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  • Gosainthan (mountain, China)

    Xixabangma, one of the world’s highest mountains, reaching an elevation of 26,286 feet (8,012 metres) above sea level. It rises in the Himalayas in the southern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, southwestern China, near the Nepal border. The Trisuli River cuts a gorge to the west of the

  • Go?āla Maskarīputra (Indian ascetic)

    akriyāvāda: …Pūra?a Kā?yapa, a radical antinomian; Go?āla Maskarīputra, a fatalist; Ajita Ke?akambalin, the earliest-known materialist in India; and Pakudha Kātyāyana, an atomist. Go?āla’s followers formed the ājīvika sect, which enjoyed some acceptance during the Maurya period (3rd century bc) and then dwindled.

  • Gosalo Makkhaliputto (Indian ascetic)

    akriyāvāda: …Pūra?a Kā?yapa, a radical antinomian; Go?āla Maskarīputra, a fatalist; Ajita Ke?akambalin, the earliest-known materialist in India; and Pakudha Kātyāyana, an atomist. Go?āla’s followers formed the ājīvika sect, which enjoyed some acceptance during the Maurya period (3rd century bc) and then dwindled.

  • Gosarbitrazh (Soviet law)

    civil service: Civil servants and communism: …compulsory arbitration operated through the State Arbitration Tribunal (known as Gosarbitrazh) under the Council of Ministers and through arbitration tribunals responsible to the councils of ministers in each of the republics. It settled all disputes concerning contracts, quality of goods, and other property disputes between various state enterprises. The system…

  • Goschen of Hawkhurst, George Joachim Goschen, 1st Viscount (British economist)

    George Joachim Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen, British economist and administrator, who worked for both Liberal and Conservative governments in the late 19th century. The son of William Henry Goeschen (or G?schen), a London banker of German origin, he was educated in Saxony, at Rugby, and at Oriel

  • Goscinny, René (French writer)

    René Goscinny, French writer who is best known for the comic strip “Astérix”, which he created with illustrator Albert Uderzo. Goscinny was reared and educated in Buenos Aires and later worked on children’s books in New York City. In 1954 he returned to Paris to direct a press agency and soon

  • Gosden and Correll (American comedic duo)

    Gosden and Correll, American comedic duo, best known for creating the Amos ’n’ Andy radio program. Freeman F. Gosden (b. May 5, 1899, Richmond, Va., U.S.—d. Dec. 10, 1982, Los Angeles, Calif.) and Charles J. Correll (b. Feb. 2, 1890, Peoria, Ill., U.S.—d. Sept. 26, 1972, Chicago, Ill.) performed

  • Gosden, Freeman F. (American comedian)

    Gosden and Correll: In 1929 Gosden and Correll, both white, broadened their appeal by devising a larger cast of characters for a new nightly radio program, Amos ’n’ Andy, thus creating one of the first situation comedies. As Amos the cab driver and his sidekick, Andy, they became the mainstays…

  • Gosford (New South Wales, Australia)

    Gosford, city, east-central New South Wales, Australia. It is situated at the north end of the Brisbane Water branch of Broken Bay. Gosford was surveyed and founded in 1839 and named for Archibald Acheson, 2nd earl of Gosford. It was merged in 1886 with the privately owned village of East Gosford

  • Gosford Park (film by Altman [2001])

    Robert Altman: Final years: Gosford Park (2001), a hybrid of murder mystery and comedy of manners that was set on an English country estate in the early 1930s, earned Altman the last Academy Award nomination of his career for best director. The film was also nominated as best picture.…

  • Gosford, Archibald Acheson, 2nd earl of (governor of British North America)

    Archibald Acheson, 2nd earl of Gosford, governor-in-chief of British North America in 1835–37, who alienated English- and French-speaking colonists in Canada. Acheson entered politics in 1798 as member for Armagh in the Irish Parliament. After the union of Great Britain and Ireland (1800), he

  • goshawk (bird)

    Goshawk, any of the more powerful accipiters, or true hawks (i.e., belonging to the genus Accipiter), primarily short-winged, forest-dwelling bird catchers, of which the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is best known. Originally called “goose hawk,” perhaps because of its size and its finely

