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  • Gioberti, Vincenzo (Italian philosopher and statesman)

    Vincenzo Gioberti, Italian philosopher, politician, and premier of Sardinia-Piedmont (1848–49), whose writings helped bring about the unification of the Italian states. Gioberti was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1825 and soon became famous as a professor of theology at the University of

  • Gioconda, La (play by D’Annunzio)

    Gabriele D'Annunzio: …for her, notably the tragedies La Gioconda (performed 1899) and Francesca da Rimini (performed 1901). He eventually broke off the relationship and exposed their intimacy in the erotic novel Il fuoco (1900; The Flame of Life). D’Annunzio’s greatest play was La figlia di Iorio (performed 1904; The Daughter of Jorio),…

  • Gioconda, La (painting by Leonardo da Vinci)

    Mona Lisa, oil painting on a poplar wood panel by Leonardo da Vinci, probably the world’s most famous painting. It was painted sometime between 1503 and 1519, when Leonardo was living in Florence, and it now hangs in the Louvre Museum, in Paris, where it remained an object of pilgrimage in the 21st

  • gioconda, La (opera by Ponchielli)

    Dance of the Hours: &gt;La gioconda that is often performed as a stand-alone orchestral work. In its original context—as a balletic interlude to entertain a party—it (and the entire opera) premiered in Milan on April 8, 1876. The popularity of the dance scene greatly exceeded that of the entire…

  • Giocondo, Fra Giovanni (Italian architect)

    Fra Giovanni Giocondo, Italian humanist, architect, and engineer, whose designs and written works signal the transition in architectural modes from early to high Renaissance. A learned Franciscan, Fra Giocondo is said to have received an extensive humanistic education. He made an important

  • Giocosa, La (Italian school)

    education: Emergence of the new gymnasium: This last school, known as La Giocosa (literally, “The Jocose, or Joyful”), soon became famous. At La Giocosa only those who had both talent and a modest disposition were accepted; wealth was neither necessary nor sufficient to gain admission. In fact, the school was one of the few efforts made…

  • giocoso verse (Italian literature)

    Italian literature: Comic verse: Poesia giocoso (realistic, or comic, verse) was a complete contrast to serious love poetry. The language was often deliberately unrefined, colloquial, and sometimes scurrilous, in keeping with the themes dealt with in the poetry. This kind of verse belongs to an ongoing European…

  • Giogo Dello Stelvio (mountain pass, Italy)

    Stelvio Pass, Alpine pass (9,042 feet [2,756 m]) at the northwest base of the Ortles mountain range in northern Italy near the Swiss border. One of the highest road passes in Europe, it connects the Venosta valley of the upper Adige River to the northeast with the Tellina valley of the upper Adda

  • Gioia del Colle (Italy)

    Gioia del Colle, town, Puglia (Apulia) regione, southern Italy. It has machinery, textile, distilling, and cheese-making industries. Medieval monuments include a 12th-century castle and a fortified hunting lodge built for the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II. The town has an archaeological museum,

  • Gioia, Michael Dana (American poet)

    Dana Gioia, American poet, poetry and music critic, and former corporate vice president of General Foods known best for his critical essay “Can Poetry Matter?” and for his arts activism. As a poet, he was associated with New Formalism—a shift in American poetry, beginning in the 1980s, from free

  • Gioia, Dana (American poet)

    Dana Gioia, American poet, poetry and music critic, and former corporate vice president of General Foods known best for his critical essay “Can Poetry Matter?” and for his arts activism. As a poet, he was associated with New Formalism—a shift in American poetry, beginning in the 1980s, from free

  • gioielli della Madonna, I (opera by Wolf-Ferrari)

    Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari: …I gioielli della Madonna (1911; The Jewels of the Madonna), he was influenced by the realistic, or verismo, style of Pietro Mascagni. He also composed chamber, instrumental, and orchestral works and a violin concerto.

