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  • giveaway (North American Indian custom)

    Native American religions: Diversity and common themes: …practice known in English as giveaway or in the potlatch of the Northwest Coast peoples, in which property and gifts are ceremonially distributed. Human beings are taught to give eagerly because in so doing they imitate the generosity of the many other-than-human entities that provide for human sustenance.

  • Given (novel by Musgrave)

    Susan Musgrave: Fiction and essays: …Cargo of Orchids (2000) and Given (2012). She also wrote several children’s books: Gullband (1974), a series of poems; Hag’s Head (1980), a Halloween story; Kestrel and Leonardo (1991); Dreams More Real Than Bathtubs (1998); and Kiss, Tickle, Cuddle Hug (2012). Her essays and humorous newspaper columns are collected in…

  • given name (linguistics)

    name: Forms of personal names: …the first name or the given name. Because many people received the same name (given name), they were differentiated by surnames (for example, John Redhead, John Hunter, John Scott). Many of these surnames became fixed and hereditary in individual families. These are called either surnames or family names, and in…

  • Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas (work by Duchamp)

    Marcel Duchamp: Farewell to art: …on a major piece called étant donnés: 1. la chute d’eau, 2. le gaz d’éclairage (Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas). It is now at the Philadelphia Museum of Art and offers through two small holes in a heavy wooden door a glimpse of Duchamp’s enigma.

  • Givenchy (French fashion house)

    Hubert de Givenchy: …1952 he opened his own house and maintained very low overhead costs in order to lower the prices of his designs. Givenchy’s first collection, featuring flawlessly detailed separates, high-style coats, and elegant ball gowns, gained immediate international recognition. His designs used imaginative accessories, silk prints, and embroidered fabrics. His “Bettina…

  • Givenchy, Hubert de (French fashion designer)

    Hubert de Givenchy, French fashion designer noted for his couture and ready-to-wear designs, especially those he created for the actress Audrey Hepburn. Givenchy studied art at the école des Beaux-Arts in Paris and later studied law. At 17 he was apprenticed to the Parisian designer Jacques Fath,

  • Givens, Robin (American actress)

    Mike Tyson: In 1988 Tyson married actress Robin Givens, but the couple divorced in 1989 amid allegations that Tyson had physically abused her. A myriad of assault and harassment charges were subsequently filed against Tyson.

  • Giver, The (film by Noyce [2014])

    Jeff Bridges: …an ostensibly utopian society, in The Giver (2014). Bridges had for years attempted to secure financing for the film, based on the novel for young readers by Lois Lowry, and ultimately served as a producer. He later was cast as a Texas sheriff pursuing bank robbers in Hell or High…

  • Giverny (France)

    Claude Monet: Later Impressionism: …Jean and Michel, settled at Giverny, a hamlet near Vernon, 52 miles (84 km) from Paris, on the tiny Epte River. There Monet purchased a farmhouse surrounded by an orchard, which was to be his home until his death and is now a French national monument. After the travels of…

  • Givetian Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Givetian Stage, uppermost of the two standard worldwide divisions of Middle Devonian rocks and time. Givetian time spans the interval between 387.7 million and 382.7 million years ago. It was named for exposures studied near Givet in the Ardennes region of northern France and is characterized by a

  • Givhan v. Western Line Consolidated School District (law case)

    Givhan v. Western Line Consolidated School District, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on January 9, 1979, ruled (9–0) that, under the First Amendment’s freedom of speech clause, public employees are permitted within specific boundaries to express their opinions, whether positive or negative, in

  • Giving Birth to Thunder, Sleeping with His Daughter: Coyote Builds North America (work by Lopez)

    Barry Lopez: …of Native American trickster stories, Giving Birth to Thunder, Sleeping with His Daughter: Coyote Builds North America, was published. He followed this volume with the critically acclaimed Of Wolves and Men, which includes scientific information, folklore, and essays on the wolf’s role in human culture.

