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  • Gladiator, The (play by Bird)

    Robert Montgomery Bird: …his day—one of his tragedies, The Gladiator, achieved more than 1,000 performances in Bird’s lifetime—his writings are principally of interest in the 21st century to the literary historian.

  • Gladiatorial War (ancient Rome)

    Third Servile War, (73–71 bce) slave rebellion against Rome led by the gladiator Spartacus. Spartacus was a Thracian who had served in the Roman army but seems to have deserted. He was captured and subsequently sold as a slave. Destined for the arena, in 73 bce he, with a band of his fellow

  • Gladiola (plant genus)

    Gladiolus, genus of about 300 species of flowering plants of the iris family (Iridaceae) native to Europe, Africa, and the Mediterranean area and widely cultivated for cut flowers. The flowering spike, which springs from a bulblike structure, the corm, reaches 60–90 centimetres (2–3 feet) in

  • Gladioli (plant genus)

    Gladiolus, genus of about 300 species of flowering plants of the iris family (Iridaceae) native to Europe, Africa, and the Mediterranean area and widely cultivated for cut flowers. The flowering spike, which springs from a bulblike structure, the corm, reaches 60–90 centimetres (2–3 feet) in

  • Gladiolus (plant genus)

    Gladiolus, genus of about 300 species of flowering plants of the iris family (Iridaceae) native to Europe, Africa, and the Mediterranean area and widely cultivated for cut flowers. The flowering spike, which springs from a bulblike structure, the corm, reaches 60–90 centimetres (2–3 feet) in

  • Gladiolus segetum (plant)

    Gladiolus: …in Europe, including the magenta field gladiolus (G. segetum) that grows in grainfields.

  • Gladioluses (plant genus)

    Gladiolus, genus of about 300 species of flowering plants of the iris family (Iridaceae) native to Europe, Africa, and the Mediterranean area and widely cultivated for cut flowers. The flowering spike, which springs from a bulblike structure, the corm, reaches 60–90 centimetres (2–3 feet) in

  • gladius (sword)

    military technology: The sword: …classic Roman stabbing sword, the gladius, was only some two feet long, though in the twilight years of the empire the gladius gave way to the spatha, the long slashing sword of the barbarians.

  • Gladkov, Fyodor Vasilyevich (Soviet writer)

    Fyodor Vasilyevich Gladkov, Russian writer best known for Tsement (1925; Cement, 1929), the first postrevolutionary novel to dramatize Soviet industrial development. Although crudely written, this story of a Red Army fighter who returns to find his hometown in ruins and dedicates himself to making

  • Gladstone (Queensland, Australia)

    Gladstone, city, eastern Queensland, eastern Australia, on Port Curtis, an inlet of the Coral Sea. Originally settled in 1847 as a colony by the New South Wales government, it was abandoned in 1848 but was resettled by squatters in 1853. It was named for the British chancellor of the Exchequer

  • Gladstone Committee (British history)

    Sir Evelyn Ruggles-Brise: …applying the recommendations of the Gladstone Committee. The committee held that offenders between 16 and 21 years of age should not be subjected to the harsh punitive treatment that was administered to older, less tractable prisoners and should be given education and industrial training at a penal reformatory under the…

  • Gladstone, Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount (British statesman)

    Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone, British statesman, son of William Ewart Gladstone; he was the first governor-general and high commissioner of the Union of South Africa. Educated at Eton and at University College, Oxford, Gladstone lectured on history at Keble College for three years

  • Gladstone, William Ewart (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    William Ewart Gladstone, statesman and four-time prime minister of Great Britain (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886, 1892–94). Gladstone was of purely Scottish descent. His father, John, made himself a merchant prince and was a member of Parliament (1818–27). Gladstone was sent to Eton, where he did not

  • Gladwell, Malcolm (Canadian journalist and writer)