  • Goshen (Indiana, United States)

    Goshen, city, seat (1831) of Elkhart county, northern Indiana, U.S., on the Elkhart River, 23 miles (37 km) east-southeast of South Bend. Settled in 1828–30 and probably named for Goshen, New York, the home of one of its early settlers, it has a large Amish and Mennonite community. Goshen is a

  • Goshen (New York, United States)

    Hambletonian Stakes: It was later moved to Goshen, New York, in 1957 to Du Quoin, Illinois, and in 1981 to Meadowlands (New Jersey) Racetrack. To win the Hambletonian, a horse must win two one-mile heats. The race was named for Hambletonian (Rysdyk’s Hambletonian), the foundation sire of most modern trotting horses in…

  • Goshen College (college, Goshen, Indiana, United States)

    Goshen College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Goshen, Ind., U.S. It is a Mennonite liberal arts college that offers bachelor of arts degree programs in fine arts, humanities, sciences, Bible and religion, business, computer and information science, Hispanic ministries,

  • Goshimpei (Japanese military group)

    Yamagata Aritomo: Early career: …power, he proposed forming an Imperial Force (Goshimpei). In early 1871, when a force of about 10,000 men drawn from the feudal armies was organized, Yamagata was promoted to vice minister of military affairs. This Imperial Force was later renamed the Imperial Guard (Konoe), and Yamagata became its commander.

  • Goshiute (people)

    Gosiute, ethnolinguistic group of Western Shoshone Indians formerly living west of the Great Salt Lake in the arid region of the North American Great Basin. They were often reported in the 19th century to have lived wretched lives, subsisting with difficulty in the desert wasteland; the reports

  • Gosho Heinosuke (Japanese director)

    Gosho Heinosuke, Japanese motion-picture director and writer famous for films concerning the everyday lives of middle-class people. He is also noted for adapting Japanese literary works to the screen and for his creative use of silence in sound pictures, subtle pictorial symbols, and rapid

  • Goshun (Japanese painter)

    Shijō school: …by his pupils, among them Matsumura Gekkei, called Goshun, from whose residence on Fourth Street (Shijō), in Kyōto, the movement took its name. Among the most important artists associated with the school were Matsumura Keibun and Okamoto Toyohiko.

  • Goshute (people)

    Gosiute, ethnolinguistic group of Western Shoshone Indians formerly living west of the Great Salt Lake in the arid region of the North American Great Basin. They were often reported in the 19th century to have lived wretched lives, subsisting with difficulty in the desert wasteland; the reports

  • Gosiute (people)

    Gosiute, ethnolinguistic group of Western Shoshone Indians formerly living west of the Great Salt Lake in the arid region of the North American Great Basin. They were often reported in the 19th century to have lived wretched lives, subsisting with difficulty in the desert wasteland; the reports

  • Goslar (Germany)

    Goslar, city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany. It lies at the northern foot of the Harz Mountains, south of Braunschweig. Founded in 922 to protect rich silver mines discovered in the Rammelsberg mountain, it became a favourite residence of the early Holy Roman emperors. The scene

  • Go?licki, Wawrzyniec (Polish bishop)

    Wawrzyniec Go?licki, Roman Catholic bishop and diplomat whose political writings were precursory to Catholic liberalism. In 1569 he joined the royal chancery and served two Polish kings, Sigismund II Augustus and Stephen Báthory. Successively appointed bishop of Kamieniec Podolski (1586), Che?m

  • Goslin, Goose (American baseball player)

    Minnesota Twins: Johnson was joined by slugger Goose Goslin in 1921, and the two led the Senators to their first pennant win and the World Series championship in 1924, a title that was won in dramatic fashion over the New York Giants in the 12th inning of the seventh game of the…

  • Gosling, Raymond (British physicist)

    Raymond Gosling, British physicist (born July 15, 1926, London. Eng.—died May 18, 2015, London), took the X-ray diffraction photographs that enabled Francis Crick and James Watson to identify the double-helix structure of DNA and to develop their Nobel Prize-winning DNA model. Gosling earned (1947)

