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  • Gironde (department, France)

    Aquitaine: …the southwestern départements of Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, and Pyrénées-Atlantiques. In 2016 the Aquitaine région was joined with the régions of Poitou-Charentes and Limousin to form the new administrative entity of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. The present-day région of Nouvelle-Aquitaine roughly matches the western half of the historical region of Aquitaine.

  • Girondin (political group, France)

    Girondin, a label applied to a loose grouping of republican politicians, some of them originally from the département of the Gironde, who played a leading role in the Legislative Assembly from October 1791 to September 1792 during the French Revolution. Lawyers, intellectuals and journalists, the

  • Girondo, Oliverio (Argentine writer, painter, and poet)

    Oliverio Girondo, Argentine writer, painter, and poet known for his involvement with Ultraism, a movement in poetry characterized by avant-garde imagery and symbolism as well as metrical complexity. Born to a well-to-do family, Girondo traveled extensively across Europe and other parts of the world

  • Girone il cortese (work by Alamanni)

    Italian literature: Poetry: …on a single character in Girone il cortese (1548; “Girone the Courteous”) and Avarchide (1570), an imitation of the Iliad of Homer. Giambattista Giraldi, while more famous as a storyteller and a tragic playwright, was a literary theorist who tried to apply his own pragmatic theories in his poem Ercole…

  • Gironella Pous, José María (Spanish author)

    José María Gironella, Spanish author best remembered for his long historical novel Los cipreses creen en Dios (1953; The Cypresses Believe in God), in which the conflicts within a family portrayed in the novel symbolize the dissension that overtook the people of Spain during the years preceding the

  • Gironella, Alberto (Mexican painter)

    Alberto Gironella, Mexican painter who was an important member of a generation of Mexican artists that drew inspiration from Surrealism and rebelled against the politically inspired Muralism favoured by such earlier painters as David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera. After helping to found two

  • Gironella, José María (Spanish author)

    José María Gironella, Spanish author best remembered for his long historical novel Los cipreses creen en Dios (1953; The Cypresses Believe in God), in which the conflicts within a family portrayed in the novel symbolize the dissension that overtook the people of Spain during the years preceding the

  • Girouard v. United States (law case)

    Harlan Fiske Stone: In Girouard v. United States, 328 U.S. 61, 76 (1946), the court followed Stone’s dissent in a similar case, United States v. Macintosh, 283 U.S. 605 (1931), in which he had argued that religious pacifists who refused to take the statutory oath to bear arms could…

  • Giroud, Fran?oise (French journalist)

    Fran?oise Giroud, (France Gourdji), French journalist (born Sept. 21, 1916, Geneva, Switz.—died Jan. 19, 2003, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), cofounded and edited L’Express, France’s first weekly newsmagazine, and coined the term nouvelle vague to describe the French cinema of the 1950s. Giroud e

  • Giroux, Robert (American editor and publisher)

    Robert Giroux, American editor and publisher (born April 8, 1914, Jersey City, N.J.—died Sept. 5, 2008, Tinton Falls, N.J.), introduced and guided many of the top authors of the 20th century in a lengthy career in which he ascended to partner (1964) and chairman (1973) of the distinguished

  • Girrard, Robert (American artist)

    Thomas Kinkade, American artist who built a successful industry on his light-infused paintings of tranquil idyllic scenes. Kinkade studied art history and took studio classes for two years at the University of California, Berkeley, before transferring to the Art Center College of Design in

  • Girs, Nikolay Karlovich (Russian statesman)

    Nikolay Karlovich Giers, statesman and foreign minister of Russia during the reign of Alexander III (ruled 1881–94). He guided Russia into a rapprochement with France and thereby formed the basis of the Russo-Franco-British alliance that fought against the Central Powers in World War I. Having

  • Girsu (ancient city, Iraq)

    Lagash, one of the most important capital cities in ancient Sumer, located midway between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in southeastern Iraq. The ancient name of the mound of Telloh was actually Girsu, while Lagash originally denoted a site southeast of Girsu, later becoming the name of the whole