    Malcolm Gladwell, Canadian journalist and writer best known for his unique perspective on popular culture. He adeptly treaded the boundary between popularizer and intellectual. Gladwell’s family moved in 1969 from England to Elmira, Ontario, where his father taught at the nearby University of

  • Gladwyn, Hubert Miles Gladwyn Jebb, Baron (British diplomat)

    Hubert Miles Gladwyn Jebb Gladwyn, BARON, British diplomat (born April 25, 1900, Firbeck Hall, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Oct. 24, 1996, Halesworth, Suffolk, Eng.), helped draft the Charter of the United Nations and in 1950 became Great Britain’s first permanent UN representative. Educated at Eton C

  • Gladys Porter Zoo (zoo, Brownsville, Texas, United States)

    Gladys Porter Zoo, zoological park in Brownsville, Texas, U.S., which has one of the world’s finest reptile collections. Opened in 1971, the 31-acre (12.5-hectare) park is owned by the city and operated by a local zoological society. It was named for one of the daughters of Earl C. Sams, a longtime

  • Glagolitic alphabet

    Glagolitic alphabet, script invented for the Slavic languages about 860 ce by the Eastern Orthodox Christian missionaries Constantine (later known as St. Cyril) and his brother Methodius (later St. Methodius). The two missionaries originated in Thessalonica (now Thessaloníki, Greece), on the

  • Glaisher, James (British meteorologist)

    weather forecasting: Progress during the early 20th century: The British meteorologist Glaisher made a series of ascents by balloon during the 1860s, reaching an unprecedented height of nine kilometres. At about this time investigators on the Continent began using unmanned balloons to carry recording barographs, thermographs, and hygrographs to high altitudes. During the late 1890s meteorologists…

  • glaive (weapon)

    Sword, preeminent hand weapon through a long period of history. It consists of a metal blade varying in length, breadth, and configuration but longer than a dagger and fitted with a handle or hilt usually equipped with a guard. The sword became differentiated from the dagger during the Bronze Age

  • glam metal (music)

    heavy metal: A wave of “glam” metal, featuring gender-bending bands such as M?tley Crüe and Ratt, emanated from Los Angeles beginning about 1983; Poison, Guns N’ Roses, and hundreds of other bands then moved to Los Angeles in hopes of getting record deals. But heavy metal had become a worldwide…

  • glam rock (music)

    Glam rock, musical movement that began in Britain in the early 1970s and celebrated the spectacle of the rock star and concert. Often dappled with glitter, male musicians took the stage in women’s makeup and clothing, adopted theatrical personas, and mounted glamorous musical productions frequently

  • Gl?ma (river, Norway)

    Glomma, river, eastern Norway. Rising in a series of small lakes and streams that drain into Aursunden (lake) about 80 miles (130 km) southeast of Trondheim, near the Swedish-Norwegian border, the Glomma flows out of the lake southward through ?sterdalen (Eastern Valley) to Kongsvinger, then

  • Glamis (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Glamis, castle and village in the council area and historic county of Angus, eastern Scotland. The present castle, a fine example of Scottish Baronial architecture, dates from the late 17th century, though the site is believed to have been occupied since the 11th century, when the Scottish monarch

  • Glamis, Sir Thomas Lyon, Master of (Scottish rebel)

    Archibald Douglas, 8th earl of Angus: …Mar and the master of Glamis, and sentence of attainder was pronounced against all three. The rebels fled to Newcastle, which became a centre of Presbyterianism and of projects against the Scottish government encouraged by Elizabeth I of England. They returned to Scotland in October 1584 and secured from James…

  • Glamorgan (historical county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Glamorgan, historic county, southern Wales, extending inland from the Bristol Channel coast between the Rivers Loughor and Rhymney. In the north it comprises a barren upland moor dissected by narrow river valleys. Glamorgan’s southern coastal section centres on an undulating plain known as the Vale

