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  • Gillard, Julia Eileen (prime minister of Australia)

    Julia Gillard, Australian politician who served as leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP; 2010–13) and as prime minister of Australia (2010–13). She was the first woman to hold either office. Gillard was born in Wales, but her family joined the wave of post-World War II emigration from Britain

  • Gillars, Mildred (American traitor)

    Mildred Gillars, American citizen who was a radio propagandist for the Nazi government during World War II. Gillars was an aspiring actress who played minor parts in some American theatrical touring companies. She attended Ohio Wesleyan University but left in 1922. In 1929 she traveled to North

  • Gillem, Alvan, Jr. (United States general)

    Executive Order 9981: …a review board chaired by Gen. Alvan Gillem, Jr., advised that the U.S. Army’s policy should be to “eliminate, at the earliest practicable moment, any special consideration based on race.” While the Gillem Board did not specifically endorse integration, it did note that the army had already desegregated its hospitals…

  • Gillen, Francis James (Australian anthropologist)

    Francis James Gillen, Australian anthropologist who did pioneering fieldwork among the Aborigines of central Australia. Gillen’s training in anthropology came not from a university but from close contact with Aborigines in his work for the Australian postal and telegraph service. He made

  • Giller, Doris (Canadian journalist)
  • Gilles (painting by Watteau)

    Antoine Watteau: Period of his major works.: …his last works was “Gilles,” a portrait of a clown in white painted as a signboard for the Théatre de la Foire. White as innocence (or imbecility) and roseate in complexion, “Gilles” is the image of the actor during intermission—the actor who offers himself every day to the laughter…

  • Gilles (novel by Drieu la Rochelle)

    French literature: Céline and Drieu: …fascism, to write expressly in Gilles (1939) the archetypal itinerary of the young French fascist, from defeat in the trenches of World War I, through failure and despair in the 1920s, to the decision to help overthrow the elected Republican government in Spain. Drieu’s example was followed by younger men,…

  • Gilles le Muiset (French poet)

    Gilles Li Muisis, French poet and chronicler whose works are important sources for the history of France. Gilles entered the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Martin in Tournai in 1289. After being made prior of the abbey in 1329, he journeyed to Paris in 1330 to defend its interests against creditors. O

  • Gilles li Muisis (French poet)

    Gilles Li Muisis, French poet and chronicler whose works are important sources for the history of France. Gilles entered the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Martin in Tournai in 1289. After being made prior of the abbey in 1329, he journeyed to Paris in 1330 to defend its interests against creditors. O

  • Gilles of Viterbo (humanist scholar)

    Judaism: Modern Jewish mysticism: …Pico della Mirandola (1463–94) and Gilles of Viterbo (Egidio da Viterbo; c. 1465–1532) in Italy; Johannes Reuchlin (1455–1522) in Germany, who wrote one of the principal expositions of Kabbala in a language accessible to the learned non-Jewish public (De arte Cabbalistica, 1517); and the visionary Guillaume Postel (1510–81) in France.…

  • Gillespie, Dizzy (American musician)

    Dizzy Gillespie, American jazz trumpeter, composer, and bandleader who was one of the seminal figures of the bebop movement. Gillespie’s father was a bricklayer and amateur bandleader who introduced his son to the basics of several instruments. After his father died in 1927, Gillespie taught

  • Gillespie, Eliza Maria (American religious leader)

    Mother Angela Gillespie, American religious leader who guided her order in dramatically expanding higher education for women by founding numerous institutions throughout the United States. Eliza Maria Gillespie was educated at girls’ schools in her native town and, in 1836–38, in Somerset, Ohio. In

  • Gillespie, George (Scottish minister and writer)

    George Gillespie, leader of the Church of Scotland and polemical writer, who laboured for the autonomy and preservation of his church. The son of a parish minister, Gillespie was educated at the University of St. Andrews. His first work, A Dispute Against the English Popish Ceremonies Obtruded Upon

  • Gillespie, John Birks (American musician)

    Dizzy Gillespie, American jazz trumpeter, composer, and bandleader who was one of the seminal figures of the bebop movement. Gillespie’s father was a bricklayer and amateur bandleader who introduced his son to the basics of several instruments. After his father died in 1927, Gillespie taught

