

    Giftbook, an illustrated literary miscellany, or collection of verse, tales, and sketches. The giftbook was popular in England and the United States during the second quarter of the 19th century and was published annually in ornamental

  • gifted child (psychology)

    Gifted child, any child who is naturally endowed with a high degree of general mental ability or extraordinary ability in a specific sphere of activity or knowledge. The designation of giftedness is largely a matter of administrative convenience. In most countries the prevailing definition is an

  • Gifts (novel by Farah)

    Nuruddin Farah: …the novels Maps (1986) and Gifts (1992)—was published in 1998. Links (2003), Knots (2006), and Crossbones (2011) constitute another trilogy. Farah’s other novels included North of Dawn (2018). For his thoughts about his country at the turn of the new millennium, see Sidebar: Somalia at the

  • Gifu (prefecture, Japan)

    Gifu, city and prefecture (ken), central Honshu, Japan. It is landlocked and dominated by mountains except in the south, where the inner part of Nōbi Plain is drained by the Nagara, Hida, and Kiso rivers. The plain supports most of the area’s agriculture and contains the prefectural capital, Gifu,

  • Gifu (Japan)

    Gifu: Gifu city is noted for paper lantern manufacture and for sweetfish (ayu) fishing with cormorants in the summer. Takayama holds festivals (April and September) during which wheeled floats are paraded to the largest shrines in the town. Gifu University (1949) is located in Kamigahara city.…

  • gig (carriage)

    Gig, any of several members of a class of light, open, two-wheeled, one-horse carriages, popular in France, England, and America. The gig, which first appeared in Paris in the 17th century, is the ancestor of the cabriolet. Popular variations were the Tilbury gig and the Stanhope gig, both

  • giga (dance)

    gigue: …68 time, while the Italian giga was faster and set in 128 time. As a musical form the gigue was often used in the stylized dance suite as the last movement. Invariably written in fugal style, the gigues of suites retain the characteristic triple groups of eighth notes. Examples occur…

  • gigabyte (computer science)

    byte: …hardware are usually given in gigabytes (GB; one billion bytes) and terabytes (TB; one trillion bytes). Because the byte had its roots in binary digits, originally one kilobyte was not 1,000 bytes but 1,024 bytes (1,024 = 210), and thus one megabyte (MB) was 1,024 × 1,024 bytes and so…

  • gigaelectron volt (unit of measurement)

    particle accelerator: Accelerating particles: …volts (MeV, or million eV), gigaelectron volts (GeV, or billion eV), or teraelectron volts (TeV, or trillion eV).

  • gigaku (dance drama)

    East Asian arts: Common traditions: Called kiak in Korea and gigaku in Japan, the Aryan features of some of its masks clearly indicate Indian (or Central Asian) influence. Such complicated genealogies are common in East Asian performing arts.

  • gigaku mask (Japanese mask)

    Gigaku mask, stylized wooden mask worn by participants in gigaku, a type of Japanese dance drama. Gigaku masks are the first known masks used in Japan and among the world’s oldest extant masks. Soon after a Korean musician named Mimashi imported gigaku plays into Japan from China, in 612, Japanese

  • Gigante, El (tree, Oaxaca, Mexico)

    tree: Trees of special interest: …Mexican swamp cypress is “El Gigante,” located at Tule, Oaxaca. The trunk of this massive tree is buttressed and not circular; if the bays and promontories of the buttresses are followed, the basal circumference is nearly 46 metres (151 feet).

  • Giganten (work by D?blin)

    Alfred D?blin: …is a historical novel, and Berge, Meere und Giganten (1924; “Mountains, Seas, and Giants”; republished as Giganten in 1932) is a merciless anti-utopian satire.

  • Giganti, Sala dei (room, Mantua, Italy)

    Palazzo del Te: …Gonzaga horses; and the fantastic Sala dei Giganti, a continuous scene, painted from floor to ceiling, of the giants attempting to storm Olympus and being repulsed by the gods. The palace is open to the public.