  • Glamorgan (British ship)

    naval warfare: The age of the guided missile: …and damaged the destroyer HMS Glamorgan (June 12), presaging more strikes from land in future maritime wars. Third, the British relearned lessons of damage control and ship survivability, while the Argentines found that aircraft armed only with unguided bombs were outclassed by ships with surface-to-air missiles. Fourth, and perhaps most…

  • Glamorgan, Earl of (English Royalist)

    Edward Somerset, 2nd marquess of Worcester, prominent Royalist during the English Civil Wars. His father, Henry Somerset, 5th Earl of Worcester, advanced large sums of money to Charles I at the outbreak of the wars and was created Marquess of Worcester in 1643. In the following year, Edward was

  • Glamorganshire Canal (canal, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Cardiff: In 1794 the Glamorganshire Canal opened between Merthyr Tydfil and Cardiff, and in 1798 the first dock was built at the canal’s Cardiff terminus. In 1801 Cardiff’s population was only 1,870, but the town developed rapidly and continuously over the next 100 years as an exporter of coal…

  • Glamorous Glennis (airplane)

    Bell X-1, U.S. rocket-powered supersonic research airplane built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in level flight. On October 14, 1947, an X-1 launched from the bomb bay of a B-29 bomber and piloted by U.S. Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager over the Mojave

  • Glan-y-Gors, Jac (Welsh poet [1766-1821])

    John Jones, Welsh-language satirical poet and social reformer who, under the impact of the French Revolution, produced some of the earliest Welsh political writings. Greatly influenced by the political and social essays of the American and French Revolutionary propagandist Thomas Paine, he

  • Glance Away, A (novel by Wideman)

    John Edgar Wideman: …he published his first novel, A Glance Away, about a day in the lives of a reformed drug addict and a homosexual English professor. His second novel, Hurry Home (1970), is the story of an intellectual alienated from his black ancestry and the black community. After serving as director of…

  • glance pitch (mineral)

    asphaltite: …three groups: Gilsonite (or uintaite), glance pitch (or manjak), and grahamite. These substances differ from one another basically in terms of specific gravity and temperature at which they soften. Gilsonite occurs chiefly along the Colorado–Utah border, U.S.; glance pitch on Barbados and in Colombia; and grahamite in Cuba and Mexico,…

  • gland (biology)

    Gland, cell or tissue that removes specific substances from the blood, alters or concentrates them, and then either releases them for further use or eliminates them. Typically, a gland consists of either cuboidal or columnar epithelium resting on a basement membrane and is surrounded by a plexus,

  • gland system (biology)

    Gland, cell or tissue that removes specific substances from the blood, alters or concentrates them, and then either releases them for further use or eliminates them. Typically, a gland consists of either cuboidal or columnar epithelium resting on a basement membrane and is surrounded by a plexus,

  • glanders (disease)

    Glanders, specific infectious and contagious disease of solipeds (the horse, ass, and mule); secondarily, humans may become infected through contact with diseased animals or by inoculation while handling diseased tissues and making laboratory cultures of the causal bacillus. In 1882 the b

  • glandular fever (pathology)

    Mononucleosis, infection in humans, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), whose most common symptoms are fever, general malaise, and sore throat. The disease occurs predominantly in persons from 10 to 35 years old, but it is known to appear at any age. Infection of young children by the EBV

  • glang-ma (tree)

    Tibet: Plant and animal life: …used to make food containers), glang-ma (a willow tree used for basketry), and rtsi-shings (the seeds of which are used for making varnish). Fruit-bearing trees and certain roots are used for food, as are the leaves of the lca-wa, khumag, and sre-ral, all of which grow in the low, wet…

  • Glans (paleontology)

    Glans, genus of small pelecypods (clams) especially characteristic of the Miocene Epoch (between 23.7 and 5.3 million years ago). The ornamentation of the shell includes prominent ribbing that extends from the apex to the broadly expanding margin. The ribs are broken up into a nodose pattern by

  • glans clitoridis (anatomy)

    clitoris: …to form a tiny external glans at the top of the vulva. Lying over the glans is a sheath of skin known as the clitoral hood. The glans has a generous supply of sensitive nerve endings, which account for the clitoris’ central role in tactile sexual stimulation.