  • Giolitti, Giovanni (prime minister of Italy)

    Giovanni Giolitti, statesman and five times prime minister under whose leadership Italy prospered. He had many enemies, however, and retained power by using the highly criticized technique called giolittismo, which is associated with corruption and violence on election days and with personal deals

  • giolittismo (Italian politics)

    Giovanni Giolitti: …the highly criticized technique called giolittismo, which is associated with corruption and violence on election days and with personal deals rather than with party loyalty.

  • giolla (Gaelic surname prefix)

    Mac: Usually -Gil- here is giolla, “follower” or “devotee” (usually associated with Christ or with the name of some saint—e.g., Gilchrist or Gilmartin). It is rare with O but frequent with Mac, as, for example, in MacElroy, MacIlwaine, MacLennan, MacClellan. There are numerous modern anglicized forms of…

  • Giolla Coluim mac an Ollaimh (Scottish bard)

    Celtic literature: Writings of the medieval period: There are three poems by Giolla Coluim mac an Ollaimh, a professional poet at the court of the Lord of the Isles and almost certainly a member of the MacMhuirich bardic family, the famous line of hereditary bards whose work spans nearly 500 years from the 13th to the 18th…

  • Giollamhuire Nic Cionnaith, Siobhan (Irish actress)

    Siobhan McKenna, versatile Irish actress best known for her portrayals of such impassioned characters as Shaw’s Saint Joan and Pegeen Mike, the lusty innkeeper in John Millington Synge’s most famous play, The Playboy of the Western World. A member of an amateur Gaelic theatre group, McKenna made

  • Gion-matsuri (Japanese festival)

    Kyōto: Cultural life: …major festivals (matsuri)—Aoi in May, Gion in July, and Jidai in October—are almost national events. The Jidai-matsuri (“Festival of the Ages”) is a parade depicting, in period costume, Japan’s entire history. The Gion-matsuri (Gion Festival) dates from the 9th century and features more than 30 elaborate, carefully preserved, hand-drawn floats,…

  • Gióna (mountain, Greece)

    Central Greece: …7,060 feet (2,152 m); the Gióna, 8,235 feet (2,510 m); and the Parnassus (Parnassós), 8,061 feet (2,457 m). Outliers of the Parnassus are the Helicon (Elikónas), Kithairón, Párnis, and Imittós (Hymettus), the last a great ridge east of the most populous area of Greece, Greater Athens.

  • Giono, Jean (French author)

    Jean Giono, French novelist, a celebrant of nature whose works are set in Provence and whose rich and diverse imagery has been widely admired. A love of nature came to Giono from his mountain town and from the shepherd family with whom, as a boy, he spent his summers. He was largely self-taught. As

  • Giordani, Pietro (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Opposing movements: By contrast, the patriot Pietro Giordani—for a time a journalistic colleague of Monti—was a great exponent of purismo. His views did not stem from literary pedantry, however, but from a concern that all social groups throughout Italy should have a common means of communication. In this respect he was…

  • Giordano, August T. (American jazz dancer and choreographer)

    Gus Giordano, (August T. Giordano), American jazz dancer and choreographer (born July 10, 1923, St. Louis, Mo.—died March 9, 2008, Chicago, Ill.), was one of the pioneers of the style known as jazz dance and succeeded in gaining it the respect already enjoyed by ballet and modern dance. Following a

  • Giordano, Gus (American jazz dancer and choreographer)

    Gus Giordano, (August T. Giordano), American jazz dancer and choreographer (born July 10, 1923, St. Louis, Mo.—died March 9, 2008, Chicago, Ill.), was one of the pioneers of the style known as jazz dance and succeeded in gaining it the respect already enjoyed by ballet and modern dance. Following a

  • Giordano, Luca (Italian painter)

