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  • glycogenosis type VIII (pathology)

    glycogen storage disease: …VII, a deficiency in phosphofructokinase; type VIII, a deficiency in phosphohexoisomerase; and type X, a deficiency in phosphorylasekinase—are diseases that are characterized by weakness, muscle cramps, and sometimes myoglobinuria.

  • glycogenosis type X (pathology)

    glycogen storage disease: …a deficiency in phosphohexoisomerase; and type X, a deficiency in phosphorylasekinase—are diseases that are characterized by weakness, muscle cramps, and sometimes myoglobinuria.

  • glycogenosis type XI (pathology)

    glycogen storage disease: …IX, a deficiency in phosphorylasekinase; type XI, a deficiency in phosphoglucomutase; and type XII, a deficiency in cyclic 3′, 5′-AMP-dependent kinase.

  • glycogenosis type XII (pathology)

    glycogen storage disease: …a deficiency in phosphoglucomutase; and type XII, a deficiency in cyclic 3′, 5′-AMP-dependent kinase.

  • glycol (chemical compound)

    Glycol, any of a class of organic compounds belonging to the alcohol family; in the molecule of a glycol, two hydroxyl (―OH) groups are attached to different carbon atoms. The term is often applied to the simplest member of the class, ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol (also called 1,2-ethanediol,

  • glycolic acid (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Hydroxy and keto acids: The simplest hydroxy acids, glycolic and lactic, occur in nature.

  • glycolipid (biochemistry)

    Glycolipid, any member of a group of fat-soluble substances particularly abundant in tissues of the nervous system of animals. They are members of the class of sphingolipids (q.v.), but differ from the simpler members of that class in that their molecules contain a monosaccharide or disaccharide

  • glycolysis (biochemistry)

    Glycolysis, sequence of 10 chemical reactions taking place in most cells that breaks down glucose, releasing energy that is then captured and stored in ATP. One molecule of glucose (plus coenzymes and inorganic phosphate) makes two molecules of pyruvate (or pyruvic acid) and two molecules of ATP.

  • glycolytic pathway (biochemistry)

    Glycolysis, sequence of 10 chemical reactions taking place in most cells that breaks down glucose, releasing energy that is then captured and stored in ATP. One molecule of glucose (plus coenzymes and inorganic phosphate) makes two molecules of pyruvate (or pyruvic acid) and two molecules of ATP.

  • glycomacropeptide (protein)

    phenylketonuria: In addition, a protein called glycomacropeptide (GMP), which is formed during cheese making and thus can be isolated from whey, contains only trace amounts of phenylalanine and can be purified to be phenylalanine-free. GMP can be used in solid foods, and studies have shown that individuals with phenylketonuria are better…

  • glycophorin A (biochemistry)

    MNSs blood group system: …polymorphic (variable) genes, known as GYPA and GYPB (glycophorin A and B, respectively). The system consists of two pairs of codominant alleles, designated M and N (identified in 1927) and S and s (identified 1947 and 1951, respectively). The alleles M and N are usually distributed in populations in approximately…

  • glycophorin B (biochemistry)

    MNSs blood group system: known as GYPA and GYPB (glycophorin A and B, respectively). The system consists of two pairs of codominant alleles, designated M and N (identified in 1927) and S and s (identified 1947 and 1951, respectively). The alleles M and N are usually distributed in populations in approximately equal frequencies.…

  • glycoprotein (biochemistry)

    blood: Blood cells: These glycoproteins, as well as other CSFs, serve as signals from the tissues to the marrow. For instance, a decrease in the oxygen content of the blood stimulates the kidney to increase its production of erythropoietin, thus ultimately raising the number of oxygen-carrying red cells. Certain…

  • glycoprotein Ib (biochemistry)

    bleeding and blood clotting: Platelets and their aggregation: …the platelet membrane, known as glycoprotein Ib, to bind von Willebrand factor, a large multimeric plasma protein released from the alpha granules. Von Willebrand factor, when bound to glycoprotein Ib on the platelet surface, facilitates the interaction of platelets with a variety of other surfaces (e.g., the damaged vessel lining).