  • Gosling, Ryan (Canadian actor and musician)

    Damien Chazelle: … as an aspiring actress and Ryan Gosling as an ambitious jazz musician, won over critics and audiences alike and garnered numerous awards, including the BAFTA award for best film and the Golden Globe Award for best musical or comedy. It was nominated for a record-tying 14 Academy Awards and captured…

  • Gosnell, Harold F. (American political scientist)

    political science: Developments in the United States: …Chicago school was Merriam and Harold F. Gosnell’s Non-voting, Causes and Methods of Control (1924), which used sampling methods and survey data and is illustrative of the type of research that came to dominate political science after World War II. Merriam’s approach was not entirely new; in 1908 the British…

  • Gosnold, Bartholomew (English explorer)

    Bartholomew Gosnold, English explorer and colonizer. The eldest son of an English country squire, Bartholomew Gosnold attended Cambridge University before marrying and settling at Bury St. Edmunds in the late 1590s. In 1602 the Earl of Southampton defrayed most of the expenses for fitting out the

  • Gospel (New Testament)

    Gospel, any of four biblical narratives covering the life and death of Jesus Christ. Written, according to tradition, respectively by St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. John (the four evangelists), they are placed at the beginning of the New Testament and make up about half the total text.

  • Gospel (Christian concept)

    biblical literature: Meaning of the term gospel: From the late ad 40s and until his martyrdom in the 60s, Paul wrote letters to the churches that he founded or guided. These are the earliest Christian writings that the church has, and in them he refers to “the gospel” (euangelion). In Romans,…

  • Gospel (work by Marcion)

    biblical literature: Gospels: …few papyrus fragments come from gospels not known by name (e.g., Egerton papyrus 2, Oxyrhynchus papyrus 840, Strasbourg papyrus 5–6). There are also the Gospel produced in the 2nd century by Marcion (a “semi-gnostic” heretic from Asia Minor), who removed what he regarded as interpolations from the Gospel According to…

  • Gospel According to Jesus Christ, The (novel by Saramago)

    José Saramago: …evangelho segundo Jesus Cristo (1991; The Gospel According to Jesus Christ), which posits Christ as an innocent caught in the machinations of God and Satan. The outspoken atheist’s ironic comments in The Gospel According to Jesus Christ were deemed too cutting by the Roman Catholic Church, which pressured the Portuguese…

  • Gospel According to Saint Matthew, The (film by Pasolini)

    Pier Paolo Pasolini: …Il Vangelo secondo Matteo (1964; The Gospel According to Saint Matthew), is an austere, documentary-style retelling of the life and martyrdom of Jesus Christ. The comic allegory Uccellacci e Uccellini (1966; The Hawks and the Sparrows) was followed by two films attempting to re-create ancient myths from a contemporary viewpoint,…

  • Gospel According to the Son, The (novel by Mailer)

    Norman Mailer: …intertwined religion and historical figures: The Gospel According to the Son (1997) is a first-person “memoir” purportedly written by Jesus Christ, and The Castle in the Forest (2007), narrated by a devil, tells the story of Adolf Hitler’s boyhood.

  • Gospel and the Church, The (work by Loisy)

    Alfred Firmin Loisy: Loisy’s L’évangile et l’église (1902; The Gospel and the Church) became the cornerstone of Modernism. Ostensibly a reply to the rationalist approach to religion of the German Protestant historian Adolph von Harnack, whose theories were antithetical to those of Loisy, the book was actually a reinterpretation of the Catholic faith.…

  • Gospel as a Document of Jewish Religious History, The (work by Baeck)

    Leo Baeck: Baeck’s philosophy: …figure and his view in The Gospel as a Document of Jewish Religious History (1938) that the Gospels belonged with the contemporary works of rabbinical literature. Christians, on the other hand, felt challenged by his definition of Judaism as the “classic” rational faith confronting a “romantic” Christianity of emotion, in…

  • Gospel in Brief, The (work by Tolstoy)