  • Girtin, Thomas (British artist)

    Thomas Girtin, British artist who at the turn of the 19th century firmly established the aesthetic autonomy of watercolour (formerly used mainly to colour engravings) by employing its transparent washes to evoke a new sense of atmospheric space. While still boys, Girtin and his friend J.M.W. Turner

  • Girton College (college, University of Cambridge, England, United Kingdom)

    coeducation: In England, Girton College at Cambridge was established for women in 1869, and the London School of Economics was opened to women in 1874. Germany permitted women to matriculate in 1901, and by 1910 women had been admitted to universities in the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland,…

  • Giry, Arthur (French historian)

    Arthur Giry, French historian noted for his studies of the French Middle Ages. After a brief career in administrative services and journalism, Giry devoted himself to scholarship. His first major work was Histoire de la ville de Saint-Omer et de ses institutions jusqu’au XIVe siècle (1877). The

  • Giry, Jean-Marie-Joseph-Arthur (French historian)

    Arthur Giry, French historian noted for his studies of the French Middle Ages. After a brief career in administrative services and journalism, Giry devoted himself to scholarship. His first major work was Histoire de la ville de Saint-Omer et de ses institutions jusqu’au XIVe siècle (1877). The

  • Giryama (people)

    African art: Coastal East Africa: Like the Konso, the Giryama of Kenya produced grave posts surmounted by schematic heads. Notable among the remaining peoples who produce sculpture are the Kamba, who spontaneously developed a style of wood carving, embellished with coiled-wire jewelry ornament, now sold in gift shops; formerly their art was applied to…

  • GIS (computer system)

    GIS, computer system for performing geographical analysis. GIS has four interactive components: an input subsystem for converting into digital form (digitizing) maps and other spatial data; a storage and retrieval subsystem; an analysis subsystem; and an output subsystem for producing maps, tables,

  • GIS (labour)

    guaranteed wage plan: Known as the guaranteed income stream (GIS), this plan was designed to guarantee employees 50 percent of their hourly rate of pay until age 62. GIS programs were widely used during the economic slump of the early 1980s, when many labour settlements used it to provide income stability…

  • gisant (sculpture)

    Gisant, (French: “reclining”) in sepulchral sculpture, a recumbent effigy representing the person dying or in death. The typical gisant depicts the deceased in “eternal repose,” awaiting the resurrection in prayer or holding attributes of office and clothed in the formal attire of his social class

  • Gisborne (New Zealand)

    Gisborne, city (“district”) and port on Poverty Bay, east coast of North Island, New Zealand. The city is located where the Waimata and Taruheru rivers join to form the Turanganui. It was the first area in New Zealand visited (1769) by Captain James Cook. It received its first permanent European

  • Gisborne (unitary authority, New Zealand)

    Gisborne, unitary authority, east-central North Island, New Zealand. The authority includes the eastern side of East Cape (the easternmost promontory of North Island), most of the Raukumara Range, and the Waipaoa and Mata rivers. Gisborne is bounded by the Bay of Plenty regional council to the west

  • Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry (president of France)

    Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, French political leader, who served as the third president of the Fifth Republic of France (1974–81). Giscard was the eldest son of a prominent French financier and economist and member of a patrician family. He attended the école Polytechnique (interrupting his schooling

  • Gisela (duchess of Swabia)

    Conrad II: In 1016 he married Gisela, the widowed duchess of Swabia and a descendant of Charlemagne. Conrad, however, was distantly related to Gisela. When strict canonists took exception to the marriage, Emperor Henry II, who was jealous of the growth of Conrad’s personal influence, used their findings as an excuse…

  • Giselbert (king of Lotharingia)

    Henry I: Henry defeated Giselbert, king of Lotharingia, in 925, and that region, which had become independent of Germany in 910, was brought back under German control. Giselbert, who was recognized as duke of Lotharingia, married the king’s daughter Gerberga in 928.