  • Gillespie, Mother Angela (American religious leader)

    Mother Angela Gillespie, American religious leader who guided her order in dramatically expanding higher education for women by founding numerous institutions throughout the United States. Eliza Maria Gillespie was educated at girls’ schools in her native town and, in 1836–38, in Somerset, Ohio. In

  • Gillespie, Rowan (Irish sculptor)

    Dublin: Evolution of the modern city: …cast by the Dublin sculptor Rowan Gillespie, commemorates the period. Emigration, a major element in Irish life throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, mounted after 1845, with England and the United States being the principal destinations of those leaving Dublin.

  • Gillespie, Thomas (Scottish minister)

    Thomas Gillespie, Scottish Presbyterian minister who assisted in founding the Relief Church (Oct. 22, 1761), a Presbyterian group advocating the right of a congregation to approve its minister. Gillespie was ordained in 1741 and inducted to the parish of Carnock, Fife. In 1752 he was a victim of

  • Gillete, Harper Lee (American matador)

    matador: Harper Lee Gillete, who performed in Mexico, is considered by many experts to have been the best American bullfighter. Although he received the alternativa in Mexico in 1910, he never fought in Spain.

  • Gillett, Charles Thomas (British radio broadcaster and author)

    Charlie Gillett, (Charles Thomas Gillett), British radio broadcaster and author (born Feb. 20, 1942, Morecambe, Lancashire, Eng.—died March 17, 2010, London, Eng.), championed world music after having earlier helped to popularize in Britain classic American rock and roll in a career as an

  • Gillett, Charlie (British radio broadcaster and author)

    Charlie Gillett, (Charles Thomas Gillett), British radio broadcaster and author (born Feb. 20, 1942, Morecambe, Lancashire, Eng.—died March 17, 2010, London, Eng.), championed world music after having earlier helped to popularize in Britain classic American rock and roll in a career as an

  • Gillette (Wyoming, United States)

    Gillette, town, seat (1911) of Campbell county, northeastern Wyoming, U.S., midway between the Black Hills (east) and the Bighorn Mountains (west). It developed after the arrival in 1891 of the Burlington and Missouri River railroads and was named for Edward Gillette, a railroad construction

  • Gillette, King Camp (American manufacturer)

    King Camp Gillette, American inventor and first manufacturer of a razor with disposable blades. Gillette, reared in Chicago, was forced by his family’s loss of possessions in the fire of 1871 to go to work, so he became a traveling salesman of hardware. An employer noted his predilection for

  • Gillette, William Hooker (American playwright and actor)

    William Hooker Gillette, American playwright and actor noted for his portrayal of the title role in Sherlock Holmes, which he adapted for the stage from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s stories. Gillette quit college and in 1875 joined a stock company in New Orleans and made his first appearance at the

  • Gilliam, Holly Michelle (American singer)

    the Mamas and the Papas: …18, 2001, Los Angeles, California), Michelle Phillips (original name Holly Michelle Gilliam; b. April 6, 1944, Long Beach, California, U.S.), (“Mama”) Cass Elliot (original name Ellen Naomi Cohen; b. September 19, 1943, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.—d. July 29, 1974, London, England), and Dennis Doherty (b. November 29, 1941, Halifax, Nova Scotia,…

  • Gilliam, Terrence Vance (American director)

    Terry Gilliam, American-born director, writer, comedian, and actor who first achieved fame as a member of the British comedy troupe Monty Python. While a student at Occidental College in Los Angeles, Gilliam began working on the student humour magazine Fang, eventually becoming its editor. After

  • Gilliam, Terry (American director)

    Terry Gilliam, American-born director, writer, comedian, and actor who first achieved fame as a member of the British comedy troupe Monty Python. While a student at Occidental College in Los Angeles, Gilliam began working on the student humour magazine Fang, eventually becoming its editor. After

  • Gilliatt, Penelope (British writer)

    Penelope Gilliatt, English writer of essays, short stories, screenplays, and novels. Her fiction is noted for its sensitive, sometimes wry look at the challenges and complexities of modern life in England and the United States. Gilliatt briefly attended Queen’s College, London, and Bennington