  • glycoprotein IIb (biochemistry)

    bleeding and blood clotting: Platelets and their aggregation: …important role in platelet aggregation: glycoprotein IIb and glycoprotein IIIa. These proteins form a complex in the membrane and expose a receptor site after platelet activation that binds fibrinogen (a bivalent molecule with two symmetrical halves that is found in relatively high concentration in plasma). Fibrinogen can bind simultaneously to…

  • glycoprotein IIIa (biochemistry)

    bleeding and blood clotting: Platelets and their aggregation: …platelet aggregation: glycoprotein IIb and glycoprotein IIIa. These proteins form a complex in the membrane and expose a receptor site after platelet activation that binds fibrinogen (a bivalent molecule with two symmetrical halves that is found in relatively high concentration in plasma). Fibrinogen can bind simultaneously to two platelets. Thus,…

  • glycosaminoglycan (biochemistry)

    human skin: The dermis: …collagen, with materials known as glycosaminoglycans, which are capable of holding a large amount of water, thus maintaining the turgidity of the skin. A network of extendable elastic fibres keeps the skin taut and restores it after it has been stretched.

  • glycoside (biochemistry)

    Glycoside, any of a wide variety of naturally occurring substances in which a carbohydrate portion, consisting of one or more sugars or a uronic acid (i.e., a sugar acid), is combined with a hydroxy compound. The hydroxy compound, usually a non-sugar entity (aglycon), such as a derivative of

  • glycosphingolipid (chemical compound)

    lipid: Sphingolipids: The glycosphingolipids, all containing a sugar attached to carbon 1 of sphingosine, have physical properties that depend primarily on the complexity and composition of this substituent. Two generic types of glycosphingolipids are recognized: neutral glycosphingolipids, which contain only neutral sugars, and gangliosides, which contain one or…

  • glycosuria (pathology)

    renal system: Biological considerations: Glycosuria is frequent and is due to increased glucose loading of the filtrate; there is some sodium retention with a tendency to abnormal accumulation of serous fluid (edema), and some protein may appear in the urine. Anatomical changes include enlargement and dilation of the pelvis…

  • glycosylation (biochemistry)

    cell: The rough endoplasmic reticulum: …in a process known as glycosylation, oligosaccharide (complex sugar) chains are often added to the protein to form a glycoprotein. Inside the ER lumen, the protein folds into its characteristic three-dimensional conformation.

  • glycosyltransferase (enzyme)

    blood group: Chemistry of the blood group substances: …ABH and Lewis antigens are glycosyltransferases (a group of enzymes that catalyze the addition of specific sugar residues to the core precursor substance). For example, the H gene codes for the production of a specific glycosyltransferase that adds l-fucose to a core precursor substance, resulting in the H antigen; the…

  • Glycyphagidae (arachnid)

    mite: Grain mites (Glycyphagidae) not only damage stored products but also cause skin irritations in those who handle such products. Itch mites burrow into the layers of the skin of humans, as well as into the hides of dogs, pigs, sheep, and goats, causing injury. Scab…

  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (herb)

    Licorice, (Glycyrrhiza glabra), perennial herb of the pea family (Fabaceae), and the flavouring, confection, and folk medicine made from its roots. Licorice is similar to anise (Pimpinella anisum) in flavour; both plants are somewhat sweet and slightly bitter. The Greek name glykyrrhiza, of which

  • glycyrrhizin (chemical compound)

    licorice: …imparted by a substance called glycyrrhizin.

  • Glykas, Michael (Byzantine historian and theologian)

    Michael Glycas, Byzantine historian, theologian, and poet, author of a world chronicle and learned theological works. Little is known of Glycas’s life except that he probably came from the island of Corfu, lived in Constantinople, and was blinded by order of Emperor Manuel I in 1159, apparently

  • glykophilousa (religious art)

    Madonna: …nurses the Child, and the glykophilousa, in which the Child caresses her cheek while she seems sadly to contemplate his coming Passion.