  • Giving nationwide suffrage to women (United States Constitution)

    Nineteenth Amendment, amendment (1920) to the Constitution of the United States that officially extended the right to vote to women. Opposition to woman suffrage in the United States predated the Constitutional Convention (1787), which drafted and adopted the Constitution. The prevailing view

  • Giving of the Keys to St. Peter (painting by Perugino)

    Perugino: Early work: …own hand, only the fresco Giving of the Keys to St. Peter has survived. The simple and lucid arrangement of the composition reveals the centre of narrative action, unlike the frescoes in the same series by the Florentine painter Sandro Botticelli, which, in comparison, appear overcrowded and confused in their…

  • Giving Tree, The (work by Silverstein)

    Shel Silverstein: …the boy-man and tree in The Giving Tree (1964), his most famous prose work; and the partial circle in The Missing Piece (1976). Falling Up (1996) was the last illustrated collection published before his death in 1999. Runny Babbit: A Billy Sook (2015) and Runny Babbit Returns (2017) were released…

  • Giving Up the Ghost (memoir by Mantel)

    Hilary Mantel: …break from novels to write Giving Up the Ghost (2003), a memoir that depicts her anxiety-ridden childhood and her later struggle with illness. That same year she produced a collection of loosely autobiographical short stories, Learning to Talk. Additional recognition came for Beyond Black (2005), a wryly humorous novel about…

  • Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World (work by Clinton)

    Bill Clinton: Life after the presidency: …an autobiography, My Life (2004); Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World (2007), in which he encouraged readers to become involved in various worthy causes; and Back to Work: Why We Need Smart Government for a Strong Economy (2011). He also cowrote (with James Patterson) the thriller The…

  • Giv?atayim (Israel)

    Giv?atayim, city, eastern suburb of Tel Aviv–Yafo, west-central Israel, on the Plain of Sharon. The city is a union of several workers’ quarters, the first of which, Shekhunat Borokhov, was founded in 1922. It was the first suburban workers’ development in Jewish Palestine. The various sections now

  • Giyani (South Africa)

    Giyani, town, Limpopo province, South Africa. It was the capital of Gazankulu, a former nonindependent Bantustan. Giyani is located on the northern bank of the Klein (Little) Letaba River west of Kruger National Park. Situated in what was the northern portion of Gazankulu, Giyani was established in

  • Giza (Egypt)

    Al-Jīzah, city, capital of Al-Jīzah mu?āfa?ah (governorate) in Upper Egypt, located on the west bank of the Nile River just south-southwest of Cairo. It is a suburb of the national capital, with a distinctive character enriched by several archaeological and cultural sites. The district was settled

  • Giza, Pyramids of (pyramids, Egypt)

    Pyramids of Giza, three 4th-dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 bce) pyramids erected on a rocky plateau on the west bank of the Nile River near Al-Jīzah (Giza) in northern Egypt. In ancient times they were included among the Seven Wonders of the World. The ancient ruins of the Memphis area, including the

  • Gizah (Egypt)

    Al-Jīzah, city, capital of Al-Jīzah mu?āfa?ah (governorate) in Upper Egypt, located on the west bank of the Nile River just south-southwest of Cairo. It is a suburb of the national capital, with a distinctive character enriched by several archaeological and cultural sites. The district was settled

  • Gizeh, Pyramids of (pyramids, Egypt)

    Pyramids of Giza, three 4th-dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 bce) pyramids erected on a rocky plateau on the west bank of the Nile River near Al-Jīzah (Giza) in northern Egypt. In ancient times they were included among the Seven Wonders of the World. The ancient ruins of the Memphis area, including the

  • Gizikis, Gen. Phaedon (president of Greece)

    Gen. Phaedon Gizikis, Greek army officer who briefly served as the figurehead president of Greece after a military coup in 1973 overthrew the junta led by Pres. Georgios Papadopoulos (q.v.); within months Gizikis, recognizing the need for a return to civilian rule, recalled several former

  • Gizycka, Eleanor M. (American publisher)

    Eleanor Medill Patterson, the flamboyant editor and publisher of the Washington Times-Herald. Elinor Patterson came from one of the great American newspaper families: her grandfather, Joseph Medill, had been editor in chief of the Chicago Tribune; her father, Robert W. Patterson, and her cousin,

  • gizzard (biology)

    Gizzard, in many birds, the hind part of the stomach, especially modified for grinding food. Located between the saclike crop and the intestine, the gizzard has a thick muscular wall and may contain small stones, or gastroliths, that function in the mechanical breakdown of seeds and other foods.