    Luca Giordano, the most celebrated and prolific Neapolitan painter of the late 17th century. His nickname Luca Fa Presto (“Luca, Work Quickly”) is said to derive from his painter-copyist father’s admonitions, which were certainly heeded. His other nickname, Proteus, was acquired as a result of his

  • Giordano, Umberto (Italian composer)

    Umberto Giordano, Italian opera composer in the verismo, or “realist,” style, known for his opera Andrea Chénier. Giordano, the son of an artisan, studied music at Foggia and Naples. His early operas, among them Mala vita (1892; Evil Life), were written in the forceful, melodramatic style

  • Giorgi International System of Measurement (measurement)

    Giovanni Giorgi: …best known for developing the Giorgi International System of Measurement (also known as the MKSA system) in 1901. This system proposed as units of scientific measurement the metre, kilogram, second, and joule and was endorsed in 1960 by the General Conference of Weights and Measures (with the ampere instead of…

  • Giorgi, Giovanni (Italian physicist)

    Giovanni Giorgi, Italian physicist who proposed a widely used system for the definition of electrical, magnetic, and mechanical units of measurement. Giorgi studied civil engineering at the Institute of Technology in Rome and from 1906 to 1923 directed the Technology Office of Rome. He taught

  • Giorgione (Italian painter)

    Giorgione, extremely influential Italian painter who was one of the initiators of a High Renaissance style in Venetian art. His qualities of mood and mystery were epitomized in The Tempest (c. 1505), an evocative pastoral scene, which was among the first of its genre in Venetian painting. Nothing

  • Giorgis, House of (church, Ethiopia)

    Lalībela: House of Giyorgis, cruciform in shape, is carved from a sloping rock terrace. House of Golgotha contains Lalībela’s tomb, and House of Mariam is noted for its frescoes. The interiors were hollowed out into naves and given vaulted ceilings.

  • Giornale dei letterati (Italian journal)

    Francesco Scipione, marchese di Maffei: …of an influential literary journal, Giornale dei letterati, a vehicle for his ideas about reforming Italian drama, as was Maffei’s later periodical, Osservazioni letterarie (1737–40). Maffei’s verse tragedy Merope (performed and published 1713; modern ed., 1911) met with astonishing success and, because it was based on Greek mythology and the…

  • giorni contati, I (film by Petri)

    Elio Petri: In 1962 he directed I giorni contati (“Numbered Days”), a film that echoes the works of Michelangelo Antonioni and Ingmar Bergman. In this melancholy story of a welder who, fearing that he has only a short time to live, abandons his work and attempts without success to enjoy life,…

  • giorno della civetta, Il (work by Sciascia)

    Leonardo Sciascia: Mafia Vendetta), a study of the Mafia. Other mystery novels followed, among them A ciascuno il suo (1966; A Man’s Blessing), Il contesto (1971; Equal Danger), and Todo modo (1974; One Way or Another). Sciascia also wrote historical analyses, plays, short stories, and essays on…

  • giorno di regno, Un (opera by Verdi)

    Giuseppe Verdi: Early years: …Verdi saw his next opera, Un giorno di regno (King for a Day), a comedy, hissed off the stage. This compounded trauma led to a severe depression and either caused or fixed the dour, fatalistic, sometimes harsh aspects of Verdi’s character.

  • Giorno dopo giorno (work by Quasimodo)

    Salvatore Quasimodo: …work from the publication of Giorno dopo giorno (1947; “Day After Day”) until his death. Many of his poems recalled the injustices of the fascist regime, the horrors of the war, and Italian guilt. Later poems in the same vein, simple in language, exhibit a concrete and immediate imagery. Later…

  • giorno, Il (work by Parini)

    Giuseppe Parini: …Horatian odes and particularly for Il giorno, (4 books, 1763–1801; The Day), a satiric poem on the selfishness and superficiality of the Milanese aristocracy.