  • gigantism

    Gigantism, excessive growth in stature, well beyond the average for the individual’s heredity and environmental conditions. Tall stature may result from hereditary, dietary, or other factors. Gigantism is caused by disease or disorder in those parts of the endocrine system that regulate growth and

  • Gigantocypris (crustacean genus)

    photoreception: Concave mirror eyes: …exception is the large ostracod Gigantocypris, a creature with two parabolic reflectors several millimetres across. It lives in the deep ocean and probably uses its eyes to detect bioluminescent organisms on which it preys. The images are poor, but the light-gathering power is enormous. A problem with all concave mirror…

  • Gigantomachy (mythological battle)

    giant: The Gigantomachy was a desperate struggle between the Giants and the Olympians. The gods finally prevailed through the aid of Heracles the archer, and the Giants were slain. Many of them were believed to lie buried under mountains and to indicate their presence by volcanic fires…

  • Gigantopithecus (extinct ape genus)

    Gigantopithecus, (Gigantopithecus blacki), genus of large extinct apes represented by a single species, Gigantopithecus blacki, which lived during the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) in southern China. Gigantopithecus is considered to be a sister genus of Pongo (the genus that

  • Gigantopithecus bilaspurensis (extinct ape)

    Gigantopithecus: …its own genus and renamed Indopithecus giganteus. Studies suggest that I. giganteus inhabited grassland landscapes in northern India and Pakistan between about 6 million and 5 million years ago near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. I. giganteus was significantly smaller than G. blacki. Height and weight estimates derived from tooth

  • Gigantopithecus blacki (extinct ape)

    Gigantopithecus: … represented by a single species, Gigantopithecus blacki, which lived during the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) in southern China. Gigantopithecus is considered to be a sister genus of Pongo (the genus that contains living orangutans) in the subfamily Ponginae of the family Hominidae. A 2019 study that…

  • Gigantopithecus giganteus (extinct ape)

    Gigantopithecus: …its own genus and renamed Indopithecus giganteus. Studies suggest that I. giganteus inhabited grassland landscapes in northern India and Pakistan between about 6 million and 5 million years ago near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. I. giganteus was significantly smaller than G. blacki. Height and weight estimates derived from tooth

  • Gigantorana goliath (amphibian)

    amphibian: Size range and diversity of structure: The West African goliath frog, which can reach 30 cm (12 inches) from snout to vent and weigh up to 3.3 kg (7.3 pounds), is the largest anuran. Some of the smallest anurans include the South American brachycephalids, which have an adult snout-to-vent length of only 9.8 mm…

  • Gigantoscorpio willsi (fossil scorpion)

    scorpion: Size range and diversity of structure: Fossils of two species (Gigantoscorpio willsi and Brontoscorpio anglicus) measure from 35 cm (14 inches) to a metre (3.3 feet) or more, and an undescribed species is estimated to have been 90 cm (35.5 inches). Most species from deserts and other arid regions are yellowish or light brown in…

  • Gigantostraca (fossil arthropod)

    Giant water scorpion, any member of the extinct subclass Eurypterida of the arthropod group Merostomata, a lineage of large, scorpion-like, aquatic invertebrates that flourished during the Silurian Period (444 to 416 million years ago). Well over 200 species have been identified and divided into 18

  • Gigasporales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Gigasporales Arbuscular mycorrhizal; uses extra-radical auxiliary cells instead of vesicles in plant roots. Order Glomerales Arbuscular mycorrhizal; forms single spores, loose clusters of spores, or compact sporocarps (fruiting bodies); example genus is Glomus. Class

  • Giger, H. R. (Swiss artist and set designer)

    H.R. Giger, (HR Giger; Hansruedi Giger; Hans Rudolf Giger), Swiss artist and set designer (born Feb. 5, 1940, Chur, Switz.—died May 12, 2014, Zürich, Switz.), created surrealistic paintings and sculptures and designed the various life stages (from egg to adult) of the macabre and vaguely erotic

  • Giger, Hans Rudolf (Swiss artist and set designer)

    H.R. Giger, (HR Giger; Hansruedi Giger; Hans Rudolf Giger), Swiss artist and set designer (born Feb. 5, 1940, Chur, Switz.—died May 12, 2014, Zürich, Switz.), created surrealistic paintings and sculptures and designed the various life stages (from egg to adult) of the macabre and vaguely erotic

  • Giger, Hansruedi (Swiss artist and set designer)