  • Glyn D?r, Owain (Welsh hero)

    Owain Glyn D?r, self-proclaimed prince of Wales whose unsuccessful rebellion against England was the last major Welsh attempt to throw off English rule. He became a national hero upon the resurgence of Welsh nationalism in the 19th and 20th centuries. A descendant of the princes of Powys, Glyn D?r

  • Glyn Ebwy (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Ebbw Vale, industrial town and urban area (from 2011 built-up area), Blaenau Gwent county borough, historic county of Monmouthshire (Sir Fynwy), southeastern Wales. It first developed as a coal-mining centre. Iron was processed there beginning in the late 18th century, using local coal, ore, and

  • Glyn, Elinor (English author)

    Elinor Glyn, English novelist and short-story writer known for her highly romantic tales with luxurious settings and improbable plots. As a young child Glyn read widely and precociously in her family library. Although she did not have any formal education, such friends as Lord Curzon, Lord Milner,

  • Glyndebourne (estate, East Sussex, England, United Kingdom)

    Glyndebourne, English manor and estate and site of annual summer performances by the Glyndebourne Festival Opera. Located in East Sussex, Eng., just northeast of Brighton, the Elizabethan house was added to during the 19th and 20th centuries, and an opera house was built when the owner, John

  • Glyndebourne Festival Opera (British opera company)

    Glyndebourne: …annual summer performances by the Glyndebourne Festival Opera. Located in East Sussex, Eng., just northeast of Brighton, the Elizabethan house was added to during the 19th and 20th centuries, and an opera house was built when the owner, John Christie, and his wife, soprano Audrey Mildmay, founded the festival in…

  • Glynd?r, Owain (Welsh hero)

    Owain Glyn D?r, self-proclaimed prince of Wales whose unsuccessful rebellion against England was the last major Welsh attempt to throw off English rule. He became a national hero upon the resurgence of Welsh nationalism in the 19th and 20th centuries. A descendant of the princes of Powys, Glyn D?r

  • Glyndwr, Owain (Welsh hero)

    Owain Glyn D?r, self-proclaimed prince of Wales whose unsuccessful rebellion against England was the last major Welsh attempt to throw off English rule. He became a national hero upon the resurgence of Welsh nationalism in the 19th and 20th centuries. A descendant of the princes of Powys, Glyn D?r

  • Glynn Vivian Art Gallery (gallery, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Swansea: The Glynn Vivian Art Gallery was opened in 1911, and in 1934 a new guildhall was erected, notable for 16 panels painted by Frank Brangwyn and originally intended to decorate the British House of Lords.

  • glyoxylate (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Anaplerotic routes: Glyoxylate, like oxaloacetate, is the anion of an α-oxoacid and thus can condense, in a reaction catalyzed by malate synthase, with acetyl coenzyme A; the products of this reaction are coenzyme A and malate (reaction [53]).

  • glyoxylate cycle (biochemistry)

    metabolism: Anaplerotic routes: …a route known as the glyoxylate cycle. In this route, the steps of the TCA cycle that lead to the loss of carbon dioxide ([40], [41], and [42]) are bypassed. Instead of being oxidized to oxalosuccinate, as occurs in [40], isocitrate is split by isocitrate lyase (reaction [52]), similar to…

  • glyoxylic acid cycle (biochemistry)

    plant: Principal pathways and cycles: Plant seedlings use the glyoxylic acid cycle to convert fats (principally from seeds) into glucose. This occurs initially in the glyoxysome and subsequently in the mitochondria and cytosol (the fluid mass that surrounds the various organelles).

  • glyoxysome (biology)

    peroxisome: …in plants, among them the glyoxysome, which functions in the conversion of fatty acids to carbohydrates.

  • glyphosate (herbicide)

    herbicide: History: …to specific chemical herbicides, notably glyphosate. These genetically modified organisms (GMOs) enable effective chemical control of weeds, since only the HRC plants can survive in fields treated with the corresponding herbicide. Such crops have been especially valuable for no-till farming, which helps prevent soil erosion. However, because these crops encourage…

  • glyptal (chemical compound)

    alkyd resin: …react to form the polyester glyptal. The reaction can be represented as follows:

  • Glyptodon (extinct mammal)

    Glyptodon, genus of extinct giant mammals related to modern armadillos and found as fossils in deposits in North and South America dating from the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs (5.3 million to 11,700 years ago). Glyptodon and its close relatives, the glyptodonts, were encased from head to tail in

  • glyptodont (extinct mammal)

    xenarthran: Cingulata: Members of extinct families include glyptodonts and huge North American armadillos.