  • Giorno, Il (Neapolitan daily)

    Italy: Media and publishing: &gt;Il Giorno. Local and regional papers are particularly vital in Italy, underlining once again the strength of regional identity in Italian culture. Among the newspapers with the largest circulation are the sports titles La Gazzetta dello Sport and Corriere dello Sport.

  • Giot, P. R. (French archaeologist)

    archaeology: Excavation: The French archaeologist P.-R. Giot was able to halt these depredations and carry out scientific excavations that revealed Barnénès to be one of the most remarkable and interesting prehistoric burial mounds in western Europe.

  • Giotto (Italian painter)

    Giotto , the most important Italian painter of the 14th century, whose works point to the innovations of the Renaissance style that developed a century later. For almost seven centuries Giotto has been revered as the father of European painting and the first of the great Italian masters. He is

  • Giotto (space probe)

    Giotto, European space probe that came within 596 km (370 miles) of the nucleus of Halley’s Comet on March 13, 1986. Giotto was named after the 14th-century Italian painter Giotto di Bondone, whose 1305–06 fresco The Adoration of the Magi includes a realistic depiction of a comet as the Star of

  • Giotto di Bondone (Italian painter)

    Giotto , the most important Italian painter of the 14th century, whose works point to the innovations of the Renaissance style that developed a century later. For almost seven centuries Giotto has been revered as the father of European painting and the first of the great Italian masters. He is

  • Giovanardi, Stefano (Italian literary critic)

    Italian literature: Poetry after World War II: … and critic of contemporary literature Stefano Giovanardi, Poeti italiani del secondo Novecento, 1945–1995 (1996; “Italian Poets of the Second Half of the 20th Century, 1945–1995”), introduced a useful taxonomy. Cucchi and Giovanardi recognized that, in talking about the new poetry, they had to take into account the older, established poets…

  • Giovani, Compagnia dei (Italian theatrical company)

    Giorgio De Lullo: …founder and director of the Compagnia dei Giovani, which performed at theatre festivals including the World Theatre Seasons in London and the Théatre des Nations in Paris.

  • Giovanni Bono, Michele di Taddeo di (Italian artist)

    Michele Giambono, leading Venetian Late Gothic painter and mosaicist, the most distinguished member of a large family of artists working in Venice from 1396 to 1546. Giambono’s grandfather was a painter of Treviso called Giam Bono (also Zambono), and he himself is generally called by this name. The

  • Giovanni da Capistrano, San (Austrian preacher)

    St. John of Capistrano, ; canonized 1690; feast day October 23), one of the greatest Franciscan preachers of the 15th century and leader of an army that liberated Belgrade from a Turkish invasion. In California, the city of San Juan Capistrano and its eponymous Spanish mission that was made famous

  • Giovanni da Fiesole, Fra (Italian painter)

    Fra Angelico, (Italian: “Angelic Brother”) Italian painter, one of the greatest 15th-century painters, whose works within the framework of the early Renaissance style embody a serene religious attitude and reflect a strong Classical influence. A great number of works executed during his career are

  • Giovanni da Pian del Carpini (Franciscan author)

    Giovanni Da Pian Del Carpini, Franciscan friar, first noteworthy European traveller in the Mongol Empire, to which he was sent on a formal mission by Pope Innocent IV. He wrote the earliest important Western work on Central Asia. Giovanni was a contemporary and disciple of St. Francis of Assisi.

  • Giovanni da Verona (Italian architect)

    Fra Giovanni Giocondo, Italian humanist, architect, and engineer, whose designs and written works signal the transition in architectural modes from early to high Renaissance. A learned Franciscan, Fra Giocondo is said to have received an extensive humanistic education. He made an important

  • Giovanni Dalle Bande Nere (Italian leader)

    Giovanni de’ Medici, the most noted soldier of all the Medici. Giovanni belonged to the younger, or cadet, branch of the Medici, descended from Lorenzo, brother to Cosimo the Elder. Always in obscurity and, until the 16th century, held in check by the elder line, this branch first entered the arena