    H.R. Giger, (HR Giger; Hansruedi Giger; Hans Rudolf Giger), Swiss artist and set designer (born Feb. 5, 1940, Chur, Switz.—died May 12, 2014, Zürich, Switz.), created surrealistic paintings and sculptures and designed the various life stages (from egg to adult) of the macabre and vaguely erotic

  • Giger, HR (Swiss artist and set designer)

    H.R. Giger, (HR Giger; Hansruedi Giger; Hans Rudolf Giger), Swiss artist and set designer (born Feb. 5, 1940, Chur, Switz.—died May 12, 2014, Zürich, Switz.), created surrealistic paintings and sculptures and designed the various life stages (from egg to adult) of the macabre and vaguely erotic

  • Gigi (comedy of manners by Colette)

    Gigi, comedy of manners by Colette, published in 1944. While Gigi’s mother works as a second-rate theatre singer, Gigi is left in the care of her grandmother and great-aunt, both retired courtesans. They endeavour to teach Gigi the family business: pleasing men. The two decide to ask Gaston, the

  • Gigi (film by Minnelli [1958])

    Maurice Chevalier: His next film, Gigi (1958), won nine Academy Awards, including that for best picture, and remains Chevalier’s most popular movie. His later motion pictures included Can-Can (1960) and Fanny (1961). In 1958 Chevalier received an honorary Academy Award for his more than 50 years of contributions to the…

  • Gigi (musical by Lerner and Loewe)
  • Gigia (Spain)

    Gijón, city, Asturias provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain. It is located on the Bay of Biscay at the foot of Santa Catalina Hill, just northeast of Oviedo city. Known to the Romans and Goths as Gigia, it was captured by the Moors early in the 8th

  • Gigli (film by Brest [2003])

    Ben Affleck: Relationships and return to prominence: costarred with Jennifer Lopez in Gigli, which received scathing reviews. He and Lopez became engaged, and the intense tabloid coverage of their two-year relationship overshadowed his career. He subsequently began dating Garner (married 2005; divorced 2018). Although he continued acting, it was not until 2006 that Affleck returned to prominence,…

  • Gigli, Beniamino (Italian singer)

    Beniamino Gigli, one of the greatest Italian operatic tenors of the first quarter of the 20th century. Gigli studied in Rome, and, after winning a competition at Parma in 1914, he made his debut at Rovigo, Italy, as Enzo in Amilcare Ponchielli’s La gioconda. Following engagements in Spain and South

  • Gigli, Rina (Italian singer)

    Beniamino Gigli: …with his daughter, the soprano Rina Gigli. His last operatic appearance was in 1954, his last concert in 1955.

  • Giglio Island (island, Italy)

    Giglio Island, mountainous, volcanic islet of the Tuscan Archipelago, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, opposite Mount Argentario, on the west coast of Italy. The island rises to 1,634 feet (498 m) and has an area of 8 square miles (21 square km). Wine is produced, and there is considerable offshore fishing.

  • Gigliotti, Donna (American producer)
  • Gignoux, Maurice-Irénée-Marie (French geologist)

    Maurice-Irénée-Marie Gignoux, French geologist who contributed to knowledge of the stratigraphy of the Mediterranean during the Pliocene Epoch (5.3 to 2.6 million years ago) and the Quaternary Period (from 2.6 million years ago to the present). He joined the meteorological research department of

  • Gigot (film by Kelly [1962])

    Gene Kelly: Films of the 1960s and beyond: …the Wind (1960), Kelly directed Gigot (1962), a heart-tugging story filmed in Paris and starring Jackie Gleason as a mute man who takes a waif under his wing. Kelly also directed the comedy A Guide for the Married Man (1967), which starred Walter Matthau as the title character being tutored…

  • gigue (dance)

    Gigue, (French: “jig”) popular Baroque dance that originated in the British Isles and became widespread in aristocratic circles of Europe; also a medieval name for a bowed string instrument, from which the modern German word Geige (“violin”) derives. Whereas true jigs were quick and wild solo

  • Giguère, Jean-Sébastien (Canadian hockey player)

    Anaheim Ducks: …by the fantastic goaltending of Jean-Sébastien Giguère. Anaheim eventually lost that series to the New Jersey Devils, but Giguère won the Conn Smythe Trophy as the postseason’s most valuable player.