  • gizzard shad (fish)

    shad: The gizzard shads (Dorosoma), of both marine waters and freshwaters, have a muscular stomach and filamentous last dorsal fin rays. The Atlantic species (D. cepedianum), also called hickory shad and fall herring, ranges through the southern United States. Others are found in the Indo-Pacific and Australian…

  • Gjallarhorn (Norse mythology)

    Heimdall: Heimdall kept the “ringing” horn, Gjallarhorn, which could be heard throughout heaven, earth, and the lower world; it was believed that he would sound the horn to summon the gods when their enemies, the giants, drew near at the Ragnar?k, the end of the world of gods and men. When…

  • Gjand?a (Azerbaijan)

    G?nc?, city, western Azerbaijan. It lies along the G?nc? River. The town was founded sometime in the 5th or 6th century, about 4 miles (6.5 km) east of the modern city. That town was destroyed by earthquake in 1139 and rebuilt on the present site. G?nc? became an important centre of trade, but in

  • Gjellerup, Karl Adolph (Danish writer)

    Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish poet and novelist who shared the 1917 Nobel Prize for Literature with his compatriot Henrik Pontoppidan. The son of a parson, Gjellerup studied theology, although, after coming under the influence of Darwinism and the new radical ideas of the critic Georg Brandes, he

  • Gjenerali i ushtris? s? vdekur (work by Kadare)

    Ismail Kadare: …i ushtris? s? vdekur (1963; The General of the Dead Army [film 1983]), his best-known novel, was his first to achieve an international audience. It tells the story of an Italian general on a grim mission to find and return to Italy the remains of his country’s soldiers who died…

  • Gjenganger-breve (work by Hertz)

    Henrik Hertz: …his set of satirical letters, Gjenganger-breve (1830; “Letters of a Ghost”), which were a great success.

  • Gjentagelsen (work by Kierkegaard)

    S?ren Kierkegaard: A life of collisions: …Fragment of Life), Gjentagelsen (1843; Repetition), Frygt og baeven (1843; Fear and Trembling), Philosophiske smuler (1844; Philosophical Fragments), Begrebet angest (1844; The Concept of Anxiety), Stadier paa livets vei (1845; Stages on Life’s Way), and Afsluttende uvidenskabelig efterskrift (1846; Concluding Unscientific Postscript). Even

  • Gjeravica, Mount (mountain, Albania-Kosovo)

    Kosovo: Relief, drainage, and soils: The highest point is Mount Gjeravica (Deravica), at 8,714 feet (2,656 metres), on the western border with Albania. The interior terrain comprises high plains and rolling hills; about three-fourths of the country lies between about 1,600 and 5,000 feet (500 and 1,500 metres) above sea level. Limestone caves are…

  • Gjinokast?r (Albania)

    Gjirokast?r, town, southern Albania. It lies southeast of the Adriatic port of Vlor? and overlooks the Drin River valley from the eastern slope of the long ridge of the Gjer? mountains. The town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2005 for its well-preserved centre built by farmers

  • Gjirokast?r (Albania)

    Gjirokast?r, town, southern Albania. It lies southeast of the Adriatic port of Vlor? and overlooks the Drin River valley from the eastern slope of the long ridge of the Gjer? mountains. The town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2005 for its well-preserved centre built by farmers

  • Gjoa (ship)

    Northwest Passage: History of exploration: …the converted 47-ton herring boat Gj?a. They completed the arduous three-year voyage in 1906, when they arrived in Nome, Alaska, after having wintered on the Yukon coast. The first single-season transit was achieved in 1944, when Sgt. Henry A. Larsen, of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, made it through on…

  • GK Persei (astronomy)

    Nova Persei, bright nova that attained an absolute magnitude of ?9.2. Spectroscopic observations of the nova, which appeared in 1901, provided important information about interstellar gas. The shell thrown off by the exploding star was unusually asymmetrical, and a bright nebulosity near the star

  • GLA (administrative unit, London, United Kingdom)

    London: Greater London: Established in 2000, the new Greater London Authority comprised a directly elected mayor and a 25-member assembly, and it assumed some of the local responsibilities that the central government had handled since 1986—notably over transport, planning, police, and emergency services.