  • Giselle (ballet by Adam)

    Giselle, ballet by French composer Adolphe Adam, first performed in Paris on June 28, 1841. Other than the Christmas carol Minuit, Chrétiens (known in English as O Holy Night), Giselle is Adam’s most famous work. The idea for the ballet Giselle originated with French poet and novelist Théophile

  • Gish (album by Smashing Pumpkins)

    Smashing Pumpkins: …was the band’s debut album, Gish (1991), with its arena-ready anthems, multitracked guitars, and high melodrama, that helped transform the rock landscape of the 1990s. The Smashing Pumpkins got even bigger with the release of their second album, the multiplatinum Siamese Dream (1993), which featured the hits “Cherub Rock,” “Today,”…

  • Gish, Dorothy (American actress)

    Dorothy Gish, American actress who, like her sister Lillian, was a major figure in silent films, particularly director D.W. Griffith’s classics. Gish grew up in New York City and made her stage debut at age four. She and Lillian formed close friendships with the actress Mary Pickford (then known as

  • Gish, Dorothy Elizabeth (American actress)

    Dorothy Gish, American actress who, like her sister Lillian, was a major figure in silent films, particularly director D.W. Griffith’s classics. Gish grew up in New York City and made her stage debut at age four. She and Lillian formed close friendships with the actress Mary Pickford (then known as

  • Gish, Lillian (American actress)

    Lillian Gish, American actress who, like her sister Dorothy, was a major figure in the early motion picture industry, particularly in director D.W. Griffith’s silent film classics. She is regarded as one of silent cinema’s finest actresses. Gish grew up from roughly 1900 in New York City and made

  • Gish, Lillian Diana (American actress)

    Lillian Gish, American actress who, like her sister Dorothy, was a major figure in the early motion picture industry, particularly in director D.W. Griffith’s silent film classics. She is regarded as one of silent cinema’s finest actresses. Gish grew up from roughly 1900 in New York City and made

  • Gísla saga (Icelandic literature)

    Gísla saga, an Icelandic saga set in northwestern Iceland and written probably before the middle of the 13th century, which tells of an outlaw poet, Gísli Súrsson (d. c. ad 980), who was punished by his enemies for loyally avenging his foster brother. It includes rich descriptions of nature and is

  • Gísla saga Súrssonar (Icelandic literature)

    Gísla saga, an Icelandic saga set in northwestern Iceland and written probably before the middle of the 13th century, which tells of an outlaw poet, Gísli Súrsson (d. c. ad 980), who was punished by his enemies for loyally avenging his foster brother. It includes rich descriptions of nature and is

  • Gislebert (French sculptor)

    Gislebertus, French sculptor who made major contributions to the Cathedral of Saint-Lazare in Autun and to several Burgundian churches from 1125 to 1135. Gislebertus first worked at Cluny and by 1115 was probably one of the chief assistants to the Master of Cluny. In the Cluny workshop he c

  • Gislebertus (French sculptor)

    Gislebertus, French sculptor who made major contributions to the Cathedral of Saint-Lazare in Autun and to several Burgundian churches from 1125 to 1135. Gislebertus first worked at Cluny and by 1115 was probably one of the chief assistants to the Master of Cluny. In the Cluny workshop he c

  • gismondine (mineral)

    Gismondine, rare mineral in the zeolite family. Many specimens have been found in Ireland and Iceland in basaltic lavas, along with such other zeolites as chabazite, thomsonite, and phillipsite. Gismondine forms colourless, bipyramidal crystals of orthorhombic symmetry; it is a hydrated calcium

  • gismondite (mineral)

    Gismondine, rare mineral in the zeolite family. Many specimens have been found in Ireland and Iceland in basaltic lavas, along with such other zeolites as chabazite, thomsonite, and phillipsite. Gismondine forms colourless, bipyramidal crystals of orthorhombic symmetry; it is a hydrated calcium

  • Gisors (France)