  • Gilliatt, Penelope Ann Douglass (British writer)

    Penelope Gilliatt, English writer of essays, short stories, screenplays, and novels. Her fiction is noted for its sensitive, sometimes wry look at the challenges and complexities of modern life in England and the United States. Gilliatt briefly attended Queen’s College, London, and Bennington

  • Gillibrand, Kirsten (United States senator)

    Kirsten Gillibrand, American politician who was appointed as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate from New York in 2009 and was elected to that body in 2010. She previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives (2007–09). Rutnik earned a bachelor’s degree magna cum laude from Dartmouth College in

  • Gillichthys mirabilis (fish)

    goby: Many gobies, such as the longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis) of the eastern Pacific, inhabit burrows in sand or mud, and some share burrows with other animals. An example of the latter is the blind goby (Typhlogobius californiensis), a small, pink fish native to California that lives intertidally in burrows dug…

  • Gillie Callum (dance)

    sword dance: The famed Scottish solo dance Gillie Callum, which is danced to a folk melody of the same name, is first mentioned only in the early 19th century. In its close relative, the English solo Bacca pipes jig, crossed clay pipes replace the swords. There are evidences that such dances formerly…

  • Gilliéron, Jules (French linguist)

    linguistics: Dialect atlases: …famous French linguistic atlas of Jules Gilliéron and Edmond Edmont was based on a completely different concept. Using a questionnaire of about 2,000 words and phrases that Gilliéron had composed, Edmont surveyed 639 points in the French-speaking area. The atlas, compiled under the direction of Gilliéron, was published in fascicles…

  • Gillies, Clark (Canadian hockey player)

    New York Islanders: …Bryan Trottier, and left wing Clark Gillies. That young group (all but Smith were no older than age 25 at the start of the 1979–80 season) played with postseason poise that belied their youth, losing just three games over the course of their first four Stanley Cup finals and defeating…

  • Gillies, Harold Delf (British plastic surgeon)

    history of medicine: World War I: …at about the same time Harold Gillies founded British plastic surgery in a hut at Sidcup, Kent. In 1917 Gillies popularized the pedicle type of skin graft (the type of graft in which skin and subcutaneous tissue are left temporarily attached for nourishment to the site from which the graft…

  • gilliflower (plant)

    Gillyflower, any of several scented flowering plants, especially the carnation, or clove pink (Dianthus caryophyllus), stock (Matthiola incana), and wallflower (Cheiranthus cheiri). However, the gillyflower of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare was the carnation. Other plants that are types of

  • Gilligan’s Island (American television series)

    John Williams: …shows as Wagon Train and Gilligan’s Island.

  • Gilligan, Carol (American psychologist)

    Carol Gilligan, American developmental psychologist best known for her research into the moral development of girls and women. Gilligan earned a bachelor’s degree in English literature at Swarthmore College (1958), a master’s degree in clinical psychology at Radcliffe College (1961), and a Ph.D. in

  • Gilligan, John (American politician)
  • Gilligan, Kathleen (American politician)

    Pat Roberts: …would later become father-in-law to Kathleen Sebelius, governor of Kansas in 2003–09 and U.S. secretary of health and human services in 2009–14). In 1969 Roberts married, and he and his wife, Franki, had three children.

  • Gilliland, John L. (American glassmaker)

    glassware: After the War of 1812: …Brooklyn Flint Glass Works of John L. Gilliland and Company and the Dorfinger Glass Works. Gilliland, a partner in the Blooming-dale Flint Glass Works, sold out in 1823 and founded his own works in Brooklyn, New York. In 1864 two members of the Houghton family acquired controlling interest, and in…

  • Gillingham (England, United Kingdom)

    Gillingham, town and port, unitary authority of Medway, geographic and historic county of Kent, southeastern England. It is on the River Medway and is one of the three main communities (along with Chatham and Rochester) that are often called the “Medway Towns.” Before the establishment of the royal

  • Gillis W. Long Hansen’s Disease Center (building, Louisiana, United States)

    leprosy: History: …became officially known as the Gillis W. Long Hansen’s Disease Center. The new name Hansen’s disease was part of a determined effort by health authorities to rid leprosy of its old social stigma and to focus attention on the fact that leprosy was finally becoming a treatable disease.