  • Giguère, Roland (Canadian poet and engraver)

    Canadian literature: World War II and the postwar period, 1935–60: …word, while poet and engraver Roland Giguère began writing poetry inspired by both Surrealism and Quebec nationalism. On the political front, in 1950 Pierre Elliott Trudeau and others founded Cité libre (“Free City”), a journal of social and political criticism. The “quiet revolution” was not far away.

  • Gijón (Spain)

    Gijón, city, Asturias provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain. It is located on the Bay of Biscay at the foot of Santa Catalina Hill, just northeast of Oviedo city. Known to the Romans and Goths as Gigia, it was captured by the Moors early in the 8th

  • Gijsbrecht van Aemstel (work by van den Vondel)

    Joost van den Vondel: Van den Vondel’s Gijsbrecht van Aemstel (1637), written during this transitional period, provides a hero for the capital of the new Dutch Republic who was modeled on Virgil’s Aeneas. In 1639 van den Vondel completed his first translation of a Greek tragedy, Sophocles’ Electra. His original play Gebroeders,…

  • Gijsen, Marnix (Belgian author)

    Belgian literature: After World War I: …Brulez and the disenchanted humanist Marnix Gijsen, who produced his best work in the symbolic Het boek van Joachim van Babylon (1947; “The Book of Joachim of Babylon”), are more or less detached observers of human weaknesses.

  • Gikatilla, Joseph (Spanish Kabbalist)

    Joseph Gikatilla, major Spanish Kabbalist whose writings influenced those of Moses de León, presumed author of the Zohar (“Book of Splendour”), an important work of Jewish mysticism. Gikatilla’s early studies of philosophy and the Talmud (the rabbinical compendium of law, lore, and commentary)

  • Gikeiki (Japanese historical romance)

    Japanese literature: Kamakura period (1192–1333): …by the Soga brothers, and Gikeiki (“Chronicle of Gikei”; Eng. trans. Yoshitsune), describing the life of the warrior Minamoto Yoshitsune. Though inartistically composed, these portraits of resourceful and daring heroes caught the imaginations of the Japanese, and their exploits are still prominent on the Kabuki stage.

  • Gikuyu (people)

    Kikuyu, Bantu-speaking people who live in the highland area of south-central Kenya, near Mount Kenya. In the late 20th century the Kikuyu numbered more than 4,400,000 and formed the largest ethnic group in Kenya, approximately 20 percent of the total population. Their own name for themselves is

  • Gil (Gaelic surname prefix)

    Mac: Usually -Gil- here is giolla, “follower” or “devotee” (usually associated with Christ or with the name of some saint—e.g., Gilchrist or Gilmartin). It is rare with O but frequent with Mac, as, for example, in MacElroy, MacIlwaine, MacLennan, MacClellan. There are numerous modern anglicized forms of…

  • Gil Blas (French newspaper)

    Guy de Maupassant: Mature life and works: …for Le Gaulois and the Gil Blas. Many of his stories made their first appearance in the latter newspaper. The 10 years from 1880 to 1890 were remarkable for their productivity; he published some 300 short stories, six novels, three travel books, and his only volume of verse.

  • Gil Blas (novel by Lesage)

    Gil Blas, picaresque novel by Alain-René Lesage, published in four volumes—the first two in 1715, the third in 1724, and the fourth in 1735. Considered one of literature’s first realistic novels, Gil Blas takes an ordinary man through a series of adventures in high and low society. The work helped

  • Gil de Honta?ón, Juan (Spanish architect)

    Juan Gil de Honta?ón, celebrated Spanish architect who was maestro mayor (official architect) of the Segovia cathedral and who designed in a late medieval style. Gil de Honta?ón worked in Burgos with Simon of Cologne, one of a family of German architects who were responsible for many important

  • Gil de Honta?ón, Rodrigo (Spanish architect)

    Rodrigo Gil de Honta?ón, celebrated Spanish architect who is perhaps best known for his treatise on architecture. He also designed several notable buildings in the Spanish style known as Plateresque. Gil de Honta?ón’s father, Juan, was the maestro mayor (official architect) of the Segovia cathedral

  • Gil Moreira, Gilberto Passos (Brazilian musician)

    Gilberto Gil, Brazilian multi-instrumentalist, singer, and songwriter who was one of the leading names in Brazilian music and an originator of the movement known as Tropicália (or Tropicalismo). Gil, who was the son of a doctor and an elementary-school teacher, grew up mostly in Itua?u, a small