  • Giovanni di Paolo (Italian painter)

    Giovanni di Paolo, painter whose religious paintings maintained the mystical intensity and conservative style of Gothic decorative painting against the trend, progressively dominant in the art of 15th-century Tuscany, toward scientific naturalism and classical humanism. One of the last

  • Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia (Italian painter)

    Giovanni di Paolo, painter whose religious paintings maintained the mystical intensity and conservative style of Gothic decorative painting against the trend, progressively dominant in the art of 15th-century Tuscany, toward scientific naturalism and classical humanism. One of the last

  • Giovanni di Sabina (pope or antipope)

    Sylvester III, pope from January 20 to February 10, 1045. He was bishop of Sabina when elected pope in January 1045 by a faction that had driven Pope Benedict IX out of Rome. The following month, however, Benedict’s supporters in turn expelled Sylvester. Mired in scandal, Benedict felt so uncertain

  • Giovanni di Struma (antipope)

    Calixtus (III), antipope from 1168 to 1178, who reigned with the support of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. Calixtus was elected as Antipope Paschal III’s successor, in opposition to Pope Alexander III. He was Frederick’s protégé until the Treaty of Anagni (1176), which ended the

  • Giovanni Fiorentino, Ser (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Popular literature and romances: 1378; “Dullard”), stories by Ser Giovanni Fiorentino after a pattern set by Boccaccio. In the same vein, Franco Sacchetti’s Trecentonovelle (c. 1390; “Three Hundred Short Stories”) provides colourful and lively descriptions of people and places.

  • Giovanni’s Room (novel by Baldwin)

    Giovanni’s Room, novel by James Baldwin, published in 1956, about a young expatriate American’s inability to come to terms with his sexuality. After a single homosexual experience in adolescence, David represses the impulses he finds unacceptable. In Paris he meets Hella Lincoln, has an affair with

  • Giovanni, Agostino di (Italian sculptor)

    Agostino Di Giovanni, late Gothic sculptor, best known for his work, with Agnolo di Ventura, on the tomb of Guido Tarlati. Agostino is first heard of in Siena in 1310 and again lived there in 1340–43. After 1320 he was active with Agnolo at Volterra, where they executed a number of scenes from the

  • Giovanni, Nikki (American poet)

    Nikki Giovanni, American poet whose writings ranged from calls for black power to poems for children and intimate personal statements. Giovanni grew up in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Knoxville, Tennessee, and in 1960 she entered Nashville’s Fisk University. By 1967, when she received a B.A., she was

  • Giovanni, Piero di (Italian painter)

    Lorenzo Monaco, (Italian: “Lorenzo the Monk”) artist who was the last great exponent of late Gothic painting in what is now Italy. Lorenzo Monaco’s output and stylistic interests (incorporating the gold-leaf background typical of Byzantine art) represent the final gasp of gold-ground brilliance in

  • Giovanni, Stefano di (Italian painter)

    Sassetta, Gothic-style painter considered to be the greatest Sienese painter of the early 15th century. The date and place of his birth are uncertain. He seems to have been trained in Siena, and the force of the Sienese tradition is evident in the vivid colours and elegant use of line in the

  • Giovanni, Yolande Cornelia, Jr. (American poet)

    Nikki Giovanni, American poet whose writings ranged from calls for black power to poems for children and intimate personal statements. Giovanni grew up in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Knoxville, Tennessee, and in 1960 she entered Nashville’s Fisk University. By 1967, when she received a B.A., she was

  • Giovannino de’ Grassi (Italian artist)

    Western painting: International Gothic: …of an earlier court artist, Giovannino de’ Grassi.