  • glans penis (anatomy)

    animal reproductive system: Adaptations for internal fertilization: …the penis terminates in a glans penis, a swelling of the corpus spongiosum that caps the ends of the corpora cavernosa and contains the urinogenital aperture. The glans is supplied with nerve endings and is partly or wholly sheathed, except during erection, by a circular fold of skin, the prepuce.…

  • Glanvil, Joseph (British philosopher)

    Joseph Glanvill, English self-styled Skeptic and apologist for the Royal Society who defended the reality of witchcraft and ghosts and the preexistence of the soul. Thereby, according to some, he initiated psychical research. Glanvill was educated at Exeter and Lincoln Colleges, Oxford, and served

  • Glanvill, Joseph (British philosopher)

    Joseph Glanvill, English self-styled Skeptic and apologist for the Royal Society who defended the reality of witchcraft and ghosts and the preexistence of the soul. Thereby, according to some, he initiated psychical research. Glanvill was educated at Exeter and Lincoln Colleges, Oxford, and served

  • Glanville, Fanny (wife of Boscawen)

    Edward Boscawen: On his return he married Fanny Glanville, a noted “bluestocking” (an intellectual woman of the 18th century), whose conversation, said Samuel Johnson, was the best of any woman whom he had met.

  • Glanville, Jerry (American football coach)

    Atlanta Falcons: …Rison, and flamboyant head coach Jerry Glanville won 10 games in 1991 but was again met with disappointment in the postseason.

  • Glanville, Ranulf de (English politician and legal scholar)

    Ranulf de Glanville, justiciar or chief minister of England (1180–89) under King Henry II who was the reputed author of the first authoritative text on the common law, Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Angliae (c. 1188; “Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England”). This

  • Glanz, Aaron (American poet)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in New York: …most important Introspectivist poets were A. Leyeles (pseudonym of Aaron Glanz), Jacob Glatstein (Yankev Glatshteyn), and Y.L. (Yehuda Leyb) Teller. Influenced by current trends in modernism, they rejected the more traditional metre and rhyme of Di Yunge. In their early manifesto, published in their anthology In zikh (1920), Leyeles, Glatstein,…

  • Glanzkohle (coal)

    Vitrain, macroscopically distinguishable component, or lithotype, of coal characterized by a brilliant black, glossy lustre and composed primarily of the maceral group vitrinite, derived from the bark tissue of large plants. It occurs in narrow, sometimes markedly uniform bands that are rarely

  • Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (pathology)

    blood disease: Disorders of platelet function: Glanzmann thrombasthenia, an inherited disorder associated with a mild bleeding tendency, is due to a deficiency of the platelet glycoprotein IIb–IIIa, which is required for normal platelet function. Bernard-Soulier syndrome, an inherited disorder associated with a pronounced bleeding tendency, is due to a deficiency of…

  • Glanzstreifenkohle (coal)

    Clarain, macroscopically distinguishable component, or lithotype, of coal that is characterized by alternating bright and dull black laminae. The brightest layers are composed chiefly of the maceral vitrinite and the duller layers of the other maceral groups exinite and inertinite. Clarain

  • Glareanus, Henricus (Swiss music theorist)

    Henricus Glareanus, Swiss Humanist, poet, teacher, and music theorist, known especially for his publication Dodecachordon (Basel, 1547). Crowned poet laureate by the Habsburg emperor Maximilian at Cologne (1512), Glareanus established himself briefly at Basel in 1514, where he came under the

  • Glareola pratincola (bird)

    pratincole: The common pratincole (Glareola pratincola) has reddish brown underwings and a yellowish throat outlined in black. The black-winged pratincole (G. nordmanni) of the Middle East is called locust bird in Africa, where it winters. Smaller species with less-forked tails and shorter wings are sometimes separated as…