  • Gillis, John Anthony (American musician)

    Jack White, American guitarist, singer, and songwriter who first gained fame with the White Stripes and later performed in other bands before launching a successful solo career. Gillis, the youngest of 10 children in a Polish Scottish family, grew up in Detroit. His father worked as a maintenance

  • Gillis, Lester (American gangster)

    Baby Face Nelson, American gunman and bank robber noted for his vicious killings and youthful looks. From petty crime Nelson graduated into labour racketeering, working for Al Capone (1929–31) and other bootleg bosses; he was let go, however, proving too violent even for them. He then turned to

  • Gilliss, James Melville (American astronomer and naval officer)

    James Melville Gilliss, U.S. naval officer and astronomer who founded the Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., the first U.S. observatory devoted entirely to research. Gilliss entered the U.S. Navy in 1827 and 10 years later was put in charge of the navy’s Depot of Charts and Instruments, in

  • Gillman, Sid (American football coach)

    Sid Gillman, American football coach (born Oct. 26, 1911, Minneapolis, Minn.—died Jan. 3, 2003, Los Angeles, Calif.), was regarded as the progenitor of the modern passing game. He became head coach at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1944 and moved to the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1

  • Gillmor, Dan (American journalist)

    citizen journalism: …does that translate into journalism?” Dan Gillmor, founder and director of the Center for Citizen Media and author of the book We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People (2004), also rejected any single definition for the transformation in news that had begun in the late 1990s.…

  • Gillooly, Edna Rae (American actress)

    Ellen Burstyn , American actress who was known for her understated charm and versatility. Gillooly was raised in Detroit, though she attended St. Mary’s Academy in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, for several years in the late 1930s. Both her mother and her stepfather were physically and verbally abusive,

  • Gillot, Claude (French painter, engraver, and theatrical designer)

    Claude Gillot, French painter, engraver, and theatrical designer best known as the master of the great painter Antoine Watteau. Gillot directed scenery and costume design for both opera and theatre. An accomplished draftsman and a man of keen intelligence, he was in part responsible for the love of

  • gillotage (printing)

    photoengraving: Chemical etching—traditional and powderless processes: …of lines and dots, called gillotage, has found wide use among European engravers. The “powdering” process, most widely used in the United States, involves brushing a resinous powder (dragons’ blood) against the sides of partially etched lines and dots and fusing, with heat, to provide an etchant-resistant coating. Several repetitions…

  • Gillott, Jacky (British novelist and broadcaster)

    Jacky Gillott, British novelist and broadcaster who was one of Britain’s first woman television reporters. After graduating from University College in London (now University College London), she joined a provincial newspaper before starting a new career with Independent Television News. She

  • Gillott, Jacqueline Anne (British novelist and broadcaster)

    Jacky Gillott, British novelist and broadcaster who was one of Britain’s first woman television reporters. After graduating from University College in London (now University College London), she joined a provincial newspaper before starting a new career with Independent Television News. She

  • Gillray, James (English caricaturist)

    James Gillray, English caricaturist chiefly remembered for lively political cartoons directed against George III of England and Napoleon I. Often scurrilous and violent in his criticism, he brought a highly dramatic sense of situation and analogy to cartooning. Gillray learned letter engraving and

  • Gilly, David (German architect)

    Western architecture: Germany: …were Carl Gotthard Langhans and David Gilly, who, with Heinrich Gentz, created a severe but inventive style in the 1790s that was indebted to Ledoux as well as to Johann Winckelmann’s call for a return to the spirit of ancient Greek architecture. The great early monument of the Berlin school…

  • Gilly, Friedrich (German architect)

    Western architecture: Germany: Friedrich Gilly built little, dying in 1800, but he left some remarkable designs that justify his central place in German Neoclassicism. His project for a monument to Frederick the Great (1797) consisted of a raised Greek Doric temple on a geometric substructure surrounded by obelisks…

  • gillyflower (plant)

    Gillyflower, any of several scented flowering plants, especially the carnation, or clove pink (Dianthus caryophyllus), stock (Matthiola incana), and wallflower (Cheiranthus cheiri). However, the gillyflower of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare was the carnation. Other plants that are types of