  • Glyptodontidae (extinct mammal)

    xenarthran: Cingulata: Members of extinct families include glyptodonts and huge North American armadillos.

  • Glyptostrobus pensilis (conifer)

    conifer: Sporophyte phase: …the southeastern United States and shuaisuong (Glyptostrobus) in southeastern China. Reproduction of such trees is as attuned to flooding as that of fire species is to scorched earth. Their seeds have air and resin pockets that allow them to float away to slightly raised areas revealed by receding floodwaters.

  • Glyptothek (museum, Munich, Germany)

    Glyptothek, museum in Munich that houses a collection of Greek and Roman sculpture owned by the Bavarian state. The building, commissioned by King Louis I of Bavaria and designed in the Neoclassical style by Leo von Klenze, was erected 1816–30. It is a subsidiary of the nearby Staatliche

  • GM (American company)

    General Motors (GM), American corporation that was the world’s largest motor-vehicle manufacturer for much of the 20th and early 21st centuries. It operates manufacturing and assembly plants and distribution centres throughout the United States, Canada, and many other countries. The company’s major

  • GM food (agriculture)

    agricultural sciences: Emerging agricultural sciences: Genetically modified (GM) foods were first approved for human consumption in the United States in 1994, and by 2014–15 about 90 percent of the corn, cotton, and soybeans planted in the United States was GM. The genetic engineering of crops can dramatically increase per-area crop…

  • GM Hughes Electronics (American corporation)

    Hughes Electronics Corporation, American provider of wireless telecommunication services and formerly a leading manufacturer of satellites. The company was formed in 1985 as GM Hughes Electronics, a wholly owned subsidiary of General Motors Corporation, and renamed in 1995 as Hughes Electronics

  • GM-CSF (protein)
  • GMAC (American company)

    John Jakob Raskob: …stimulated sales by establishing the General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC), which allowed dealers to finance their inventory of cars and offer credit and long-term financing to their customers. Raskob’s influence in the company declined, however, after the recession crisis of 1920 and the appointment that year of du Pont as…

  • Gmail (e-mail service)

    Gmail, free e-mail service offered by the American search engine company Google Inc. Google began offering Web-based e-mail accounts to select beta testers in 2004. Gmail was opened to the general public in 2007 and, when first launched, offered an unprecedented one gigabyte (one billion bytes) of

  • GMAP

    World Malaria Day: …prompted the formation of the Global Malaria Action Plan (GMAP), an aggressive unified strategy designed to reduce the incidence of malaria worldwide. The three components of this strategy are control, elimination, and research. Research to develop new drugs and new approaches to prevention is fundamental to efforts aimed at first…

  • GMB (British trade union)

    GMB, one of the largest trade unions in Great Britain and one of the two giant general unions (the other being Unite). The National Union of General and Municipal Workers (NUGMW) was formed in 1924 by the merger of the National Union of Gas and General Workers, the National Amalgamated Union of

  • GMBATU (British trade union)

    GMB, one of the largest trade unions in Great Britain and one of the two giant general unions (the other being Unite). The National Union of General and Municipal Workers (NUGMW) was formed in 1924 by the merger of the National Union of Gas and General Workers, the National Amalgamated Union of

  • Gmelin larch (tree)

    taiga: Trees: …trees in the world are Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii) found at latitude 72°40′ N on the Taymyr Peninsula in the central Arctic region of Russia.

  • Gmelin, Leopold (German chemist)

    ester: …19th century by German chemist Leopold Gmelin.