    Gisors, market town, Eure département, Normandy région, northwestern France. It lies in the valley of the Epte River, northwest of Paris and southwest of Beauvais. The early town was dominated by an 11th- and 12th-century castle built by the kings of England and France, and its strategic position

  • Gisors, Charles Fouquet, duc de (French marshal)

    Charles Fouquet, duke de Belle-Isle, marshal of France and statesman chiefly important for his role in involving France in the War of the Austrian Succession. A grandson of the notorious Nicolas Fouquet, finance minister under Louis XIV, Belle-Isle joined the army as a youth and fought in the War

  • Gisors, Treaty of (Flemish history)

    Philip II: Early life and kingship: …July 1185 (confirmed by the Treaty of Gisors in May 1186), the king and the count of Flanders composed their differences (which had been chiefly over possession of Vermandois, in Picardy) so that the disputed territory was partitioned, Amiens and numerous other places passing to the king and the remainder,…

  • Gissar Range (mountains, Central Asia)

    Asia: Geologic and climatic influences: …in the Tien Shan and Gissar and Alay ranges, played a significant role.

  • Gissey, Henri (French designer)

    stagecraft: Costume in Baroque opera and ballet: Berain and Henri Gissey were attached to the Royal Cabinet of Louis XIV. Gissey is most famous for his celebrated Carrousel (1662), a horse spectacular never since surpassed in its magnificence—500 noblemen in plumed regalia escorted by a greater number of elaborately dressed attendants. Costumes represented different…

  • Gissing, George (English novelist)

    George Gissing, English novelist, noted for the unflinching realism of his novels about the lower middle class. Gissing was educated at Owens College, Manchester, where his academic career was brilliant until he was expelled (and briefly imprisoned) for theft. His personal life remained, until the

  • Gissing, George Robert (English novelist)

    George Gissing, English novelist, noted for the unflinching realism of his novels about the lower middle class. Gissing was educated at Owens College, Manchester, where his academic career was brilliant until he was expelled (and briefly imprisoned) for theft. His personal life remained, until the

  • Gissurarson, ísleifur (Icelandic bishop)

    Icelandic literature: Prose: One of the first was ísleifr, who, after being educated and ordained a priest, was consecrated bishop. His school at Skálholt in southern Iceland was for many centuries the chief bishopric and a main centre of learning. The earliest remembered historian is S?mundr the Wise, but Ari Torgilsson is regarded…

  • GIST (pathology)

    imatinib: …for the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), which are rare cancers affecting interstitial cells that regulate the autonomic nervous function of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical trials investigating the efficacy of imatinib against other types of cancers are ongoing.

  • Gist, Christopher (American colonial explorer)

    Christopher Gist, American colonial explorer and military scout who wrote highly informative journals describing his experiences. Little is known about the early life of Gist, although it is probable that his surveyor father trained him in this profession. In 1750 he left his home in North Carolina

  • Gist, George (Cherokee leader)

    Sequoyah, creator of the Cherokee writing system (see Cherokee language). Sequoyah was probably the son of a Virginia fur trader named Nathaniel Gist. Reared by his Cherokee mother, Wuh-teh of the Paint clan, in the Tennessee country, he never learned to speak, read, or write English. He was an

  • Gisu (people)

    Mount Elgon: The Bantu-speaking Gishu (Gisu), cultivators of coffee, bananas, millet, and corn (maize), occupy the western slopes. Elgonyi was the Masai name for the mountain. The Scottish explorer Joseph Thomson visited the southern side of Elgon in 1883; in 1890 Frederick (later Sir Frederick) Jackson and Ernest Gedge traversed…

  • Gisulf II (prince of Salerno)

    Gisulph II, prince of Salerno, the last important Lombard ruler to oppose the Norman conquest of southern Italy; his defeat marked the end of effective resistance to the Normans. In 1052 Gisulph’s father, Gaimar V, was assassinated in a revolt. Gisulph, held captive by the assassins, was rescued w

  • Gisulfo (prince of Salerno)