  • Gilman reagent (chemistry)

    Gilman reagent, another name for organocopper compounds used for carbon-carbon bond formation in organic synthesis. Compounds of this type were first described in the 1930s by the American chemist Henry Gilman, for whom they are named. The most widely used organocopper compounds are the lithium

  • Gilman, Alfred G. (American pharmacologist)

    Alfred G. Gilman, American pharmacologist who shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with American biochemist Martin Rodbell for their separate research in discovering molecules called G proteins, which are intermediaries in the multistep pathway cells use to react to an incoming

  • Gilman, Alfred Goodman (American pharmacologist)

    Alfred G. Gilman, American pharmacologist who shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with American biochemist Martin Rodbell for their separate research in discovering molecules called G proteins, which are intermediaries in the multistep pathway cells use to react to an incoming

  • Gilman, Caroline Howard (American writer and publisher)

    Caroline Howard Gilman, popular American writer and publisher, much of whose work reflected her conviction of the importance of the family as a foundation for societal harmony. Caroline Howard grew up in a succession of towns near Boston until her widowed mother settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts,

  • Gilman, Charlotte Anna Perkins (American author and social reformer)

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman, American feminist, lecturer, writer, and publisher who was a leading theorist of the women’s movement in the United States. Charlotte Perkins grew up in poverty, her father having essentially abandoned the family. Her education was irregular and limited, but she did attend

  • Gilman, Charlotte Anna Perkins Stetson (American author and social reformer)

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman, American feminist, lecturer, writer, and publisher who was a leading theorist of the women’s movement in the United States. Charlotte Perkins grew up in poverty, her father having essentially abandoned the family. Her education was irregular and limited, but she did attend

  • Gilman, Charlotte Perkins (American author and social reformer)

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman, American feminist, lecturer, writer, and publisher who was a leading theorist of the women’s movement in the United States. Charlotte Perkins grew up in poverty, her father having essentially abandoned the family. Her education was irregular and limited, but she did attend

  • Gilman, Daniel Coit (American educator)

    Daniel Coit Gilman, American educator and first president of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. After graduating from Yale University in 1852, Gilman traveled to St. Petersburg, Russia, with his friend A.D. White (who became the first president of Cornell University in 1868). Gilman worked as an

  • Gilman, Harold (British artist)

    London Group: …whose members included the painters Harold Gilman, Walter Sickert, and Spencer Gore. These artists, along with their allies Charles Ginner and Lucien Pissarro, advocated depicting the urban and working classes, and they favoured the light palette and high-keyed colour of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists.

  • Gilman, Henry (American chemist)

    Gilman reagent: …1930s by the American chemist Henry Gilman, for whom they are named. The most widely used organocopper compounds are the lithium diorganocuprates, which are prepared by the reaction between organolithium reagents (RLi) and copper(I) halides (CuX); for example, ArLi gives Ar2CuLi.

  • Gilmar (Brazilian association football player)

    Gilmar, (Gilmar [or Gylmar] dos Santos Neves), Brazilian association football (soccer) player (born Aug. 22, 1930, Santos, S?o Paulo state, Braz.—died Aug. 25, 2013, S?o Paulo, Braz.), was a goalkeeper for Brazil’s national team for 16 years (1953–69), during which time he gave up only 95 goals and

  • Gilmer, Elizabeth Meriwether (American journalist)

    Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer, American journalist who achieved great popular success as an advice columnist and with sentimentalized coverage of sensational crime stories. Elizabeth Meriwether received little formal schooling before her marriage in 1888 to George O. Gilmer. A short time later he

  • Gilmer, Thomas (American statesman)
  • Gilmore, Eamon (Irish politician)

    Ireland: The debt crisis and beyond: …became taoiseach, while Labour’s leader, Eamon Gilmore, assumed the post of tánaiste (deputy prime minister).

  • Gilmore, Gary (American murderer)

    Gary Gilmore, American murderer whose execution by the state of Utah in 1977 ended a de facto nationwide moratorium on capital punishment that had lasted nearly 10 years. His case also attracted widespread attention because Gilmore resisted efforts made on his behalf to commute the sentence.