  • gmelinite (mineral)

    Gmelinite, hydrated sodium aluminosilicate mineral in the zeolite family [(Na2,Ca)Al2Si4O12·6H2O]. Its crystal structure and chemical composition are similar to those of chabazite (q.v.), with which it is commonly

  • GMHC (American political organization)

    homosexuality: Contemporary issues: …victims through groups such as Gay Men’s Health Crisis in New York City. Novelist and playwright Larry Kramer, who believed a more aggressive presence was needed, founded the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP), which began promoting political action, including outing, through local chapters in such cities as New…

  • gminy (Polish political unit)

    Poland: Local government: …districts), followed by about 2,500 gminy (towns and rural communes). The last are the fundamental territorial units within Poland. The status of the capital city of Warsaw is regulated by a special legislation. Both powiaty and gminy are governed by councils, elected to four-year terms. These councils in turn elect…

  • GMM (economics)

    Lars Peter Hansen: …development of the GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) technique, a very flexible econometric method that allows complex economic models to be tested against empirical data with a minimum of assumptions. The use of the GMM technique led to the development of better models in macroeconomics, labour economics, and finance,…

  • GMO

    Genetically modified organism (GMO), organism whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favour the expression of desired physiological traits or the generation of desired biological products. In conventional livestock production, crop farming, and even pet breeding, it has long

  • GMP (protein)

    phenylketonuria: In addition, a protein called glycomacropeptide (GMP), which is formed during cheese making and thus can be isolated from whey, contains only trace amounts of phenylalanine and can be purified to be phenylalanine-free. GMP can be used in solid foods, and studies have shown that individuals with phenylketonuria are better…

  • GMR (underground pipeline network, Libya)

    Great Man-Made River (GMR), a network of underground pipelines bringing high-quality fresh water from ancient underground aquifers deep in the Sahara to the coast of Libya for domestic use, agriculture, and industry. The GMR was originally conceived as having several arms, or phases, though not all

  • GMRT (telescope, Pune, India)

    radio telescope: Radio telescope arrays: Indian radio astronomers built the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), located near Pune, India. The GMRT contains 30 antennas extending some 25 km (16 miles) in diameter. Each antenna element is 45 metres (148 feet) in diameter and is constructed using a novel, inexpensive system of wire trusses to replace…

  • GMT

    Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), the name for mean solar time of the longitude (0°) of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in England. The meridian at this longitude is called the prime meridian or Greenwich meridian. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) has been used to clearly designate epoch by avoiding confusing

  • Gmunden (Austria)

    Gmunden, town, north-central Austria, where the Traun River flows out of Lake Traun (Traunsee), a mountain lake. The site of Celtic and Roman settlements, Gmunden was fortified in the 12th century and chartered in the 13th. Its Baroque parish church on 13th-century foundations was consecrated in

  • GMWU (British trade union)

    GMB, one of the largest trade unions in Great Britain and one of the two giant general unions (the other being Unite). The National Union of General and Municipal Workers (NUGMW) was formed in 1924 by the merger of the National Union of Gas and General Workers, the National Amalgamated Union of

  • GNA (Turkish history)

    Mehmed VI: The Grand National Assembly on Nov. 1, 1922, abolished the sultanate. Sixteen days later Mehmed VI boarded a British warship and fled to Malta. His later attempts to install himself as caliph in the Hejaz failed.

  • Gnadenhütten (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Carbon: Lehighton was laid out on the site of Gnadenhutten, a Moravian settlement dating from 1746 that was destroyed during the French and Indian War. Anthracite coal was discovered in the region as early as 1791, but it was not mined commercially until the early 19th…

  • Gnadenhütten Massacre (United States history [1782])

    Gnadenhütten Massacre, (March 8, 1782), murder of 96 Ohio Indians, mostly Delawares, by an American Revolutionary War officer, Captain David Williamson, and his militia at Gnadenhütten Village south of what is now New Philadelphia, Ohio. The Indians, who had been converted by Moravian Brethren and

  • Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Roman statesman)

    Pompey the Great, one of the great statesmen and generals of the late Roman Republic, a triumvir (61–54 bce) who was an associate and later an opponent of Julius Caesar. He was initially called Magnus (“the Great”) by his troops in Africa (82–81 bce), and he assumed the cognomen Magnus after 81.