  • Giovenale Triptych (work by Masaccio)

    Masaccio: Early life and works: …for the Church of San Giovenale in the town of Cascia, near San Giovanni Valdarno. It displays an acute knowledge of Florentine painting, but its eclectic style, strongly influenced by Giotto and Andrea Orcagna, does not allow us to discern whether Masaccio trained in San Giovanni Valdarno or Florence before…

  • Giovine Italia (Italian nationalist movement)

    Young Italy, movement founded by Giuseppe Mazzini in 1831 to work for a united, republican Italian nation. Attracting many Italians to the cause of independence, it played an important role in the Risorgimento (struggle for Italian unification). Mazzini, in exile at Marseille for his r

  • Giovine Italia (Italian journal)

    Giuseppe Mazzini: Foundation of Young Italy.: Mazzini edited the propagandist journal Giovine Italia, which was smuggled into Italy with other revolutionary pamphlets. He also became the lover of a fellow exile, the beautiful Modenese widow Giuditta Sidoli.

  • Giovio, Paolo (Italian historian)

    Paulus Jovius, Italian historian, author of vivid historical works in Latin, and the owner of a famous art collection. In about 1513 Jovius settled in Rome; he won the favour of Leo X (who compared him to Livy) and of Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici, later Clement VII, whom he helped during the sack of

  • Gipkens, Julius (German designer)

    graphic design: Early developments: …a comparison of German designer Gipkens’s poster for an exhibition of captured Allied aircraft with American illustrator James Montgomery Flagg’s army recruiting poster (both 1917). Gipkens expressed his subject through signs and symbols reduced to flat colour planes within a unified visual composition. In contrast, Flagg used bold lettering and…

  • gipon (clothing)

    Gipon, tunic worn under armour in the 14th century and later adapted for civilian use. At first a tight-fitting garment worn next to the shirt and buttoned down the front, it came down to the knees and was padded and waisted. Later in the century the gipon became shorter, and it was replaced by

  • Gipp, George (American football player)

    George Gipp, American gridiron football player at the University of Notre Dame (1917–20) who became a school legend. Gipp entered Notre Dame on a baseball scholarship, but he was recruited for football by the coach Knute Rockne, who saw Gipp drop-kicking and passing a football on a field adjacent

  • Gipper, the (American football player)

    George Gipp, American gridiron football player at the University of Notre Dame (1917–20) who became a school legend. Gipp entered Notre Dame on a baseball scholarship, but he was recruited for football by the coach Knute Rockne, who saw Gipp drop-kicking and passing a football on a field adjacent

  • Gippius, Zinaida Nikolayevna (Russian poet)

    Zinaida Nikolayevna Gippius, Russian Symbolist poet who wrote in a metaphysical vein. The wife of the poet and novelist Dmitry Merezhkovsky, who was a leader among the Symbolists of the early 1900s, Gippius made her own place in Russian literature. In addition to her poetry, she wrote plays,

  • Gippsland (region, Victoria, Australia)

    Gippsland, region of southeastern Victoria, Australia, extending northeast from Western Port (near Melbourne) to the New South Wales border and south from the Eastern Highlands to the coast, with an area of 13,600 square miles (35,200 square km). Fertile and well watered (34 inches [860 mm]

  • Gippsland Lakes (lake, Victoria, Australia)

    lagoon: Dimensions: The Gippsland Lakes in Victoria, Australia, exemplify a complex lagoon system formed behind a 149-km (93-mile) beach. Elongated lagoons up to 64 km (about 40 miles) in length lie behind the beach barrier, and larger lagoons, such as Lake Wellington, lie behind the southwestern end. Postglacial…

  • Gipstein, Jacob (Israeli sculptor)

    Yaacov Agam, pioneer and leading exponent of optical and kinetic art, best known for his three-dimensional paintings and sculptures. Agam was the son of a Russian rabbi. He grew up in an early Jewish settlement and did not begin his formal schooling until age 13. Having learned to draw at an early

  • Gipsy languages

    Romany languages, group of 60 or more highly divergent dialects that are genetically related to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) languages. The Romany languages are spoken by more than three million individuals worldwide, and the more remotely related Domari group of dialects (whose speakers seem to have