  • Gilmore, Gary Mark (American murderer)

    Gary Gilmore, American murderer whose execution by the state of Utah in 1977 ended a de facto nationwide moratorium on capital punishment that had lasted nearly 10 years. His case also attracted widespread attention because Gilmore resisted efforts made on his behalf to commute the sentence.

  • Gilmore, John E. (American musician)

    John E. Gilmore, U.S. jazz drummer and tenor saxophonist whose improvisations highlighted the Sun Ra trio (b. Sept. 28, 1931--d. Aug. 20,

  • Gilmore, Mahershalalhashbaz (American actor)

    Mahershala Ali, American actor who rose to prominence in the 2010s and won an Academy Award for his moving and nuanced performance as the fatherly drug dealer Juan in the film Moonlight (2016). Ali grew up in Hayward, California. His mother was a Baptist minister, and his father left the family

  • Gilmore, Mary (Australian author)

    Australian literature: Nationalism and expansion: …of such diverse writers as Mary Gilmore, Walter Murdoch, and Miles Franklin. The life span of each of them stretched from colonial times into the modern era; in both their lives and their writing, they represented continuity. Each expressed a kind of independence from time: Gilmore by the long reach…

  • Gilmore, Patrick (American bandleader)

    Patrick Gilmore, leading American bandmaster and a virtuoso cornetist, noted for his flamboyant showmanship, innovations in instrumentation, and the excellence of his bands. Gilmore immigrated to the United States at age 19, and, after leading several bands, he took over the Boston Brigade Band

  • Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore (American bandleader)

    Patrick Gilmore, leading American bandmaster and a virtuoso cornetist, noted for his flamboyant showmanship, innovations in instrumentation, and the excellence of his bands. Gilmore immigrated to the United States at age 19, and, after leading several bands, he took over the Boston Brigade Band

  • Gilmour, David (British musician)

    Kate Bush: …her to Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour, who helped her win a contract with EMI Records. For the next several years Bush took vocal lessons and studied dance and mime in London while preparing material for her first recording.

  • Gilpatric, Guy (American diver)

    underwater diving: …notably by the American diver Guy Gilpatric, whose The Compleat Goggler (1938) gave great impetus to the sport and aroused the interest of the French naval engineer and diver Jacques Cousteau. The goggles, flippers, snorkel (the name given the air tube from the German submarine air exhaust and intake device…

  • Gilpin, Bernard (British clergyman)

    Bernard Gilpin, English cleric, one of the most conscientious and broad-minded upholders of the Elizabethan church settlement, which recognized the English sovereign, rather than the pope, as head of the English church. Gilpin was educated at Queen’s College, Oxford, and was ordained in 1542. He

  • Gilpin, Catharine Drew (American educator and historian)

    Drew Gilpin Faust, American educator and historian who was the first female president of Harvard University (2007–18). Gilpin grew up in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, where her parents raised Thoroughbred horses. She graduated from Concord (Massachusetts) Academy in 1964 and received a B.A. in

  • Gilpin, Laura (American photographer)

    Laura Gilpin, American photographer noted for her images of the landscape and native peoples of the American Southwest. On the advice of photographer Gertrude K?sebier, Gilpin went to New York City in 1916 to study at the Clarence H. White School of Photography (1916–18). In her early work Gilpin

  • Gilpin, William (British author and artist)

    Sir Uvedale Price, 1st Baronet: …designer and, with the writer-artist William Gilpin and Richard Payne Knight, one of the chief aestheticians of the Picturesque movement in landscaping.

  • Gilpinia (insect)

    insect: Ecological factors: …the early 1940s the European spruce sawfly (Gilpinia hercyniae), which had caused immense damage, was completely controlled by the spontaneous appearance of a viral disease, perhaps unknowingly introduced from Europe. This event led to increased interest in using insect diseases as potential means of managing pest populations.