    Ludwig Wittgenstein: …in part by Leo Tolstoy’s The Gospel in Brief (1883), which he bought at the beginning of the war and subsequently carried with him at all times, reading and rereading it until he knew it practically by heart. Wittgenstein spent the first two years of the war behind the lines,…

  • Gospel Lectionary of Gero (Ottonian manuscript)

    Western painting: Ottonian Germany: …the earliest Ottonian books, the Gospel Lectionary (a book of Gospel lessons for the church year) of Gero (c. 960), were copied line for line from a manuscript of Charlemagne’s Court school. The dominant figure in the late 10th century was an artist known as the Master of the Registrum…

  • gospel music

    Gospel music, a genre of American Protestant music, rooted in the religious revivals of the 19th century, which developed in different directions within the white (European American) and black (African American) communities of the United States. Over the decades, both the white and black traditions

  • Gospel of Ramakrishna, The (work by Gupta)

    Ramakrishna: …Sri Sri Ramakrishna Kathamrita (1902–32; The Nectar-Speech of the Twice-Blessed Ramakrishna), best known to English readers as The Gospel of Ramakrishna, a remarkable text based on conversations with Ramakrishna from 1882 to 1886. Moreover, his disciple and successor Narendranath Datta (died 1902) became the world-traveling Swami Vivekananda and helped establish…

  • Gospelaires, the (American music group)

    Dionne Warwick: …she formed a group called the Gospelaires with her sister, Dee Dee. The group enjoyed relative success, singing backup for a number of musicians in local venues and on recordings. Warrick continued to perform with the Gospelaires after enrolling at the Hartt School of the University of Hartford, Connecticut, in…

  • Gosplan (Soviet economics)

    Gosplan, central board that supervised various aspects of the planned economy of the Soviet Union by translating into specific national plans the general economic objectives outlined by the Communist Party and the government. Established in February 1921, Gosplan was originally an advisory council

  • gospodar (title)

    Montenegro: Modernization and statehood: …he assumed the title of gospodar (prince) and, by making it a hereditary office, separated the leadership of state from the episcopal office. Danilo also introduced a new and modernized legal code, and the first Montenegrin newspaper appeared in 1871.

  • gospodor (title)

    Montenegro: Modernization and statehood: …he assumed the title of gospodar (prince) and, by making it a hereditary office, separated the leadership of state from the episcopal office. Danilo also introduced a new and modernized legal code, and the first Montenegrin newspaper appeared in 1871.

  • Gosport (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Gosport, port town and borough (district), administrative and historic county of Hampshire, England. It lies on a peninsula between Portsmouth Harbour and The Solent, opposite the Isle of Wight. Gosport prospered from the 16th century with the rising importance of the Royal Navy. Primarily a

  • Goss v. Board of Education of Knoxville, Tennessee (law case)

    Goss v. Board of Education of Knoxville, Tennessee, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on June 3, 1963, ruled (9–0) that a Tennessee school board’s desegregation plan that included a transfer provision, which would have permitted segregated schools, was a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment’s

  • Goss v. Lopez (law case)

    Goss v. Lopez, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on January 22, 1975, ruled that, under the Fourteenth Amendment’s due process clause, public-school students facing suspensions are entitled to notice and a hearing. The case centred on Dwight Lopez and eight other students from various public

  • Goss, Porter (American politician)

    Porter Goss, American Republican politician who served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1989–2004) and as director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; 2004–06). Goss was educated at the Hotchkiss School in Lakeville, Connecticut, and at Yale University, where he earned a B.A. in classics

  • Goss, Porter Johnston (American politician)

    Porter Goss, American Republican politician who served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1989–2004) and as director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; 2004–06). Goss was educated at the Hotchkiss School in Lakeville, Connecticut, and at Yale University, where he earned a B.A. in classics

  • Goss, Wayne (Australian politician)

    Kevin Rudd: …staff for Queensland opposition leader Wayne Goss—a position he retained after Goss became premier of Queensland in 1989. Rudd served as director general of the state cabinet office from 1992 to 1995. Entering the private sector, he worked for two years as a senior consultant for the accounting firm KPMG…