  • Gnam-ri-srong-brtsan (Tibetan ruler)

    Gnam-ri-srong-brtsan, Descendant of a line of rulers of Yarlong, united tribes in central and southern Tibet that became known to China’s Sui dynasty (581–618). After his assassination, he was succeeded by his son, Srong-brtsan-sgam-po (c. 608–650), who continued his father’s military expansion and

  • gnaphosid (spider)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Gnaphosidae More than 2,000 common and widespread species. Anterior (lateral) spinnerets cylindrical and separated; posterior median eyes often oval and diagonal; nocturnal hunters. Family Sparassidae or Heteropodidae (huntsman spiders, tarantulas in Australia) Found in most tropical regions. Eyes in 2 rows; legs extended

  • Gnaphosidae (spider)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Gnaphosidae More than 2,000 common and widespread species. Anterior (lateral) spinnerets cylindrical and separated; posterior median eyes often oval and diagonal; nocturnal hunters. Family Sparassidae or Heteropodidae (huntsman spiders, tarantulas in Australia) Found in most tropical regions. Eyes in 2 rows; legs extended

  • Gnaralbine (Western Australia, Australia)

    Coolgardie, town, south-central Western Australia. It was founded in 1892 with the discovery of quartz gold in the vicinity, which marked the beginning of a rush to the East Coolgardie field. Known consecutively as Gnaralbine, Bayley’s Reward, and Fly Flat, it was finally renamed Coolgardie, an

  • Gnarls Barkley (American music group)

    CeeLo Green: As Gnarls Barkley (a pun on the name of basketball star Charles Barkley), the pair released St. Elsewhere (2006), an offbeat R&amp;B album on which Green mused upon such dark themes as paranoia and suicide over slick sample-based arrangements. Mostly because of the single “Crazy,” a…

  • Gnarly Buttons (concerto by Adams)

    Gnarly Buttons, concerto for clarinet and chamber ensemble by American composer John Adams that premiered in London on October 19, 1996. Adams used the word buttons in part as an homage to Gertrude Stein’s experiment in Cubist writing Tender Buttons but also to refer to the contemporary prominence

  • Gnassingbé, Faure (president of Togo)

    Faure Gnassingbé, businessman and politician who became president of Togo in 2005. A year after Gnassingbé’s birth, his father, étienne Eyadéma (who later took the name Gnassingbé Eyadéma), seized power in Togo during a military coup. As the son of the country’s leader, Gnassingbé enjoyed a certain

  • Gnassingbé, Faure Essozimna (president of Togo)

    Faure Gnassingbé, businessman and politician who became president of Togo in 2005. A year after Gnassingbé’s birth, his father, étienne Eyadéma (who later took the name Gnassingbé Eyadéma), seized power in Togo during a military coup. As the son of the country’s leader, Gnassingbé enjoyed a certain

  • gnat (insect)

    Gnat, any member of several species of small flies that bite and annoy humans. Several nonbiting insects, such as the midges, which resemble mosquitoes, are also sometimes known as gnats. In North America the name is often applied to the black fly, midge, fungus gnat, biting midge, fruit fly

  • gnat bug (insect)

    Unique-headed bug, (family Enicocephalidae), any of about 130 species of bugs (order Heteroptera) that have an unusual elongated head that is constricted behind the eyes and also at the base. The unique-headed bug is found throughout the world and is about 4 mm (0.2 inch) long. These bugs are also

  • gnatcatcher (bird)

    Gnatcatcher, (genus Polioptila), any of about 15 species of small insect-eating New World birds in the family Polioptilidae (order Passeriformes). (Many authorities treat the genus as a subfamily of the Old World warbler family Sylviidae.) The blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), 11 cm (4.5

  • gnateater (bird)

    Gnateater, any of eight species of bird of the genus Conopophaga in the family Conopophagidae, formerly classified with the antbirds. These small birds forage for insects in the understory of South American

  • Gnathonemus

    Elephantsnout fish, any of certain mormyrid (q.v.) species having an elongate appendage on the lower

  • gnathopod (appendage)

    amphipod: …often being characterized by enlarged gnathopods (claws on the second thoracic segment) used to grasp females during copulation. The male presumably emits sperm, or spermatophores (balls of sperm), to fertilize the eggs of the female externally.

  • Gnathorhiza (fish)

    lungfish: Evolution: Remains of the dipnoid Gnathorhiza, closely allied to the extant African and South American species, were embedded in the clay. Their discovery in such a setting strongly suggests that these dipnoids passed unfavourable conditions buried in mud.