  • Glareolidae (bird family)

    charadriiform: Annotated classification: Family Glareolidae (pratincoles and coursers) Pratincoles short-billed, long-winged, with medium-long legs and forked tails; coursers have longer bills, shorter wings and tail, long legs. Plumage patterned in olive, brown, gray, chestnut, black, white. Legs have rectangular scales front and back. Occipital

  • Glareolinae (bird)

    Pratincole, any of six or seven Old World shorebird species constituting the subfamily Glareolinae of the family Glareolidae, which also includes the coursers. Pratincoles are about 20 cm (8 inches) long and are brown with a white rump; the tail is forked, and the wings are long and pointed.

  • Glaris (district, Switzerland)

    Glarus, canton, east-central Switzerland, comprising the deep, level upper valley of the Linth River, which rises in the southwest in the glaciers of the T?di (11,857 feet [3,614 metres]), highest of the Glarus Alps, and flows north and northeast to the Walensee (lake). About 190 square miles of

  • Glaris (Switzerland)

    Glarus, town, capital of Glarus canton, eastern Switzerland, on the left bank of the Linth River, at the northeastern foot of the Gl?rnisch Massif (with four peaks, rising above 8,900 feet [2,700 metres]), east of Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldst?tter See). In 1861 practically the entire town was destroyed

  • Glarner Alpen (mountains, Switzerland)

    Glarus Alps, segment of the Central Alps lying north of the Vorderrhein River mainly in Glarus canton of east-central Switzerland. The mountains extend east to the Rhine River and north to the Walensee (lake) and Klausen Pass. Many of the peaks are glacier-covered, including the highest, T?di

  • Glarus (Switzerland)

    Glarus, town, capital of Glarus canton, eastern Switzerland, on the left bank of the Linth River, at the northeastern foot of the Gl?rnisch Massif (with four peaks, rising above 8,900 feet [2,700 metres]), east of Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldst?tter See). In 1861 practically the entire town was destroyed

  • Glarus (district, Switzerland)

    Glarus, canton, east-central Switzerland, comprising the deep, level upper valley of the Linth River, which rises in the southwest in the glaciers of the T?di (11,857 feet [3,614 metres]), highest of the Glarus Alps, and flows north and northeast to the Walensee (lake). About 190 square miles of

  • Glarus Alps (mountains, Switzerland)

    Glarus Alps, segment of the Central Alps lying north of the Vorderrhein River mainly in Glarus canton of east-central Switzerland. The mountains extend east to the Rhine River and north to the Walensee (lake) and Klausen Pass. Many of the peaks are glacier-covered, including the highest, T?di

  • Glas (book by Derrida)

    Jacques Derrida: Life and work: Glas (1974) is an experimental book printed in two columns—one containing an analysis of key concepts in the philosophy of Hegel, the other a suggestive discussion of the thief, novelist, and playwright Jean Genet. Although Derrida’s writing had always been marked by a keen interest…

  • Glas, John (Scottish minister)

    John Glas, Scottish Presbyterian clergyman denounced by his church for opposing the concept of a national religious establishment. He was founder of the Glasites (Sandemanians, q.v.). Glas became minister of Tealing Church, Dundee, Angus, in 1719. Some of his parishioners led him to question the

  • Glaschu (city, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Glasgow, city, west-central Scotland. It is situated along both banks of the River Clyde 20 miles (32 km) from that river’s mouth on the western, or Atlantic, coast. Glasgow is Scotland’s largest city, and it forms an independent council area that lies entirely within the historic county of

  • Glaser, Donald A. (American physicist)

    Donald A. Glaser, American physicist and recipient of the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his invention (1952) and development of the bubble chamber, a research instrument used in high-energy physics laboratories to observe the behaviour of subatomic particles. After graduating from Case Institute

  • Glaser, Donald Arthur (American physicist)