  • Gossaert, Jan (Netherlandish painter)

    Jan Gossart, Netherlandish painter who was one of the first artists to introduce the style of the Italian Renaissance into the Low Countries. Gossart is most likely to be identified with Jennyn van Hennegouwe, who is registered as a master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1503. His most

  • Gossage, Goose (American baseball player)

    San Diego Padres: …fellow all-stars Steve Garvey and Rich (“Goose”) Gossage led the Padres to their first division title, which they followed with a five-game victory over the Chicago Cubs in the NL Championship Series (NLCS) to earn their first World Series berth. At the World Series the Padres faced off against a…

  • Gossage, Rich (American baseball player)

    San Diego Padres: …fellow all-stars Steve Garvey and Rich (“Goose”) Gossage led the Padres to their first division title, which they followed with a five-game victory over the Chicago Cubs in the NL Championship Series (NLCS) to earn their first World Series berth. At the World Series the Padres faced off against a…

  • Gossamer Albatross (American aircraft)

    Paul Beattie MacCready: …more streamlined MacCready plane, the Gossamer Albatross, was pedaled and piloted by Allen from near Folkestone, Kent, Eng., to Cape Gris-Nez, Fr., a distance of 23 miles (37 km), in 2 h 49 min, on June 12, 1979. This flight won the £100,000 Kremer Prize for the first man-propelled flight…

  • Gossamer Condor (American aircraft)

    Paul Beattie MacCready: , MacCready’s Gossamer Condor, pedaled and piloted by 137-pound (62-kilogram) Bryan Allen, a bicyclist and hang-glider enthusiast, completed the course required to win the Kremer Prize of £50,000 ($95,000), clearing a 10-foot- (3-metre-) high start-and-finish line while making a figure-eight flight around two pylons set half a…

  • Gossamer Years, The (Japanese diary)

    Japanese literature: Prose: Kagerō nikki (The Gossamer Years) describes the life between 954 and 974 of the second wife of Fujiwara Kaneie, a prominent court official. The first volume, related long after the events, is in the manner of an autobiographical novel; even the author confesses that her remembrances are…

  • gossamer-winged butterfly (insect)

    Gossamer-winged butterfly, (family Lycaenidae), any of a group of small, often brightly coloured butterflies (order Lepidoptera) that includes several hundred species commonly called coppers, blues, hairstreaks, harvesters, and metal marks. All are small to medium-sized butterflies (wingspan 1–3

  • gossan (mineral)

    Gossan, rust-coloured oxide and hydroxide minerals of iron and manganese that cap an ore deposit. Gossans form by the oxidation of the sulfide minerals in an ore deposit and they thus may be used as clues to the existence of subsurface ore deposits, especially if distinctive boxworks are present.

  • Gossard, Stone (American musician)

    Pearl Jam: ), rhythm guitarist Stone Gossard (b. July 20, 1966, Seattle, Washington), bassist Jeff Ament (b. March 10, 1963, Havre, Montana), lead guitarist Mike McCready (b. April 5, 1966, Pensacola, Florida), and drummer Dave Krusen (b. March 10, 1966, Tacoma, Washington). Later members included Jack Irons (b. July 18,…

  • Gossart, Jan (Netherlandish painter)

    Jan Gossart, Netherlandish painter who was one of the first artists to introduce the style of the Italian Renaissance into the Low Countries. Gossart is most likely to be identified with Jennyn van Hennegouwe, who is registered as a master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1503. His most

  • Gossart, Jenni (Netherlandish painter)

    Jan Gossart, Netherlandish painter who was one of the first artists to introduce the style of the Italian Renaissance into the Low Countries. Gossart is most likely to be identified with Jennyn van Hennegouwe, who is registered as a master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1503. His most

  • Gosse, Philip Henry (British naturalist)

    Philip Henry Gosse, English naturalist who invented the institutional aquarium. In 1827 Gosse became a clerk in a seal-fishery office at Carbonear, Nfd., Can., where he spent much of his free time investigating natural history. After an unsuccessful interlude of farming in Canada he traveled in the

  • Gosse, Sir Edmund (British critic and writer)

