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  • Jansons, Mariss (Latvian-born conductor)

    Mariss Jansons, Latvian-born conductor, known for his expressive interpretations of the music of central and eastern Europe. The son of the respected conductor Arvid Jansons, Mariss was captivated by music as a child. He studied violin, piano, and conducting at the Leningrad (now St. Petersburg)

  • Janssen, Arnold (Dutch religious leader)

    Divine Word Missionary: , by Arnold Janssen to work in the foreign missions. Its members are engaged in all phases of missionary activity, from teaching in universities, colleges, and secondary schools to working among primitive peoples. In the late 20th century they were located in 14 European countries, in North…

  • Janssen, Cornelius (English painter)

    Cornelius Johnson, Baroque painter, considered the most important native English portraitist of the early 17th century. Johnson was the son of Dutch parents living in London. He was patronized by James I and Charles I but seems to have lost his popularity with the court when Van Dyck went to

  • Janssen, Elsa (actress)

    The Pride of the Yankees: …to disappoint his mother (Elsa Janssen), Gehrig decides to remain in college, but after she falls ill, he signs with the Yankees to raise money for her medical care. Gehrig becomes a star player and earns the nickname “Iron Horse,” because of his streak of playing in 2,130 consecutive…

  • Janssen, Johannes (German historian)

    Johannes Janssen, Roman Catholic German historian who wrote a highly controversial history of the German people, covering the period leading to and through the Reformation. Reared in a staunchly Catholic home, he attended local schools and then studied at Münster, the Catholic University of Leuven

  • Janssen, Jules (French astronomer)

    Pierre Janssen, French astronomer who in 1868 discovered the chemical element helium and how to observe solar prominences without an eclipse. His work was independent of that of the Englishman Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, who made the same discoveries at about the same time. Janssen was permanently

  • Janssen, Pierre (French astronomer)

    Pierre Janssen, French astronomer who in 1868 discovered the chemical element helium and how to observe solar prominences without an eclipse. His work was independent of that of the Englishman Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, who made the same discoveries at about the same time. Janssen was permanently

  • Janssen, Pierre Jules César (French astronomer)

    Pierre Janssen, French astronomer who in 1868 discovered the chemical element helium and how to observe solar prominences without an eclipse. His work was independent of that of the Englishman Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, who made the same discoveries at about the same time. Janssen was permanently

  • Janssen, Stephen Theodore (British enamelist)

    Battersea enamelware: …a district in London, by Stephen Theodore Janssen between 1753 and 1756. This ware is variably composed of soft white enamel completely covering a copper ground. A design is applied to the white enamel either by painting by hand or by transfer printing, a process by which an impression from…

  • Janssens Van Nuyssen, Abraham (Flemish painter)

    Abraham Janssens, Flemish painter who was the leading exponent of the classical Baroque style in Flanders during the early 17th century. His stylistic development indicates that he was in Rome between 1598 and 1601 and probably revisited the city sometime between 1602 and 1610. His earliest

  • Janssens, Abraham (Flemish painter)

    Abraham Janssens, Flemish painter who was the leading exponent of the classical Baroque style in Flanders during the early 17th century. His stylistic development indicates that he was in Rome between 1598 and 1601 and probably revisited the city sometime between 1602 and 1610. His earliest

  • Jansson’s temptation (food)

    smorgasbord: …gravlax (marinated salmon), meatballs, and “Jansson’s temptation,” a casserole of potatoes, onions, anchovies, and cream.

  • Jansson, Erik (Swedish-American leader)

    Bishop Hill State Historic Site: …by Swedish immigrants led by Erik Jansson, who had been influenced by the Pietist movement in Sweden. Fearing persecution in Sweden because their beliefs contravened those of the Church of Sweden, Jansson and his followers emigrated to the United States. They named their new home for Biskopskulla, Sweden, Jansson’s birthplace.…

  • Jansson, Tove (Finnish author and artist)

    Tove Jansson, Finnish artist and writer-illustrator of children’s books (in Swedish). In her books she created the fantastic self-contained world of Moomintrolls, popular especially in northern and central Europe, although translations in more than 30 languages have provided a worldwide audience.

  • Jansson, Tove Marika (Finnish author and artist)

    Tove Jansson, Finnish artist and writer-illustrator of children’s books (in Swedish). In her books she created the fantastic self-contained world of Moomintrolls, popular especially in northern and central Europe, although translations in more than 30 languages have provided a worldwide audience.