  • Gipton (Greece)

    Lamía, city and dímos (municipality), Central Greece (Modern Greek: Stereá Elláda) periféreia (region), central Greece. It is located in the Sperkhiós River valley at the foot of the óthrys Mountains, near the Gulf of Euboea (évvoia), and is the seat of a bishop of the Greek Orthodox Church. Lamía

  • Gir National Park (national park, India)

    Gir National Park, national park in Gujarat state, west-central India, located about 37 miles (60 km) south-southwest of Junagadh in a hilly region of dry scrubland. It has an area of about 500 square miles (1,295 square km). Vegetation consists of teak with an admixture of deciduous trees,

  • Gir Range (mountains, India)

    Gir Range, low mountain range in western Gujarat state, west-central India, on the southern Kathiawar Peninsula. The range is extremely rugged with a steep slope seaward to the south and a gradual slope inland to the north. From it to the north runs a low, narrow, dissected range rising to

  • Giraffa (mammal)

    Giraffe, (genus Giraffa), any of four species in the genus Giraffa of long-necked cud-chewing hoofed mammals of Africa, with long legs and a coat pattern of irregular brown patches on a light background. Giraffes are the tallest of all land animals; males (bulls) may exceed 5.5 metres (18 feet) in

  • Giraffa camelopardalis (mammal)

    giraffe: … is made up of the northern giraffe (G. camelopardalis), the southern giraffe (G. giraffa), the Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi), and the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata).

  • Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata (mammal)

    giraffe: tippelskirchi), and the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata).

  • Giraffa camelopardalis thorncrofti (mammal)

    giraffe: giraffa), the Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi), and the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata).

  • Giraffa giraffa (mammal)

    giraffe: camelopardalis), the southern giraffe (G. giraffa), the Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi), and the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata).

  • Giraffa reticulata (mammal)

    giraffe: tippelskirchi), and the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata).

  • Giraffa tippelskirchi (mammal)

    giraffe: giraffa), the Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi), and the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata).

  • giraffe (mammal)

    Giraffe, (genus Giraffa), any of four species in the genus Giraffa of long-necked cud-chewing hoofed mammals of Africa, with long legs and a coat pattern of irregular brown patches on a light background. Giraffes are the tallest of all land animals; males (bulls) may exceed 5.5 metres (18 feet) in

  • giraffe piano (musical instrument)

    keyboard instrument: Other early forms: …air, producing the asymmetrical “giraffe piano.” Placing shelves in the upper part of the case to the right of the strings yielded the tall rectangular “cabinet piano.” Because the lower end of the strings, which ran nearly vertically, was about at the level of the keyboard, all such instruments…

  • giraffe rhinoceros (fossil mammal genus)

    Indricotherium, genus of giant browsing perissodactyls found as fossils in Asian deposits of the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene epochs (30 million to 16.6 million years ago). Indricotherium, which was related to the modern rhinoceros but was hornless, was the largest land mammal that ever

  • Giraffe River (river, South Sudan)

    Ba?r al-Zarāf, river, an arm of the Nile River in Al-Sudd region of South Sudan. It is formed in the swamps north of Shambe, diverting water from the Ba?r al-Jabal (Mountain Nile), and flows 150 miles (240 km) north, past Fangak, to join the Ba?r al-Jabal, 35 miles (56 km) west of Malakal. It is

  • Giraffenflügel (musical instrument)

    keyboard instrument: Other early forms: …air, producing the asymmetrical “giraffe piano.” Placing shelves in the upper part of the case to the right of the strings yielded the tall rectangular “cabinet piano.” Because the lower end of the strings, which ran nearly vertically, was about at the level of the keyboard, all such instruments…