    Sir Edmund Gosse, English translator, literary historian, and critic who introduced the work of Henrik Ibsen and other continental European writers to English readers. Gosse was the only child of the naturalist Philip Henry Gosse. His mother having died when he was young, he was taken by his father

  • Gosse, William (English explorer)

    Musgrave Ranges: …1873 by the English explorer William C. Gosse and crossed in that year by Gosse and Ernest Giles, the hills were named for Sir Anthony Musgrave, then lieutenant governor of South Australia. In the mid-1980s much of the area was the subject of an Aboriginal land-rights claim, the ranges having…

  • Gossec, Fran?ois-Joseph (French composer)

    Fran?ois-Joseph Gossec, one of the principal composers of 18th-century France, whose symphonies and chamber works helped shape the orchestral forms of the Classical period in France. Gossec went to Paris in 1751 and in 1754 succeeded Jean-Philippe Rameau as director of the orchestra of the wealthy

  • Gossen, H. H. (German economist)

    utility and value: Cost-of-production analysis: …theory of utility, developed by H.H. Gossen in Germany (1854), Karl Menger in Austria (1871), Léon Walras in France (1874–77), and W.S. Jevons in England (1871).

  • Gosset, Louis-André (French caricaturist)

    André Gill, French caricaturist who used a style of enlarged heads dwarfing undersized bodies, often copied by later cartoonists. After studying at the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris, Gill pursued a career as an illustrator, becoming famous for portrait caricatures of his illustrious contemporaries,

  • Gossett, Louis, Jr. (American actor)

    Louis Gossett, Jr., American stage, screen, and television character actor, a respected and prolific performer. In 1983 Gossett received an Academy Award for best supporting actor for his portrayal of tough-hearted drill sergeant Emil Foley in An Officer and a Gentleman (1982). Gossett grew up in

  • Gossip from the Forest (work by Keneally)

    Thomas Keneally: His well-received Gossip from the Forest (1975) examines the World War I armistice through the eyes of a thoughtful, humane German negotiator. He was also praised for his treatment of the American Civil War in Confederates (1979). His later fiction included A Family Madness (1985), To Asmara…

  • Gosstrakh (Soviet organization)

    insurance: Russia: …offered by a single agency, Gosstrakh, and insurance on foreign risks by a companion company, Ingosstrakh. Ingosstrakh continues to insure foreign-owned property in Russia and Russian-owned property abroad. It accepts reinsurance from foreign insurers. However, following the movement toward a free market economy (perestroika) after 1985 and the breakup of…

  • Gossypium (plant genus)

    cotton: …of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae).

  • Gossypium barnbadense (plant)

    evolution: Hybrid breakdown: Hybrids between the cotton species Gossypium barbadense, G. hirsutum, and G. tomentosum appear vigorous and fertile, but their progenies die in seed or early in development, or they develop into sparse, weak plants.

  • Gossypium hirsutium (plant)

    evolution: Hybrid breakdown: the cotton species Gossypium barbadense, G. hirsutum, and G. tomentosum appear vigorous and fertile, but their progenies die in seed or early in development, or they develop into sparse, weak plants.

  • Gossypium tomentosum (plant)

    evolution: Hybrid breakdown: hirsutum, and G. tomentosum appear vigorous and fertile, but their progenies die in seed or early in development, or they develop into sparse, weak plants.

  • gossypol (chemistry)

    oil cake: …to remove a toxic pigment, gossypol, before it can be used as feed for nonruminant livestock such as pigs and poultry. See also cottonseed; linseed; copra.

  • G?sta Berlings Saga (film by Stiller [1924])

    Greta Garbo: …in G?sta Berlings Saga (The Saga of G?sta Berling). The film’s director, Mauritz Stiller, gave her the name Garbo, and in 1925 he secured her a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) in Hollywood.