  • Gil Robles y Quino?es, José María (Spanish statesman)

    José María Gil Robles, Catholic politician and leader during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–36). Gil Robles, a lawyer, led the Catholic party Acción Popular in the anticlerical first phase of the republic and then formed a coalition called the CEDA (Confederación Espa?ola de Derechas Autónomas),

  • Gil y Carrasco, Enrique (Spanish author)

    Spanish literature: The Romantic movement: …Se?or de Bembibre (1844) by Enrique Gil y Carrasco, reflects Gil’s carefully researched history of the Templars in Spain. Other important novels are Mariano José de Larra’s El doncel de Don Enrique el doliente (1834; “The Page of King Enrique the Invalid”) and Espronceda’s Sancho Salda?a (1834).

  • Gil, Gilberto (Brazilian musician)

    Gilberto Gil, Brazilian multi-instrumentalist, singer, and songwriter who was one of the leading names in Brazilian music and an originator of the movement known as Tropicália (or Tropicalismo). Gil, who was the son of a doctor and an elementary-school teacher, grew up mostly in Itua?u, a small

  • Gila Bend (Arizona, United States)

    Gila Bend, town, Maricopa county, southwestern Arizona, U.S., 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Phoenix. The Gila River makes a sweeping 90° bend westward at this point, hence the name. The city is near a pre-Columbian Hohokam village first visited in 1699 by Father Eusebio Kino. It had been a

  • Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (national monument, New Mexico, United States)

    Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, archaeological site in southwestern New Mexico, U.S., in the Gila National Forest near the headwaters of the Gila River. The name Gila is derived from the Yuma Indian term hahquahssael, meaning “salty water running.” The monument lies in rugged country about

  • Gila monster (reptile)

    Gila monster, (Heloderma suspectum), one of two species of North American venomous lizards in the genus Heloderma of the family Helodermatidae. The Gila monster (H. suspectum) was named for the Gila River basin and occurs in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It grows to about 50

  • Gila National Forest (region, New Mexico, United States)

    Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument: , in the Gila National Forest near the headwaters of the Gila River. The name Gila is derived from the Yuma Indian term hahquahssael, meaning “salty water running.” The monument lies in rugged country about 30 miles (50 km) north of Silver City. It contains groups of small…

  • Gila River (river, United States)

    Gila River, river rising in southwestern New Mexico, U.S., in the Elk Mountains, near the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. The river, draining 58,100 sq mi (150,500 sq km), flows 630 mi (1,015 km) west and southwest over desert land to the Colorado River at Yuma, Ariz. Its chief tributaries

  • Gila, Miguel (Spanish comedian and film director)

    Miguel Gila, (Miguel Gila Cuesta), Spanish comedian and film director (born March 12, 1919, Madrid, Spain—died July 13, 2001, Barcelona, Spain), skewered the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco with mordant, low-key satire, notably in a series of monologues in the form of one-sided telephone “

  • Gīlān (province, Iran)

    Gīlān, province, northwestern Iran, bounded by the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan on the north, Ardabīl province on the west, Zanjān province on the southwest, Qazvīn province on the south, and Māzandarān province on the east. The capital is Rasht. Gīlān was within the sphere of

  • Gīlān-Māzanderān Lowland (region, Iran)

    Caspian Sea: Shoreline features: …sediments of the L?nk?ran and Gīlān-Māzanderān lowlands, with the high peaks of the Talish and Elburz ranges rearing up close inland. The eastern shore of the southern Caspian is low, formed partly by sediments derived from the erosion of the cliffs along the sea. The shoreline there is broken sharply…

  • Gilani, Yousaf Raza (prime minister of Pakistan)

    Yousaf Raza Gilani, Pakistani politician who was prime minister of Pakistan (2008–12). Gilani was born into a prominent family of landowners from the Punjab province, many of whom were involved in politics, including his father, who was a provincial minister during the 1950s. After studying at the

  • Gilani, Yusuf Raza (prime minister of Pakistan)

    Yousaf Raza Gilani, Pakistani politician who was prime minister of Pakistan (2008–12). Gilani was born into a prominent family of landowners from the Punjab province, many of whom were involved in politics, including his father, who was a provincial minister during the 1950s. After studying at the