    Donald A. Glaser, American physicist and recipient of the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his invention (1952) and development of the bubble chamber, a research instrument used in high-energy physics laboratories to observe the behaviour of subatomic particles. After graduating from Case Institute

  • Glaser, Donald Arthur (American physicist)

    Donald A. Glaser, American physicist and recipient of the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his invention (1952) and development of the bubble chamber, a research instrument used in high-energy physics laboratories to observe the behaviour of subatomic particles. After graduating from Case Institute

  • Glaser, Joe (American businessman)

    Louis Armstrong: Solo career: …Armstrong’s career was managed by Joe Glaser, who hired Armstrong’s bands and guided his film career (beginning with Pennies from Heaven, 1936) and radio appearances. Though his own bands usually played in a more conservative style, Armstrong was the dominant influence on the swing era, when most trumpeters attempted to…

  • Glaser, Milton (American graphic designer and illustrator)

    Milton Glaser, American graphic designer, illustrator, and cofounder of the revolutionary Pushpin Studio. Glaser graduated from Cooper Union in New York City in 1951 and studied printmaking with Giorgio Morandi in Italy in 1952–53. Glaser founded the graphic design firm Pushpin Studio in New York

  • Gl?serne Bienen (work by Jünger)

    Ernst Jünger: …novels include Heliopolis (1949) and Gl?serne Bienen (1957; The Glass Bees), a disturbing story of a jobless former soldier in an overmechanized world symbolized by artificial bees and marionettes. After 1950 Jünger lived in self-imposed isolation in West Germany while continuing to publish brooding, introspective novels and essays on various…

  • Glasgow (Illinois, United States)

    Arthur, village, Douglas and Moultrie counties, east-central Illinois, U.S. It lies about 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Champaign. Founded in 1873 as a railroad switching point, it was originally called Glasgow but was soon renamed for a brother of Robert Hervey, president of the Paris and Decatur

  • Glasgow (Ontario, Canada)

    Scarborough, former city (1983–98), southeastern Ontario, Canada. In 1998 it amalgamated with the borough of East York and the cities of Etobicoke, York, North York, and Toronto to form the City of Toronto. Scarborough township (incorporated 1850) was reconstituted as a borough in 1967 and a city

  • Glasgow (city, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Glasgow, city, west-central Scotland. It is situated along both banks of the River Clyde 20 miles (32 km) from that river’s mouth on the western, or Atlantic, coast. Glasgow is Scotland’s largest city, and it forms an independent council area that lies entirely within the historic county of

  • Glasgow City Mission (mission, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    city mission: In Great Britain the Glasgow City Mission (1826) and the London City Mission (1835) both sought to evangelize and rehabilitate the urban poor. Beginning with home visitation and tract distribution by volunteer lay missionaries, the city mission movement expanded into Sunday school, day school, and temperance activities with paid…

  • Glasgow Coma Scale (medicine)

    traumatic brain injury: …moderate, and severe—based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The GCS is a 15-point scale designed to measure the patient’s ability to respond to visual, verbal, and motor stimuli after traumatic brain injury. The degree of impairment depends on the extent of damage to critical brain areas. The majority of…

  • Glasgow Daily Record (Scottish newspaper)

    Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, Viscount Northcliffe: …and merged them into the Glasgow Daily Record. He then decided to experiment with a popular national daily in London. The Daily Mail, first published on May 4, 1896, was a sensational success. Announced as “the penny newspaper for one halfpenny” and “the busy man’s daily journal,” it was exactly…

  • Glasgow Prestwick International Airport (airport, Prestwick, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Prestwick: Prestwick’s international airport has grown because of its proximity to Glasgow and its favourable climatic conditions and has generated a significant local aerospace industry. The town also features several coastal golf courses and other leisure facilities. Pop. (2001) 15,170; (2011) 14,900.