  • G?sta Berlings saga (novel by Lagerlof)

    Selma Lagerl?f: …she wrote her first novel, G?sta Berlings saga, 2 vol. (1891). A chronicle of life in the heyday of her native V?rmland’s history, the age of prosperous iron founders and small manors, the book recounts the story of the 12 Cavaliers, led by G?sta Berling, a renegade priest of weak…

  • Gostiny Dvor (building, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    St. Petersburg: Admiralty Side: …building is the department store Gostiny Dvor (1761–85), originally designed by Jean-Baptiste M. Vallin de la Mothe. This building forms an irregular square and opens onto four streets; formerly it was a mercantile centre. Other department stores line Nevsky Prospekt, as do many restaurants, cafés, and theatres—most notably the Pushkin…

  • Gostrie, Roland de (film director)

    Roy William Neill, Irish-born film director best known for his work with Basil Rathbone on a popular series of Sherlock Holmes movies. Sources provide conflicting information concerning Neill’s early life. Most give his birth name as Roland de Gostrie and state that he was born on a ship—which was

  • Gosudarstvennaya Duma (Russian assembly)

    Duma, elected legislative body that, along with the State Council, constituted the imperial Russian legislature from 1906 until its dissolution at the time of the March 1917 Revolution. The Duma constituted the lower house of the Russian parliament, and the State Council was the upper house. As a t

  • Gosudarstvennaya Ordena Lenina Biblioteka Imeni V.I. Lenina (library, Moscow, Russia)

    Russian State Library, national library of Russia, located in Moscow, notable for its extensive collection of early printed books and a collection of manuscripts that includes ancient Slavonic codices. Originally founded in 1862 as the library of the Rumyantsev Museum, it was reorganized after the

  • Gosudarstvennaya Tretyakovskaya Galereya (museum, Moscow, Russia)

    Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow art museum founded by Pavel M. Tretyakov in 1856. It contains the world’s finest collection of 17th- and 18th-century Russian icons, having more than 40,000 of them. There are also 18th-century portraits, 19th-century historical paintings, and works of the Soviet period. T

  • Gosudarstvenny Akademichesky Ansambl Narodnogo Tantsa S.S.S.R. (Soviet dance company)

    Igor Moiseyev: …festival, he founded (1937) the State Academic Folk Dance Ensemble, which featured 35 dancers, principally amateurs, and dances from the 11 republics then forming the U.S.S.R. Subsequently he built a company of about 100 professional dancers trained by either the Bolshoi Theatre School or its National Dance Department, which Moiseyev…

  • Gosudarstvenny Ermitazh (museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Hermitage, art museum in St. Petersburg founded in 1764 by Catherine the Great as a court museum. It adjoined the Winter Palace and served as a private gallery for the art amassed by the empress. Under Nicholas I the Hermitage was reconstructed (1840–52), and it was opened to the public in 1852.

  • Gosudarstvenny Muzey Izobrazitelnykh Iskusstv Imini A.S. Pushkina (museum, Moscow, Russia)

    Pushkin Fine Arts Museum, collection in Moscow, Russia, of ancient and medieval art and western European painting, sculpture, and graphic arts. It was founded in the 1770s at Moscow University. Especially noteworthy are its holdings of French art from the late 19th and early 20th centuries gathered

  • Gosudarstvenny Russky Muzey (museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Russian State Museum, museum opened in St. Petersburg in 1898 as the central museum of Russian art and life. It is housed in the buildings of the former Mikhailovsky Palace, designed by Karl Ivanovich Rossi and built in 1819–25. The buildings were converted to a museum in 1896–97, and the museum

  • Gosudarstvenny Universalny Magazin (store, Moscow, Russia)

    GUM, the largest department store in Russia. Situated on a traditional market site on the northeast side of Red Square in Moscow, the building originally known as the Upper Trading Arcade was designed by A.N. Pomerantsev and built in 1889–93 in a pseudo-Russian style over a hidden metal skeleton.