    Gisulph II, prince of Salerno, the last important Lombard ruler to oppose the Norman conquest of southern Italy; his defeat marked the end of effective resistance to the Normans. In 1052 Gisulph’s father, Gaimar V, was assassinated in a revolt. Gisulph, held captive by the assassins, was rescued w

  • Gisulph II (prince of Salerno)

    Gisulph II, prince of Salerno, the last important Lombard ruler to oppose the Norman conquest of southern Italy; his defeat marked the end of effective resistance to the Normans. In 1052 Gisulph’s father, Gaimar V, was assassinated in a revolt. Gisulph, held captive by the assassins, was rescued w

  • Gita Govinda (poem by Jayadeva)

    Gītagovinda, (Sanskrit: “The Poem in which the Cowherd Is Sung”), lyrical poem celebrating the romance of the divine cowherd Krishna and his beloved, Rādhā, renowned both for its high literary value and for its expression of religious longing, and popular particularly among Vai??avas (followers of

  • Gita Press (Hindu publishing organization)

    Gita Press, Hinduism’s largest printer, publisher, and distributor of religious literature. Envisaged as the Hindu equivalent of a Christian Bible society, Gita Press was established on April 29, 1923, in the town of Gorakhpur by altruistic businessmen under the direction of Jayadayal Goyandka

  • Gītagovinda (poem by Jayadeva)

    Gītagovinda, (Sanskrit: “The Poem in which the Cowherd Is Sung”), lyrical poem celebrating the romance of the divine cowherd Krishna and his beloved, Rādhā, renowned both for its high literary value and for its expression of religious longing, and popular particularly among Vai??avas (followers of

  • Gitanes (people)

    Roma, an ethnic group of traditionally itinerant people who originated in northern India but live in modern times worldwide, principally in Europe. Most Roma speak some form of Romany, a language closely related to the modern Indo-European languages of northern India, as well as the major language

  • Gitanjali (poetry by Tagore)

    Gītā?jali, a collection of poetry, the most famous work by Rabindranath Tagore, published in India in 1910. Tagore then translated it into prose poems in English, as Gitanjali: Song Offerings, and it was published in 1912 with an introduction by William Butler Yeats. Medieval Indian lyrics of

  • Gitanjali (Song Offerings) (work by Tagore)

    Rabindranath Tagore: …introduced to the West in Gitanjali (Song Offerings) (1912). This book, containing Tagore’s English prose translations of religious poems from several of his Bengali verse collections, including Gitanjali (1910), was hailed by W.B. Yeats and André Gide and won him the Nobel Prize in 1913. Tagore was awarded a knighthood…

  • Gitanos (Roma confederation)

    Spain: The Gitano minority: The one ethnic minority of long standing in Spain is the Roma (Gypsies), who are known in Spain as Gitanos. Their traditional language is Caló. Many of them have assimilated into the mainstream of Spanish society, but others continue to lead their traditional…

  • Gitanos (people)

    Roma, an ethnic group of traditionally itinerant people who originated in northern India but live in modern times worldwide, principally in Europe. Most Roma speak some form of Romany, a language closely related to the modern Indo-European languages of northern India, as well as the major language

  • Gitans (Roma confederation)

    Spain: The Gitano minority: The one ethnic minority of long standing in Spain is the Roma (Gypsies), who are known in Spain as Gitanos. Their traditional language is Caló. Many of them have assimilated into the mainstream of Spanish society, but others continue to lead their traditional…

  • Gitega (Burundi)

    Gitega, town, central Burundi. The town lies about 40 miles (65 km) east of the national capital of Bujumbura. For centuries Gitega was the seat of the Burundian mwami (king) and the capital of the kingdom of Burundi. It also served as an administrative centre when Burundi was under colonial rule.

  • Gitelman syndrome (pathology)

    Bartter syndrome: Types of Bartter syndrome: Gitelman syndrome is caused by mutations in SLC12A3 (solute carrier family 12, member 3), which encodes a protein that specializes in the transport of sodium and chloride into the kidney tubules, thereby mediating the reabsorption of these electrolytes and maintaining electrolyte homeostasis.