  • GLAAD (American organization)

    GLAAD, organization created in 1985 that is devoted to countering discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in the media and promoting understanding, acceptance, and equality. Since its creation GLAAD has been integral to the increased portrayal of

  • Glaber, Radulfus (French historian)

    Radulfus Glaber, medieval monk and chronicler whose works, though lacking critical sense and order, are useful as historical documents. He read extensively, traveled considerably, and observed and recorded major events. Some accounts portray him as an unruly character and a wanderer. He traveled

  • Glabrio, Manius Acilius (Roman consul)

    Marcus Porcius Cato: …Cato served with distinction under Manius Acilius Glabrio at Thermopylae in the war against the Seleucid king Antiochus III. Shortly thereafter he included Glabrio in his denunciation of the supporters of the Scipios. He then attacked Lucius Scipio and Scipio Africanus the Elder and broke their political influence. This success…

  • Glace Bay (Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Glace Bay, former town, Cape Breton county, northeastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It lies on the eastern shore of Cape Breton Island, overlooking the Atlantic Ocean, just east of Sydney. An important coal-mining town (into the 1980s) and port, it developed (along with the adjacent communities of

  • Glace, Mer de (glacier, France)

    Mer de Glace, (French: “Sea of Ice”) one of the longest glaciers in the Alps, extending for 3.5 miles (5.6 km) on the northern side of Mont Blanc near Chamonix, France. Formed by the confluence of the Géant and Leschaux glaciers below the Tacul massif of Mont Blanc, the glacier once descended to

  • glacéed fruit

    food preservation: Concentration of moist foods: Candied and glacéed fruits are made by slow impregnation of the fruit with syrup until the concentration of sugar in the tissue is sufficiently high to prevent growth of spoilage microorganisms. The candying process is conducted by treating fruits with syrups of progressively increasing sugar concentrations, so…

  • glacial abrasion

    lake: Basins formed by glaciation: Ice sheets moving over relatively level surfaces have produced large numbers of small lake basins through scouring in many areas. This type of glacial rock basin contains what are known as ice-scour lakes and is represented in North America, for example, by basins in parts…

  • glacial acetic acid (chemical compound)

    Acetic acid (CH3COOH), the most important of the carboxylic acids. A dilute (approximately 5 percent by volume) solution of acetic acid produced by fermentation and oxidation of natural carbohydrates is called vinegar; a salt, ester, or acylal of acetic acid is called acetate. Industrially, acetic

  • glacial age (geologic time)

    Glacial stage, in geology, a cold episode during an ice age, or glacial period. An ice age is a portion of geologic time during which a much larger part of Earth’s surface was covered by glaciers than at present. The Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) is sometimes called the Great

  • glacial control theory (geology)

    Reginald Aldworth Daly: …came his theory of “glacial control” of the formation of coral atolls and reefs. He found that the fluctuations of sea level during the building up and melting down of glaciers during the Pleistocene Epoch played a major role in allowing the coral to slowly build up structures more…

  • glacial drift (glacial deposit)

    iceberg: Iceberg distribution and drift trajectories: In the Antarctic, a freshly calved iceberg usually begins by moving westward in the Antarctic Coastal Current, with the coastline on its left. Since its trajectory is also turned to the left by the Coriolis force owing to Earth’s rotation, it may run…

  • glacial epoch (geology)

    Ice age, any geologic period during which thick ice sheets cover vast areas of land. Such periods of large-scale glaciation may last several million years and drastically reshape surface features of entire continents. A number of major ice ages have occurred throughout Earth history. The earliest

  • glacial erosion (geology)

    Quaternary: Landforms: …glacial sediments and evidence of glacial erosion.

  • glacial geology (geomorphology)

    geology: Glacial geology: Glacial geology can be regarded as a branch of geomorphology, though it is such a large area of research that it stands as a distinct subdiscipline within the geologic sciences. Glacial geology is concerned with the properties of glaciers themselves as well as…

  • glacial groove (geology)

    glacial landform: P-forms and glacial grooves: Straight P-forms are frequently called glacial grooves, even though the term is also applied to large striations, which, unlike the P-forms, were cut by a single tool. Some researchers believe that P-forms were not carved directly by the ice but rather were eroded by pressurized mud slurries flowing beneath the…

  • glacial lake

    Lake Clark National Park and Preserve: …more than a score of glacial lakes on the rim of the Chigmit Mountains, a range located where the Alaska and Aleutian ranges meet. The lake is the headwaters for the most important spawning ground for sockeye, or red, salmon in North America. The park’s great geologic diversity includes jagged…