  • Gosudarstvennyy Planovyy Komitet (Soviet economics)

    Gosplan, central board that supervised various aspects of the planned economy of the Soviet Union by translating into specific national plans the general economic objectives outlined by the Communist Party and the government. Established in February 1921, Gosplan was originally an advisory council

  • Gosudarstvo i revolyutsiya (work by Lenin)

    economic system: Centrally planned systems: In his pamphlet The State and Revolution, written before he came to power, Vladimir Lenin envisaged the task of coordinating a socialist economy as little more than delivering production to central collecting points from which it would be distributed according to need—an operation requiring no more than “the…

  • gosvamin (Hindu teacher)

    Chaitanya movement: …be known as the six gosvamins (religious teachers; literally, “lords of cows”). At Chaitanya’s request, that group of scholars remained in Vrindavana, near Mathura, the scene of the Krishna-Radha legends. The six gosvamins turned out a voluminous religious and devotional literature in Sanskrit, defining the tenets of the movement and…

  • Got fun nekome (work by Asch)

    Sholem Asch: …play Got fun nekome (1907; The God of Vengeance), about a Jewish brothel owner whose daughter has a lesbian relationship with one of her father’s prostitutes. The play was produced in Berlin by Max Reinhardt in 1910 but banned elsewhere. Asch visited the United States in 1910, returned there in…

  • Got, Bertrand de (pope)

    Clement V, pope from 1305 to 1314 who in choosing Avignon, France, for the papal residence—where it flourished until 1377—became the first of the Avignonese popes. Bishop of Comminges from March 1295, he became archbishop of Bordeaux in 1299. He was elected pope through the manipulation of King

  • G?ta Canal (canal, Sweden)

    G?ta Canal, artificial waterway that crosses southern Sweden to connect Lake V?nern with the Baltic Sea. For most of its course, the canal passes through lakes, providing inland navigation from Gothenburg to Stockholm, a distance of 558 km (347 miles) by the canal route and 950 km (590 miles) on

  • G?ta Kanal (canal, Sweden)

    G?ta Canal, artificial waterway that crosses southern Sweden to connect Lake V?nern with the Baltic Sea. For most of its course, the canal passes through lakes, providing inland navigation from Gothenburg to Stockholm, a distance of 558 km (347 miles) by the canal route and 950 km (590 miles) on

  • G?ta River (river, Sweden)

    Sweden: Drainage: …longest, however, is the Klar-G?ta River, which rises in Norway and flows 447 miles (719 km), reaching Lake V?ner (V?nern) and continuing southward out of the lake’s southern end to the North Sea; along its southernmost course are the famous falls of Trollh?ttan. The Muonio and Torne rivers form…

  • Gotaha (Germany)

    Gotha, city, Thuringia Land (state), central Germany. It lies on the northern edge of the Thuringian Forest, 13 miles (21 km) west of Erfurt. First mentioned as the Frankish villa Gotaha in 775, when it was given to the abbey of Hersfeld, it was fortified in 930 and chartered in 1189–90. The city

  • G?taland (region, Sweden)

    G?taland, major region of southern Sweden, comprising the landskap (provinces) of V?sterg?tland, Dalsland, ?sterg?tland, Sm?land, ?land, Gotland, Bohusl?n, Sk?ne, Halland, and Blekinge (qq.v.). In land area it is in between Sweden’s other two regions, the smaller Svealand in central Sweden and the

  • Gotama Buddha (founder of Buddhism)

    Buddha, (Sanskrit: “Awakened One”) the founder of Buddhism, one of the major religions and philosophical systems of southern and eastern Asia and of the world. Buddha is one of the many epithets of a teacher who lived in northern India sometime between the 6th and the 4th century before the Common

  • G?tamannas?nger (work by Thorild)

    Thomas Thorild: …to write poetry, including the G?tamannas?nger (written 1805; “Gothic Men’s Songs”), which comprised aphoristic formulations reminiscent of the ancient Swedish legal style. He pleaded for positive literary evaluation in his En critik ?fver critiker (1791–92; “A Critique of Critics”), an advocacy of poetic freedom by the first Romanticist in Swedish…

  • G?tar (people)

    Sweden: Settlement patterns: The Svear and the G?tar (believed by some scholars to be the original Goths) were united into one state about 1000 ce. The G?tar lived in ?sterg?tland, V?sterg?tland, and Sm?land, and the Svear around Lake M?lar. Certain differences remain in the dialects spoken in these two regions.

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