  • gnathosoma (arachnid anatomy)

    acarid: External features: An anterior region called the gnathosoma contains the mouth, specialized feeding appendages (chelicerae), and segmented structures called palps, or pedipalps. The mouth or buccal cavity joins the pharynx internally, and paired salivary glands may discharge into the mouth or in front of its opening. The chelicerae are basically three-segmented pincerlike…

  • Gnathostomata (vertebrate)

    circulatory system: Circulation in jawed vertebrates: Although clearly related to its mode of life, the blood system of a species also reflects its evolutionary history. The most significant change that occurred during early vertebrate evolution was the appearance of animals that could live and breathe on land. The first of…

  • gnathostome (vertebrate)

    circulatory system: Circulation in jawed vertebrates: Although clearly related to its mode of life, the blood system of a species also reflects its evolutionary history. The most significant change that occurred during early vertebrate evolution was the appearance of animals that could live and breathe on land. The first of…

  • Gnatt, Kirsten (Danish dancer)

    Kirsten Ralov, Danish dancer, ballet teacher, and, from 1978 to 1988, associate artistic director of the Royal Danish Ballet. Ralov began studying in Vienna but soon moved with her Danish parents to Copenhagen, where she was accepted (1928) into the Royal Danish Ballet School with her brother, Poul

  • gnatwren (bird)

    Gnatcatcher, (genus Polioptila), any of about 15 species of small insect-eating New World birds in the family Polioptilidae (order Passeriformes). (Many authorities treat the genus as a subfamily of the Old World warbler family Sylviidae.) The blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), 11 cm (4.5

  • gnawing (animal behaviour)

    rodent: General features: The differential wear from gnawing creates perpetually sharp chisel edges. Rodents’ absence of other incisors and canine teeth results in a gap, or diastema, between incisors and cheek teeth, which number from 22 (5 on each side of the upper and lower jaws) to 4, may be rooted or…

  • GNC (Libyan government)

    Libya: Establishment of the General National Congress: …would be known as the General National Congress (GNC). The National Forces Alliance, a secular party led by Mahmoud Jibril, a former TNC official and interim prime minister, won the largest number of seats. On August 8 the TNC formally handed over power to the GNC.

  • Gneisenau, August, Graf Neidhart von (Prussian field marshal)

    August, Count Neidhardt von Gneisenau, Prussian field marshal and reformer, one of the key figures in rebuilding and reorganizing the Prussian army shattered by Napoleon in 1806 and the architect of its victory during the wars of liberation (1813–15). Of impoverished noble parentage, Gneisenau

  • gneiss (rock)

    Gneiss, metamorphic rock that has a distinct banding, which is apparent in hand specimen or on a microscopic scale. Gneiss usually is distinguished from schist by its foliation and schistosity; gneiss displays a well-developed foliation and a poorly developed schistosity and cleavage. For the

  • Gneist, Rudolf von (German jurist)

    Rudolf von Gneist, liberal German jurist, legal reformer, legislator, and political theoretician whose teachings and publications, based on studies of the English system of government, exercised a profound influence on the development of German administrative law. The son of a supreme court judge,

  • Gnesio-Lutherans (religious sect)

    Lutheranism: Confessionalization and Orthodoxy: …followers of Melanchthon, and the Gnesio-Lutherans (Genuine Lutherans), led by Matthias Flacius Illyricus, a forceful and uncompromising theologian who accused the Philippists of “synergism,” the notion that humans cooperated in their salvation. Flacius and the other Gnesio-Lutherans also saw in the Philippists’ understanding of the Lord’s Supper the influence of…

  • Gnessin, Uri Nissan (Jewish author)

    Hebrew literature: émigré and Palestinian literature: …the rootlessness without hope of Uri Nissan Gnessin and Joseph ?ayyim Brenner exemplified. The majority of writers active in Palestine before 1939 were born in the Diaspora (Jewish communities outside Palestine) and were concerned with the past. An exception was Yehuda Burla, who wrote about Jewish communities of Middle Eastern…

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    Gnetaceae, a family of tropical gymnosperms in the order Gnetales (division Gnetophyta), composed of one genus, Gnetum, with 30 or more species. Trees predominate among the African species; most of the Asian varieties are woody vines, but among the exceptions is G. gnemon, a tree about 20 metres

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