  • glacial landform (geology)

    Glacial landform, any product of flowing ice and meltwater. Such landforms are being produced today in glaciated areas, such as Greenland, Antarctica, and many of the world’s higher mountain ranges. In addition, large expansions of present-day glaciers have recurred during the course of Earth

  • glacial mill (geology)

    Moulin , (French: “mill”), a nearly cylindrical, vertical shaft that extends through a glacier and is carved by meltwater from the glacier’s surface. Postglacial evidence of a moulin, also called a glacial mill, is a giant kettle, or, more properly, a moulin pothole, scoured to great depth in the

  • glacial outwash (geology and hydrology)

    Outwash, deposit of sand and gravel carried by running water from the melting ice of a glacier and laid down in stratified deposits. An outwash may attain a thickness of 100 m (328 feet) at the edge of a glacier, although the thickness is usually much less; it may also extend many kilometres in

  • glacial plucking (geology)

    glacial landform: Glacial erosion: …generally included under the terms glacial plucking or quarrying. This process involves the removal of larger pieces of rock from the glacier bed. Various explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Some of the mechanisms suggested are based on differential stresses in the rock caused by ice being forced to…

  • glacial pothole (geology)

    lake: Basins formed by glaciation: …the formation of giant’s kettles, glacial potholes in the form of deep cylindrical holes. Their origin is still uncertain. Sand, gravel, or boulders are sometimes found at their bottom. The kettles vary from a few centimetres to a metre or more in diameter. Good examples are found in the Alps,…

  • glacial process (geomorphology)

    glacial landform: …are being produced today in glaciated areas, such as Greenland, Antarctica, and many of the world’s higher mountain ranges. In addition, large expansions of present-day glaciers have recurred during the course of Earth history. At the maximum of the last ice age, which ended about 20,000 to 15,000 years ago,…

  • glacial quarrying (geology)

    glacial landform: Glacial erosion: …generally included under the terms glacial plucking or quarrying. This process involves the removal of larger pieces of rock from the glacier bed. Various explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Some of the mechanisms suggested are based on differential stresses in the rock caused by ice being forced to…

  • glacial scour

    lake: Basins formed by glaciation: Ice sheets moving over relatively level surfaces have produced large numbers of small lake basins through scouring in many areas. This type of glacial rock basin contains what are known as ice-scour lakes and is represented in North America, for example, by basins in parts…

  • glacial stage (geologic time)

    Glacial stage, in geology, a cold episode during an ice age, or glacial period. An ice age is a portion of geologic time during which a much larger part of Earth’s surface was covered by glaciers than at present. The Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) is sometimes called the Great

  • glacial stairway (geology)

    river: Falls attributable to discordance of river profile: …glaciation include glacial potholes and glacial steps. The former are thought to originate principally as a result of the plastic flow of ice at the base of a glacier; this permits the gouging of semicylindrical holes in the bedrock beneath the path of flow. The holes or depressions are subsequently…

  • glacial step (geology)

    river: Falls attributable to discordance of river profile: …glaciation include glacial potholes and glacial steps. The former are thought to originate principally as a result of the plastic flow of ice at the base of a glacier; this permits the gouging of semicylindrical holes in the bedrock beneath the path of flow. The holes or depressions are subsequently…

  • glacial till (geology)

    Till, in geology, unsorted material deposited directly by glacial ice and showing no stratification. Till is sometimes called boulder clay because it is composed of clay, boulders of intermediate sizes, or a mixture of these. The rock fragments are usually angular and sharp rather than rounded,

  • glacial trough (geological formation)

    Glacial valley, stream valley that has been glaciated, usually to a typical catenary, or U-shaped, cross section. U-shaped valleys occur in many parts of the world and are characteristic features of mountain glaciation. These glacial troughs may be several thousand feet deep and tens of miles long.

  • glacial valley (geological formation)

    Glacial valley, stream valley that has been glaciated, usually to a typical catenary, or U-shaped, cross section. U-shaped valleys occur in many parts of the world and are characteristic features of mountain glaciation. These glacial troughs may be several thousand feet deep and tens of miles long.