  • Gitksan (language)

    Athabaskan language family: Gitksan, a Tsimshianic language spoken to the west, contributed xwts’a:n or pts’a:n (‘totem pole’), which became ts’an in Witsuwit’en. The Witsuwit’en l?mes ‘mass’ is from the French la messe; m?sin ‘copper’ is from the English machine. All extant Athabaskan languages use some English loanwords. French…

  • Gitlin, Todd (American political activist and author)

    Todd Gitlin, American political activist, author, and public intellectual best known as a media analyst and as an internal critic of the American left. Gitlin was born into a liberal Jewish family and attended public schools in New York City. After graduating as valedictorian from the Bronx High

  • Gitlin, Todd Alan (American political activist and author)

    Todd Gitlin, American political activist, author, and public intellectual best known as a media analyst and as an internal critic of the American left. Gitlin was born into a liberal Jewish family and attended public schools in New York City. After graduating as valedictorian from the Bronx High

  • Gitlow v. New York (law case)

    Gitlow v. New York, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on June 8, 1925, that the U.S. Constitution’s First Amendment protection of free speech, which states that the federal “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech,” applied also to state governments. The decision was the

  • Gitmo (United States detention facility, Cuba)

    Guantánamo Bay detention camp, U.S. detention facility on the Guantánamo Bay Naval Base, located on the coast of Guantánamo Bay in southeastern Cuba. Constructed in stages starting in 2002, the Guantánamo Bay detention camp (often called Gitmo, which is also a name for the naval base) was used to

  • gitoxin (pharmacology)

    steroid: Cardiac glycosides and aglycones: (Digitalis): digitoxin, gitoxin, and digoxin. Each of these contains a specific aglycone (e.g., digitoxigenin [23] is the aglycone of digitoxin) linked to three molecules of the sugar digitoxose and is derived from a more complex glycoside (digilanides A, B, and C, respectively) from which glucose and acetic…

  • gittern (musical instrument)

    Gittern, either of two medieval stringed musical instruments, the guitarra latina and the guitarra morisca. The latter was also known as the guitarra saracenica. The guitarra latina, an ancestor of the modern guitar, usually had four strings and was plucked with a plectrum. Early drawings and the

  • gittin (Jewish document)

    Get, Jewish document of divorce written in Aramaic according to a prescribed formula. Orthodox and Conservative Jews recognize it as the only valid instrument for severing a marriage bond. Rabbinic courts outside Israel, recognizing the need to comply with civil laws regulating divorce and s

  • Giuba River (river, Africa)

    Jubba River, principal river of Somalia in northeastern Africa. Originating via its headwater streams in the Mendebo Mountains of southern Ethiopia, it flows about 545 miles (875 km) from Doolow on the Ethiopian frontier to the Indian Ocean just north of Kismaayo, one of Somalia’s three main ports.

  • Giudice, Antonio (Spanish diplomat)

    Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duke du Maine: …ambassador, Antonio Giudice, Prince de Cellamare, to substitute Philip V of Spain (grandson of Louis XIV) as regent instead of Orléans. Orléans learned of the plot, and in December du Maine, his wife, and Cellamare were arrested. Imprisoned for a little more than a year, du Maine then retired from…

  • Giudici, Francesco (Italian painter)

    Franciabigio, Italian Renaissance painter, best known for his portraits and religious paintings. His style included early Renaissance, High Renaissance, and proto-Mannerist elements. Franciabigio had completed an apprenticeship under his father, a weaver, by 1504. He probably then trained under the

  • Giudici, Francesco (Italian painter)

    Franciabigio, Italian Renaissance painter, best known for his portraits and religious paintings. His style included early Renaissance, High Renaissance, and proto-Mannerist elements. Franciabigio had completed an apprenticeship under his father, a weaver, by 1504. He probably then trained under the