  • Gilbert & George (British artists)

    Gilbert & George, British collaborative team made up of Gilbert Proesch (b. Sept. 17, 1943, Dolomites, Italy) and George Passmore (b. Jan. 8, 1942, Plymouth, Devon, Eng.), whose dynamic and often humorous insertion of themselves into their art proved an important chapter in postwar British

  • Gilbert and Ellice Islands (former British colony, Pacific Ocean)

    Gilbert and Ellice Islands, former British colony, west-central Pacific Ocean. The colony consisted of the Gilbert Islands, Tuvalu (formerly Ellice Islands), the northern Line Islands, and the Phoenix Islands. First visited by Europeans by the early 19th century, the group was proclaimed a British

  • Gilbert and Sullivan (British playwright)

    W.S. Gilbert, English playwright and humorist best known for his collaboration with Arthur Sullivan in comic operas. Gilbert began to write in an age of rhymed couplets, puns, and travesty; his early work exhibits the facetiousness common to writers of extravaganza. But he turned away from this

  • Gilbert and Sullivan (British composer)

    Arthur Sullivan, composer who, with W.S. Gilbert, established the distinctive English form of the operetta. Gilbert’s satire and verbal ingenuity were matched so well by Sullivan’s unfailing melodiousness, resourceful musicianship, and sense of parody that the works of this unique partnership won

  • Gilbert Crispin (Roman Catholic clergyman)

    Gilbert Crispin, English cleric, biblical exegete, and proponent of the thought of St. Anselm of Canterbury. Of noble birth, Gilbert was educated and later became a monk at the monastery of Bec, in Normandy, where Anselm was abbot. Gilbert served as abbot of Westminster from c. 1085 until his

  • Gilbert disease (pathology)

    digestive system disease: Unconjugated jaundice: Gilbert disease, a fairly common hereditary deficiency in the hepatic transport protein ligandin and the conjugating enzyme glucuronyl transferase, results in a harmless lifelong tendency to mild degrees of unconjugated jaundice, especially during periods of fasting or fatigue.

  • Gilbert Foliot (Anglo-Norman Cluniac monk)

    Gilbert Foliot, Anglo-Norman Cluniac monk who became bishop of Hereford and later of London; he was an unsuccessful rival of Thomas Becket for the archbishopric of Canterbury and afterward was Becket’s opponent in ecclesiastical and secular politics. Gilbert’s appointment in 1139 as abbot of

  • Gilbert Islands (islands, Kiribati)

    Gilbert Islands, group of 16 coral islands and atolls, part of Kiribati, in the west-central Pacific Ocean 2,800 miles (4,500 km) northeast of Australia. The low-lying islands—Makin, Butaritari, Marakei, Abaiang, Tarawa, Maiana, Abemama, Kuria, Aranuka, Nonouti, Tabiteuea, Beru, Nikunau, Onotoa,

  • Gilbert Library and Prisoners’ Aid Society (American organization)

    Linda Gilbert: The Gilbert Library and Prisoners’ Aid Society (1876–83) was of genuine, if limited, service; prison libraries were supported, small personal items were distributed to prisoners, and support and sometimes employment were offered to released prisoners.

  • Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint (Roman Catholic priest)

    Saint Gilbert of Sempringham, ; canonized 1202; feast day February 4, feast day in Northampton and Nottingham February 16), English priest, prelate, and founder of the Ordo Gilbertinorum Canonicorum or Ordo Sempringensis (Order of Gilbertine Canons, or Sempringham Order), commonly called

  • Gilbert’s potoroo (marsupial)

    rat kangaroo: A closely related species, Gilbert’s potoroo (P. gilbertii), of southwestern Australia, was long thought to be extinct, but in the 1990s a tiny population was rediscovered near Albany, Western Australia. Another Western Australian species, the broad-faced potoroo (P. platyops), has been listed as an extinct species on the IUCN…

  • Gilbert, Alan (American conductor)

    Alan Gilbert, American conductor who was known for programming contemporary music along with the traditional repertoire and for his ability to communicate with and engage audiences. Gilbert was the son of violinists Michael Gilbert and Yoko Takebe, both of whom eventually joined the New York