  • Gilruth, Robert Rowe (American engineer)

    Robert Rowe Gilruth, American aeronautical engineer and administrator (born Oct. 8, 1913, Nashwauk, Minn.—died Aug. 17, 2000, Charlottesville, Va.), oversaw the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo projects and thus had enormous influence on the U.S. manned space program. He was interested in aeronautics a

  • Gilson, étienne (French philosopher)

    étienne Gilson, French Christian philosopher and historian of medieval thought, one of the most eminent international scholars of the 20th century. Gilson was born into a Roman Catholic family and owed his early education to Catholic schools in Paris. He began the study of philosophy in 1902 at the

  • Gilson, étienne-Henry (French philosopher)

    étienne Gilson, French Christian philosopher and historian of medieval thought, one of the most eminent international scholars of the 20th century. Gilson was born into a Roman Catholic family and owed his early education to Catholic schools in Paris. He began the study of philosophy in 1902 at the

  • gilsonite (bitumen)

    asphalt: Gilsonite, wurzilite, and similar vein asphalts have special uses in heat-resistant enamels; they are hard and are mined like coal. Petroleum asphalt is produced in all consistencies from light road oils to heavy, high-viscosity industrial types.

  • Gilyak (people)

    Nivkh, east Siberian people who live in the region of the Amur River estuary and on nearby Sakhalin Island. They numbered about 4,600 in the late 20th century. Most speak Russian, though about 10 percent still speak Nivkh, a Paleo-Siberian language unaffiliated apparently with any other language. T

  • Gilyak language

    Nivkh language, isolated language with two main dialects spoken by some 400 Nivkh, roughly 10 percent of the ethnic group. The Nivkh live on Sakhalin Island and along the estuary of the Amur River in eastern Siberia. Nivkh is not known to be related to any other language, and it is usually i

  • Gilzai (people)

    Ghilzay, one of the largest of the Pashto-speaking tribes in Afghanistan, whose traditional territory extended from Ghazni and Kalat-i-Ghilzai eastward into the Indus Valley. They are reputed to be descended at least in part from the Khalaj or Khilji Turks, who entered Afghanistan in the 10th

  • GIM (therapeutics)

    music therapy: Approaches in music therapy: Guided imagery and music (GIM), originally devised by American music therapist Helen Lindquist Bonny in the 1960s and early ’70s, is a music-based psychotherapeutic practice that aims to integrate emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual components of well-being. During a session, the therapist guides the patient…

  • gimbal (instrument)

    chronometer: …detached chronometer escapement, suspended in gimbals (a set of rings connected by bearings) poised so as to remain horizontal whatever the inclination of the ship. It is thus safeguarded from those alterations of position that slightly affect the timekeeping of even the best watches. In addition, it differs somewhat in…

  • gimbaling inertial navigation system (navigation technology)

    inertial guidance system: A typical gimbaling inertial navigation system, such as might be used on board a missile, uses three gyroscopes and three accelerometers. The three gimbal-mounted gyroscopes establish a frame of reference for the vehicle’s roll (rotation about the axis running from the front to the rear of the…

  • Gimbel, Norman (American songwriter)
  • Gimble, John Paul (American musician)

    Johnny Gimble, (John Paul Gimble), American musician (born May 30, 1926, Tyler, Texas—died May 9, 2015, Marble Falls, Texas), played the unusual five-string violin with imagination, uplifting swing, and a vivid sound as a sideman performing with three generations of country music stars. At an early

  • Gimble, Johnny (American musician)

    Johnny Gimble, (John Paul Gimble), American musician (born May 30, 1926, Tyler, Texas—died May 9, 2015, Marble Falls, Texas), played the unusual five-string violin with imagination, uplifting swing, and a vivid sound as a sideman performing with three generations of country music stars. At an early

  • gimbrī (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: For accompaniment: …North Africa: the lute (gimbrī) is played only between verses of the story, as a descriptive comment.

  • Gimcheon (South Korea)

    Kimch’?n, city, North Ky?ngsang (Gyeongsang) do (province), south-central South Korea. It lies about 40 miles (65 km) northwest of Taegu (Daegu). During the Ch?son (Yi) dynasty (1392–1910) the city was one of the most important market towns of the country. It is now a service centre for the

  • gimel (music)

    Gymel, (from Latin cantus gemellus, “twin song”), medieval musical style of two-part polyphonic composition, possibly of popular origin, in which the voices move mainly in consecutive intervals of a third or a sixth. Crossing of parts is a common characteristic. Although gymel compositions have

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