  • glaciation (geomorphology)

    glacial landform: …are being produced today in glaciated areas, such as Greenland, Antarctica, and many of the world’s higher mountain ranges. In addition, large expansions of present-day glaciers have recurred during the course of Earth history. At the maximum of the last ice age, which ended about 20,000 to 15,000 years ago,…

  • glaciation (geologic time)

    Glacial stage, in geology, a cold episode during an ice age, or glacial period. An ice age is a portion of geologic time during which a much larger part of Earth’s surface was covered by glaciers than at present. The Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) is sometimes called the Great

  • glaciation limit

    glacial landform: Periglacial landforms: …adjacent to and beyond the limit of glaciers, a zone of intense freeze-thaw activity produces periglacial features and landforms. This happens because of the unique behaviour of water as it changes from the liquid to the solid state. As water freezes, its volume increases about 9 percent. This is often…

  • glacier

    Glacier, any large mass of perennial ice that originates on land by the recrystallization of snow or other forms of solid precipitation and that shows evidence of past or present flow. Exact limits for the terms large, perennial, and flow cannot be set. Except in size, a small snow patch that

  • glacier abrasion

    lake: Basins formed by glaciation: Ice sheets moving over relatively level surfaces have produced large numbers of small lake basins through scouring in many areas. This type of glacial rock basin contains what are known as ice-scour lakes and is represented in North America, for example, by basins in parts…

  • Glacier Bay (bay, Alaska, United States)

    Glacier Bay, scenic indentation, about 50 miles (80 km) long, on the coast of southeastern Alaska, U.S. Situated about 100 miles (160 km) northwest of Juneau, it contains a spectacular display of glaciers that descend from the lofty ice-draped St. Elias Range in the east and the Fairweather Range

  • Glacier Bay National Monument (national park, Alaska, United States)

    Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, large natural area in southeastern Alaska, U.S., on the Gulf of Alaska. It was proclaimed a national monument in 1925, established as a national park and preserve in 1980, and designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1992. The park and preserve cover an

  • Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (national park, Alaska, United States)

    Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, large natural area in southeastern Alaska, U.S., on the Gulf of Alaska. It was proclaimed a national monument in 1925, established as a national park and preserve in 1980, and designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1992. The park and preserve cover an

  • glacier breeze (meteorology)

    breeze: A glacier breeze is a draft of cold air that is cooled by contact with a glacier, descends along its edge, and then dies out within a short distance.

  • glacier cave (geology)

    cave: Glacier caves: These are long tunnels formed near the snouts of glaciers between the glacial ice and the underlying bedrock. Meltwater from the surface of a glacier drains downward through crevasses, which are enlarged to form shafts leading to the base of the glacier. Because…

  • glacier flood

    glacier: Glacier floods: Glacier outburst floods, or j?kulhlaups, can be spectacular or even catastrophic. These happen when drainage within a glacier is blocked by internal plastic flow and water is stored in or behind the glacier. The water eventually finds a narrow path to trickle out.…

  • glacier flour (geology)

    Karakoram Range: Glaciation and drainage: Suspended pulverized stone, or rock flour, makes glacial meltwater opaque. Rock flour and eroded material from the mountain channels give the Indus the highest suspended sediment load of any major river. Groundwater accumulates in the rocky talus and contributes to the flow throughout the year.

  • glacier flow

    glacier: Glacier flow: In the accumulation area the mass balance is positive year after year. Here the glacier would become thicker and thicker were it not for the compensating flow of ice away from the area (see video). This flow supplies mass to the ablation zone,…

  • glacier fluctuation

    glacier: Response of glaciers to climatic change: …result is known as a glacier fluctuation—in this case an advance—and it incorporates the sum of all the changes that have taken place up-glacier during the time it took them to propagate to the terminus.