  • Glasgow School of Art (building, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Charles Rennie Mackintosh: …chief architectural projects were the Glasgow School of Art (1896–1909), considered the first original example of Art Nouveau architecture in Great Britain; two unrealized projects—the 1901 International exhibition, Glasgow (1898), and “Haus eines Kunstfreundes” (1901); Windyhill, Kilmacolm (1899–1901), and Hill House, Helensburgh (1902); the Willow Tea Rooms, Glasgow (1904); and…

  • Glasgow Tower (tower, Glasgow Science Centre, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Glasgow: The contemporary city: …on society and includes the Glasgow Tower. This 459-foot- (140-metre-) high tower is the tallest freestanding structure in Scotland and the only structure of its height in the world that revolves 360 degrees from its base. Scotland’s first public museum, the Hunterian (established in 1807), is housed on the grounds…

  • Glasgow, Ellen (American author)

    Ellen Glasgow, American novelist whose realistic depictions of life in her native Virginia helped direct Southern literature away from sentimentality and nostalgia. Glasgow, the daughter of a wealthy and socially prominent family with Old Virginia roots on her mother’s side, was educated mainly at

  • Glasgow, Ellen Anderson Gholson (American author)

    Ellen Glasgow, American novelist whose realistic depictions of life in her native Virginia helped direct Southern literature away from sentimentality and nostalgia. Glasgow, the daughter of a wealthy and socially prominent family with Old Virginia roots on her mother’s side, was educated mainly at

  • Glasgow, University of (university, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    University of Glasgow, state-supported university in Glasgow, Scot. The university was founded in 1451 by a bull of Pope Nicholas V on the petition of King James II of Scotland. From 1460, lands granted by Lord Hamilton on High Street formed the site of the university until its removal to the west

  • glasharmonika (musical instrument)

    Glass harmonica, musical instrument consisting of a set of graduated, tuned glass bowls sounded by the friction of wetted fingers on their rims. It was invented by Benjamin Franklin and was derived from the vérillon (musical glasses), a set of glasses, holding different amounts of water and thus

  • Glashow, Sheldon (American physicist)

    Sheldon Glashow, American theoretical physicist who, with Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979 for their complementary efforts in formulating the electroweak theory, which explains the unity of electromagnetism and the weak force. Glashow was the son of

  • Glashow, Sheldon Lee (American physicist)

    Sheldon Glashow, American theoretical physicist who, with Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979 for their complementary efforts in formulating the electroweak theory, which explains the unity of electromagnetism and the weak force. Glashow was the son of

  • Glasites (Protestant sect)

    Sandemanian, member of a Christian sect founded in about 1730 in Scotland by John Glas (1695–1773), a Presbyterian minister in the Church of Scotland. Glas concluded that there was no support in the New Testament for a national church because the kingdom of Christ is essentially spiritual. He a

  • Glasney College (college, Penryn, England, United Kingdom)

    Cornish literature: …of the Cornish plays was Glasney College in Penryn, founded in 1265 and dissolved in the 1540s. The three plays that constitute the Ordinalia (Eng. trans. Ordinalia) are the finest examples of Middle Cornish literature: Origo mundi (“Origin of the World”) addresses the Creation, the Fall, and the promise of…

  • glasnost (Soviet government policy)

    Glasnost, (Russian: “openness”) Soviet policy of open discussion of political and social issues. It was instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s and began the democratization of the Soviet Union. Ultimately, fundamental changes to the political structure of the Soviet Union occurred: the

  • Glaspell, Susan (American dramatist and novelist)

    Susan Glaspell, American dramatist and novelist who, with her husband, George Cram Cook, founded the influential Provincetown Players in 1915. Glaspell graduated in 1899 from Drake University in Des Moines, Iowa. In college she had published a few short stories in the Youth’s Companion and had

  • Glaspell, Susan Keating (American dramatist and novelist)

    Susan Glaspell, American dramatist and novelist who, with her husband, George Cram Cook, founded the influential Provincetown Players in 1915. Glaspell graduated in 1899 from Drake University in Des Moines, Iowa. In college she had published a few short stories in the Youth’s Companion and had