  • Gilbert, Anne Jane Hartley (American dancer and actress)

    Anne Jane Hartley Gilbert, American dancer and actress, popular on the 19th-century stage for her character roles. Anne Hartley grew up in London. At age 12 she began studying dance in the ballet school of Her Majesty’s Theatre, Haymarket. She danced in the corps at Her Majesty’s and Drury Lane

  • Gilbert, Cass (American architect)

    Cass Gilbert, architect, designer of the Woolworth Building (1908–13) in New York City and of the United States Supreme Court Building (completed 1935) in Washington, D.C. Conscientious and prosperous, he was an acknowledged leader of the architectural profession in the United States during a

  • Gilbert, Charles (American neurobiologist)

    Torsten Wiesel: …collaborative partnership with American neurobiologist Charles Gilbert, who was studying the interactions of neurons in the primary visual cortex. Their studies led to the elucidation of fundamental neuronal connections in the visual cortex and revealed information about the responses of cells in the visual receptive fields. From 1991 to 1998…

  • Gilbert, Davies (British scientist)

    Sir Humphry Davy: Early life: ” He was befriended by Davies Giddy (later Gilbert; president of the Royal Society, 1827–30), who offered him the use of his library in Tradea and took him to a chemistry laboratory that was well equipped for that day. There he formed strongly independent views on topics of the moment,…

  • Gilbert, Eliza (Irish dancer)

    Lola Montez, Irish adventuress and “Spanish” dancer who achieved international notoriety through her liaison with King Louis I (Ludwig I) of Bavaria. Elizabeth (“Eliza”) Gilbert spent much of her girlhood in India but was educated in Scotland and England. At age 19 she eloped with Lieutenant Thomas

  • Gilbert, Elizabeth Rosanna (Irish dancer)

    Lola Montez, Irish adventuress and “Spanish” dancer who achieved international notoriety through her liaison with King Louis I (Ludwig I) of Bavaria. Elizabeth (“Eliza”) Gilbert spent much of her girlhood in India but was educated in Scotland and England. At age 19 she eloped with Lieutenant Thomas

  • Gilbert, Ellen (American chess player)

    chess: Women in chess: An American woman, Ellen Gilbert, defeated a strong English amateur, George Gossip, twice in an international correspondence match in 1879—announcing checkmate in 21 moves in one game and in 35 moves in the other. Edith Winter-Wood composed more than 2,000 problems, 700 of which appeared in a book…

  • Gilbert, Felix (American historian)

    history of Europe: Renaissance thought: …tragedy by the American historian Felix Gilbert, for it demonstrates how, out of stupidity and weakness, people make mistakes that gradually narrow the range of their freedom to choose alternative courses and thus to influence events until, finally, they are trapped in the web of fortune. This view of history…

  • Gilbert, Goldsmith C. (American trader)

    Muncie: …was founded in 1827 when Goldsmith C. Gilbert, a trader, donated land for the county seat. The first railroad (1852) and the discovery of natural gas (first exploited 1886) contributed to the city’s growth. Although gas production failed in the early 1900s, the city continued to grow as a manufacturing…

  • Gilbert, Grove Karl (American geologist)

    Grove Karl Gilbert, U.S. geologist, one of the founders of modern geomorphology, the study of landforms. He first recognized the applicability of the concept of dynamic equilibrium in landform configuration and evolution—namely, that landforms reflect a state of balance between the processes that

  • Gilbert, Humphrey (British explorer)

    Humphrey Gilbert, English soldier and navigator who devised daring and farseeing projects of overseas colonization. Although he was brilliant and creative, his poor leadership was responsible for his failure to establish the first permanent English colony in North America. He succeeded, however, in

  • Gilbert, Jack Herbert (American poet)

    Jack Herbert Gilbert, American poet (born Feb. 17, 1925, Pittsburgh, Pa.—died Nov. 13, 2012, Berkeley, Calif.), provided astute insights into the vicissitudes of everyday life in verse that reflected his own experiences with love and the loss of it, as well as his forthright impressions of the

  • Gilbert, John (American actor)

    John Gilbert, romantic leading man of the silent era, known as the “Great Lover.” In retrospect, his acting career has been overshadowed by his identification as the tragic star who failed to make the transition to sound. The son of a small-time acting family, Gilbert began his screen career in

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