  • Glacier National Park (national park, Montana, United States)

    Glacier National Park, scenic wilderness area in the northern Rocky Mountains in northwestern Montana, U.S., adjoining the Canadian border and Canada’s Waterton Lakes National Park. The two parks together comprise Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, dedicated in 1932. Glacier National Park

  • Glacier National Park (national park, British Columbia, Canada)

    Glacier National Park, park in southeastern British Columbia, Canada, lying in the heart of the Selkirk Mountains, within the great northern bend of the Columbia River, east of Revelstoke. Established in 1886, it occupies an area of 521 square miles (1,349 square km). Majestic snowcapped peaks,

  • glacier run

    glacier: Glacier floods: Glacier outburst floods, or j?kulhlaups, can be spectacular or even catastrophic. These happen when drainage within a glacier is blocked by internal plastic flow and water is stored in or behind the glacier. The water eventually finds a narrow path to trickle out.…

  • glacier scour

    lake: Basins formed by glaciation: Ice sheets moving over relatively level surfaces have produced large numbers of small lake basins through scouring in many areas. This type of glacial rock basin contains what are known as ice-scour lakes and is represented in North America, for example, by basins in parts…

  • glaciofluvial deposit (geology and hydrology)

    Outwash, deposit of sand and gravel carried by running water from the melting ice of a glacier and laid down in stratified deposits. An outwash may attain a thickness of 100 m (328 feet) at the edge of a glacier, although the thickness is usually much less; it may also extend many kilometres in

  • glaciolacustrine deposit (geology)

    glacial landform: Glaciolacustrine deposits: Glacial and proglacial lakes are found in a variety of environments and in considerable numbers. Erosional lake basins have already been mentioned, but many lakes are formed as streams are dammed by the ice itself, by glacial deposits, or by a combination of…

  • glaciology

    Glaciology, scientific discipline concerned with all aspects of ice on landmasses. It deals with the structure and properties of glacier ice, its formation and distribution, the dynamics of ice flow, and the interactions of ice accumulation with climate. Glaciological research is conducted with a

  • glacis (warfare)

    military technology: The sunken profile: …was the sloping of the glacis, or forward face of the ramparts, in such a manner that it could be swept by cannon and harquebus fire from the parapet behind the ditch. As a practical matter the scarp, or main fortress wall, now protected from artillery fire by the glacis,…

  • Glackens, William J. (American painter)

    William J. Glackens, American artist whose paintings of street scenes and middle-class urban life rejected the dictates of 19th-century academic art and introduced a matter-of-fact realism into the art of the United States. Glackens studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and at the

  • Glackens, William James (American painter)

    William J. Glackens, American artist whose paintings of street scenes and middle-class urban life rejected the dictates of 19th-century academic art and introduced a matter-of-fact realism into the art of the United States. Glackens studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and at the

  • Gladbach-Rheydt (Germany)

    M?nchengladbach, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It lies near the border with the Netherlands, west of Düsseldorf. It developed around a Benedictine monastery (founded in 972, suppressed in 1802), from which the name M?nchengladbach (“Monks’ Gladbach”) is derived, and it

  • Gladbeck (Germany)

    Gladbeck, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It lies in the Ruhr industrial region. First documented in 1019, Gladbeck was a small rural village until the first coal mine was opened in 1873. Thereafter it developed rapidly, its economy resting almost exclusively on coal. It

  • Gladden, Washington (United States minister)

    Washington Gladden, American Congregational minister, crusading journalist, author, and prominent early advocate of the Social Gospel movement. Gladden grew up on a farm, worked in a small-town newspaper office, and attended Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. After serving as religious editor of

  • Gladiator (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: …range of 17 miles; the SA-12 Gladiator, a track-mobile replacement of Ganef; the SA-13 Gopher, a replacement for Gaskin; and the SA-14, a shoulder-fired Grail replacement. Both Grumble and Gadfly had naval equivalents, the SA-N-6 and SA-N-7. The Gladiator might have been designed with an antimissile capability, making it an…

  • Gladiator (film by Scott [2000])

    Gladiator, American historical epic film, released in 2000, that was directed by Ridley Scott and starred Russell Crowe. It won critical accolades, large audiences, and five Academy Awards. Gladiator takes place in ad 180 and is loosely based on historical figures. Roman forces, led by the general

  • gladiator (Roman sports)

    Gladiator, professional combatant in ancient Rome. The gladiators originally performed at Etruscan funerals, no doubt with intent to give the dead man armed attendants in the next world; hence the fights were usually to the death. At shows in Rome these exhibitions became wildly popular and

  • gladiator bug (insect)

    Gladiator bug, (order Mantophasmatodea), any of approximately 15 species of insects found only in certain regions of Africa, the common name of which is derived from their stout appearance and predatory behaviour. These insects have modified raptorial legs that give them the ability to grasp their

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