  • Glasperlenspiel, Das (novel by Hesse)

    The Glass Bead Game, final novel by Hermann Hesse, published in two volumes in 1943 in German as Das Glasperlenspiel and sometimes translated as Magister Ludi. The book is an intricate bildungsroman about humanity’s eternal quest for enlightenment and for synthesis of the intellectual and the

  • Glass (painting by Larionov)

    Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov: …Symbolism, but with the painting Glass (1909) he introduced a nonrepresentational style conceived as a synthesis of Cubism, Futurism, and Orphism. In the Rayonist manifesto of 1913, he asserted the principle of the reduction of form in figure and landscape compositions into rays of reflected light.

  • Glass (film by Shyamalan [2019])

    Samuel L. Jackson: …two roles from 2000: in Glass he played a comic book dealer/villain from M. Night Shyamalan’s supernatural thriller Unbreakable, and in Shaft he resumed the role of John Shaft. That year he also starred in The Last Full Measure, about a U.S. soldier’s bravery during the Vietnam War and the…

  • glass

    Glass, an inorganic solid material that is usually transparent or translucent as well as hard, brittle, and impervious to the natural elements. Glass has been made into practical and decorative objects since ancient times, and it is still very important in applications as disparate as building

  • glass bead (glass, abrasive)

    industrial glass: Beads and microspheres: Solid glass beads and microspheres used in blast cleaners, shot peening, and reflective paints can be made simply by passing finely fritted glass through a hot flame. Hollow microspheres, used mostly as low-density fillers, may be produced by one of many processes.…

  • Glass Bead Game, The (novel by Hesse)

    The Glass Bead Game, final novel by Hermann Hesse, published in two volumes in 1943 in German as Das Glasperlenspiel and sometimes translated as Magister Ludi. The book is an intricate bildungsroman about humanity’s eternal quest for enlightenment and for synthesis of the intellectual and the

  • glass bead screen (optics)

    projection screen: …are the mat white, the glass bead, and the lenticular. Mat white is a nonglossy white surface, which may be produced by a flat white paint coating, that provides uniform brightness of a projected image over a wide viewing angle. It is therefore well adapted for projection in a large…

  • Glass Bees, The (work by Jünger)

    Ernst Jünger: …novels include Heliopolis (1949) and Gl?serne Bienen (1957; The Glass Bees), a disturbing story of a jobless former soldier in an overmechanized world symbolized by artificial bees and marionettes. After 1950 Jünger lived in self-imposed isolation in West Germany while continuing to publish brooding, introspective novels and essays on various…

  • glass blowing

    Glassblowing, the practice of shaping a mass of glass that has been softened by heat by blowing air into it through a tube. Glassblowing was invented by Syrian craftsmen in the area of Sidon, Aleppo, Hama, and Palmyra in the 1st century bc, where blown vessels for everyday and luxury use were

  • glass board (art)

    drawing: Mechanical devices: For portrait drawings, the glass board used into the 19th century had contours and important interior reference points marked on it with grease crayons or soap sticks, so that they could be transferred onto paper by tracing or direct copying. Both processes are frequently used for preliminary sketches for…

  • Glass Castle, The (film by Cretton [2017])

    Brie Larson: … remake Kong: Skull Island and The Glass Castle, a drama about a dysfunctional family. Two years later she played Carol Danvers, a U.S. Air Force pilot who becomes a superhero, in Captain Marvel and Avengers: Endgame. Larson’s other credits from 2019 included the drama Just Mercy, about a civil-rights attorney’s…

  • glass catfish (fish)

    catfish: The glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhus), for example, is a popular aquarium fish of the family Siluridae noted for its slender, highly transparent body; the banjo catfishes (Aspredinidae) of South America are slim fishes with rough, flattened heads and from above somewhat resemble banjos; the electric catfish…

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