  • Giudini, Francesco (Italian painter)

    Franciabigio, Italian Renaissance painter, best known for his portraits and religious paintings. His style included early Renaissance, High Renaissance, and proto-Mannerist elements. Franciabigio had completed an apprenticeship under his father, a weaver, by 1504. He probably then trained under the

  • Giuffre, James Peter (American musician and composer)

    Jimmy Giuffre, (James Peter Giuffre), American jazz woodwind player and composer (born April 26, 1921, Dallas, Texas—died April 24, 2008, Pittsfield, Mass.), experimented with jazz sounds and structures and, with a series of combos named the Jimmy Giuffre Three, pioneered chamber jazz—at first in

  • Giuffre, Jimmy (American musician and composer)

    Jimmy Giuffre, (James Peter Giuffre), American jazz woodwind player and composer (born April 26, 1921, Dallas, Texas—died April 24, 2008, Pittsfield, Mass.), experimented with jazz sounds and structures and, with a series of combos named the Jimmy Giuffre Three, pioneered chamber jazz—at first in

  • Giulia, Via (Roman road, Italy)

    Donato Bramante: Roman period: …of an organic plan, the Via Giulia (from the Ponte Sisto to the Vatican) was laid out with a large piazza that was to constitute a centre of activity for the city government; the Via della Lungara (from the Vatican across Trastevere to the river port installations of Ripa Grande)…

  • Giulia, Villa (Rome, Italy)

    Western architecture: Italian Mannerism or Late Renaissance (1520–1600): In the Villa Giulia (c. 1550–55), the most significant secular project of its time, Vasari appears to have been in charge of the scenic integration of the various elements; Giacomo da Vignola designed part of the actual building, while the Mannerist sculptor Bartolommeo Ammanati was largely responsible…

  • Giuliani, Giovanni (Italian sculptor)

    Georg Raphael Donner: …Heiligenkreutz, Donner met the sculptor Giovanni Giuliani and was encouraged to take up sculpture, working in Giuliani’s studio and later entering the Vienna Academy. He lived in Salzburg for some years, later returning to Vienna, where he produced his masterpiece, the Providence Fountain (1738–39) on the Neuer Markt. The figures…

  • Giuliani, Rudolph William (American politician and lawyer)

    Rudy Giuliani, American lawyer and politician who served as mayor of New York City (1994–2001). He was especially known for his handling of the September 11 attacks of 2001. Giuliani was educated at Manhattan College (A.B., 1965) and New York University (J.D., 1968). Beginning in 1970, he worked

  • Giuliani, Rudy (American politician and lawyer)

    Rudy Giuliani, American lawyer and politician who served as mayor of New York City (1994–2001). He was especially known for his handling of the September 11 attacks of 2001. Giuliani was educated at Manhattan College (A.B., 1965) and New York University (J.D., 1968). Beginning in 1970, he worked

  • Giulie, Alpi (mountains, Europe)

    Julian Alps, range of the Eastern Alps, extending southeastward from the Carnic Alps and the town of Tarvisio in northeastern Italy to near the city of Ljubljana in Slovenia. Composed mainly of limestone, the mountains are bounded by the Fella River and Sella di (Pass of) Camporosso (northwest) and

  • Giulietta degli spiriti (film by Fellini [1965])

    Federico Fellini: Major works: …in Giulietta degli spiriti (1965: Juliet of the Spirits), with Masina as a simple bourgeois haunted by the supernatural.