  • Giraffidae (mammal family)

    artiodactyl: Abundance and distribution: …giraffe and the okapi (Giraffidae), two distinctive African species, are closely related to deer. The pronghorn (Antilocapridae), although sometimes called pronghorn antelope, is not a true antelope; it is the only survivor of a stock of ruminants that was very successful in the Neogene Period in North America (about…

  • Giralda (minaret, Sevilla, Spain)

    Sevilla: City layout: …portions, its minaret, called the Giralda, was incorporated into the cathedral as its bell tower. The minaret has surfaces almost entirely covered with beautiful yellow brick and stone paneling of Moorish design. The main portion of the Cathedral of Santa Maria is built in the Late Gothic style of France,…

  • Giraldi, Giambattista (Italian poet and dramatist)

    Giambattista Giraldi, Italian poet and dramatist who wrote the first modern tragedy on classical principles to appear on the Italian stage (Orbecche), and who was one of the first writers of tragicomedy. He studied under Celio Calcagnini and succeeded him in the chair of rhetoric at Ferrara (1541),

  • Giraldus Cambrensis (Welsh clergyman)

    Giraldus Cambrensis, archdeacon of Brecknock, Brecknockshire (1175–1204), and historian, whose accounts of life in the late 12th century stand as a valuable historical source. His works contain vivid anecdotes about the Christian church, particularly in Wales, about the growing universities of

  • girandole (wall bracket)

    Girandole, elaborate wall bracket incorporating one or more candleholders and frequently a mirror to reflect the light. An object of luxury, it was usually embellished with carving and gilding. Although the name is Italian in origin, girandoles reached the greatest heights of fashion (in the second

  • Girandole, Bernardo delle (Italian stage designer)

    Bernardo Buontalenti, Florentine stage designer and theatre architect. Buontalenti entered the service of the Medici as a youth and remained with them the rest of his life. In the Uffizi Palace, Florence, he built a great court stage, where, during the winter of 1585–86, splendid fetes were

  • Girard, Albert (French mathematician)

    Fibonacci: Contributions to number theory: …formula by the French-born mathematician Albert Girard in 1634: un + 2 = un + 1 + un, in which u represents the term and the subscript its rank in the sequence. The mathematician Robert Simson at the University of Glasgow in 1753 noted that, as the numbers increased in…

  • Girard, Henri (French writer and activist)

    Georges Arnaud, French novelist and social activist. Arnaud’s father was Georges Girard, a state official and noted historian who was killed along with Arnaud’s aunt on the family estate near Perigueux in central France (1941). Accused of the murders, Arnaud spent 19 months in jail before he was

  • Girard, Henri (French writer and activist)

    Georges Arnaud, French novelist and social activist. Arnaud’s father was Georges Girard, a state official and noted historian who was killed along with Arnaud’s aunt on the family estate near Perigueux in central France (1941). Accused of the murders, Arnaud spent 19 months in jail before he was

  • Girard, Henri Georges Charles Achille (French writer and activist)

    Georges Arnaud, French novelist and social activist. Arnaud’s father was Georges Girard, a state official and noted historian who was killed along with Arnaud’s aunt on the family estate near Perigueux in central France (1941). Accused of the murders, Arnaud spent 19 months in jail before he was

  • Girard, Rodolphe (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: The Montreal School, 1895–1935: However, Quebec authors such as Rodolphe Girard (Marie Calumet [1904; Eng. trans. Marie Calumet]) and Albert Laberge (La Scouine [1918; Bitter Bread]), who portrayed country life too realistically, were censured and ostracized. The one poet who anticipated future trends, Jean-Aubert Loranger (Les Atmosphères [1920; "Atmospheres"]), was ignored.

  • Girard, Stephen (American financier)

    Stephen Girard, American financier and philanthropist whose purchase of government bonds during the War of 1812 provided economic support for continuation of U.S. military campaigns. Girard shipped out to sea at the age of 14 and by 1774 was captain of a ship involved in U.S. coastal trade with the

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