  • Giulietta e Romeo (opera by Zingarelli)

    Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli: …in the German states, and Giulietta e Romeo (1796), after William Shakespeare, held to be his finest work. From 1794 to 1804 he was music director at Loreto, where he composed a large number of sacred works (still in manuscript) and continued to write operas for production in Milan and…

  • Giulini, Carlo Maria (Italian conductor)

    Carlo Maria Giulini, Italian conductor esteemed for his skills in directing both grand opera and symphony orchestras. Giulini studied under Bernardino Molinari at Rome’s Accademia di Santa Cecilia (later Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia). As violist for that institution’s resident orchestra, he

  • Giulio Romano (Italian artist and architect)

    Giulio Romano, late Renaissance painter and architect, the principal heir of Raphael, and one of the initiators of the Mannerist style. Giulio was apprenticed to Raphael as a child and had become so important in the workshop that by Raphael’s death, in 1520, he was named with G. Penni as one of the

  • Giunta Pisano (Italian painter)

    Giunta Pisano, Italian painter, a native of Pisa and a pioneer who, coming from Tuscany to Assisi, influenced the development of Umbrian art. It is said that he painted in the upper church of Assisi, notably a “Crucifixion” dated 1236, with a figure of Father Elias, the general of the Franciscans,

  • giuramento, Il (opera by Mercadante)

    Saverio Mercadante: …Meyerbeer, and his next opera, Il giuramento (“The Oath”; performed in 1837 and considered to be his best opera), reflects the lessons he learned from that composer. Thereafter he continued to attempt a more harmonious blend of drama and music and led the way toward simplified vocal lines, originality, and…

  • Giurgiu (Romania)

    Giurgiu, city, capital of Giurgiu jude? (county), southern Romania. It is situated on the left (north) bank of the Danube, 40 miles (65 km) south of Bucharest. Its origins have not been clearly established, though it is probable that Genoese navigators built a citadel named San Giorgio on the

  • Giurgiu (county, Romania)

    Giurgiu, jude? (county), southeastern Romania, occupying an area of 1,361 square miles (3,526 square km) bounded on the south by the Danube River and Bulgaria. The county, consisting mostly of lowlands, was formed in 1981 from a portion of Ilfov district. Besides the eastward-flowing Danube, the

  • Giuseppe del Gesù (Italian violin maker [1698-1745])

    Guarneri Family: …was a nephew of Andrea, Giuseppe, known as “Giuseppe del Gesù” (1698–1745), whose title originates in the “I.H.S.” inscribed on his labels. He was much influenced by the works of the earlier Brescian school, particularly those of G.P. Maggini, whom he followed in the boldness of outline and the massive…

  • Giuseppe, Benvenuto di (Italian painter)

    Cimabue, painter and mosaicist, the last great Italian artist in the Byzantine style, which had dominated early medieval painting in Italy. Among his surviving works are the frescoes of New Testament scenes in the upper church of S. Francesco, Assisi; the Sta. Trinità Madonna (c. 1290); and the

  • Giusti, Giuseppe (Italian author)

    Giuseppe Giusti, northern Italian poet and satirist, whose satires on Austrian rule during the early years of Italy’s nationalistic movement (the Risorgimento) had great influence and are still enjoyed for their Tuscan wit and lively style. Giusti was sporadically a law student in Pisa (1826–29 and

  • Giustiniani Longo, Giovanni (Genoese captain)

    Fall of Constantinople: Context: …arrived in January 1453 with Giovanni Giustiniani Longo at their head. Emperor Constantine XI named Giustiniani commander of his land defenses and spent the rest of the winter strengthening the city for a siege.

  • Giustino (work by Metastasio)

    Pietro Metastasio: …age of 14 he wrote Giustino, a tragedy in the Senecan style; and in 1717 he published a book of verses. In 1718 Metastasio entered the Accademia dell’Arcadia, and in 1719 he went to Naples where he was employed in a law office and gained acceptance in aristocratic circles through…

  • Give Me the Man (popular song)

    Marlene Dietrich: …Vie en rose,” and “Give Me the Man” made them classics of an era. Her many affairs with both men and women were open secrets, but rather than destroying her career they seemed to enhance it. Her adoption of trousers and other mannish clothes made her a trendsetter and…

  • give-and-go (basketball)

    Joe Lapchick: Lapchick popularized the give-and-go play in which one player makes a short pass to a teammate and cuts for the basket to receive a pass and shoot. After his retirement as a coach, he was a sports coordinator at a country club.

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