  • Jansz, Willem (Dutch explorer)

    Australia: The Dutch: Late in 1605 Willem Jansz (Janszoon) of Amsterdam sailed aboard the Duyfken from Bantam in the Dutch East Indies in search of New Guinea. He reached the Torres Strait a few weeks before Torres and named what was later to prove part of the Australian coast—Cape Keer-Weer, on…

  • Janthinidae (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: …shallow to deep ocean waters; purple snails (Janthinidae) float on the ocean surface after building a raft of bubbles; large numbers of bubble shells occasionally blow ashore. Superfamily Aglossa Parasitic or predatory snails either with a reduced radula or with none, jaws often modified into a stylet-shaped structure; many occur…

  • Jantjes, Gavin (South African artist)

    African art: African art in the 20th century and beyond: In Gavin Jantjes’s work, the conditions of a racially segregated state were directly addressed in silkscreened “cartoons” that juxtaposed bright blocks of colour with the harsh realities of South African life in the apartheid era. Moshekwa Langa’s collaged media elements similarly presented a haunting vision of…

  • Janua Linguarum Reserata (work by Comenius)

    John Amos Comenius: Educational reform: To this end he wrote Janua Linguarum Reserata, a textbook that described useful facts about the world in both Latin and Czech, side by side; thus, the pupils could compare the two languages and identify words with things. Translated into German, the Janua soon became famous throughout Europe and was…

  • Januarius, Saint (Italian bishop)

    Saint Januarius, ; feast day September 19), bishop of Benevento and patron saint of Naples. He is believed to have been martyred during the persecution under the Roman emperor Diocletian in 305. His fame rests on the relic, allegedly his blood, which is kept in a glass vial in the Naples Cathedral.

  • January (month)

    January, first month of the Gregorian calendar. It was named after Janus, the Roman god of all beginnings. January replaced March as the first month of the Roman year no later than 153

  • January Insurrection (Polish history)

    January Insurrection, (1863–64), Polish rebellion against Russian rule in Poland; the insurrection was unsuccessful and resulted in the imposition of tighter Russian control over Poland. After Alexander II became emperor of Russia and king of Poland in 1855, the strict and repressive regime that

  • January, Edict of (French history)

    Catherine de' Medici: Civil wars: …most concrete achievement was the Edict of January 1562, which followed the failure of reconciliation. This afforded the Calvinists licensed coexistence with specific safeguards. Unlike the proposals of Poissy, the edict was law, which the Protestants accepted and the Catholics rejected. This rejection was one basic element in the outbreak…

  • Janūb Sīnā? (governorate, Egypt)

    Janūb Sīnā?, (Arabic: “Southern Sinai”) mu?āfa?ah (governorate), southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The governorate was created out of Sīnā? mu?āfa?ah in late 1978, after the first stages of the Israeli withdrawal from the peninsula were initiated. The northern boundary of the governorate

  • Janus (German scholar)

    Johann Joseph Ignaz von D?llinger, German historical scholar, prominent Roman Catholic theologian who refused to accept the doctrine of papal infallibility decreed by the first Vatican Council (1869–70). He joined the Old Catholics (Altkatholiken), those who separated from the Vatican after the

  • Janus (satellite of Saturn)

    Saturn: Orbital and rotational dynamics: Janus and Epimetheus are co-orbital moons—they share the same average orbit. Every few years they make a close approach, interacting gravitationally in such a way that one transmits angular momentum to the other, which forces the latter into a slightly higher orbit and the former…

  • Janus (Roman god)

    Janus, in Roman religion, the animistic spirit of doorways (januae) and archways (jani). Janus and the nymph Camasene were the parents of Tiberinus, whose death in or by the river Albula caused it to be renamed Tiber. The worship of Janus traditionally dated back to Romulus and a period even before

  • Janus Geminus (ancient temple, Rome, Italy)

    Janus: …janus in Rome was the Janus Geminus, which was actually a shrine of Janus at the north side of the Forum. It was a simple rectangular bronze structure with double doors at each end. Traditionally, the doors of this shrine were left open in time of war and were kept…

  • Janus head (physical abnormality)

    malformation: Doubling of parts: …in which there is a Janus head, two faces on a single head and body. Janus malformations have been produced experimentally in amphibian embryos by a variety of treatments in early stages. A group of cases in which the hinder end of the body was doubled from the sacrum back…

  • Janus Lascaris (Greek scholar)

    John Lascaris, Greek scholar and diplomat whose career shows the close connections that linked political interests and humanist effort before the Protestant Reformation. A librarian to Lorenzo de’ Medici, Lascaris toured the Levant (1489–92), and his records of the manuscripts he sought, examined,

  • Janus Pannonius University of Pécs (university, Pécs,, Hungary)

    Pécs: …the Turks but was renamed Janus Pannonius University of Pécs and reopened in 1922. The Medical University of Pécs (1951) is also situated in the city. The University of Pécs was reformed in 2000 by the merger of Janus Pannonius University, the Medical University of Pécs, and Illyés Gyula Teacher…

  • Janus v. AFSCME (law case)

    Abood v. Detroit Board of Education: Opinion: In Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (2018), the Supreme Court finally overturned the Abood decision, ruling (5–4) that it was “inconsistent with standard First Amendment principles,” because service fees for collective-bargaining activity effectively compel nonunion employees to subsidize union speech on…

  • Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (law case)

    Abood v. Detroit Board of Education: Opinion: In Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (2018), the Supreme Court finally overturned the Abood decision, ruling (5–4) that it was “inconsistent with standard First Amendment principles,” because service fees for collective-bargaining activity effectively compel nonunion employees to subsidize union speech on…

  • Janus-Faced (film by Murnau)

    F.W. Murnau: …supernatural in nature, such as Der Januskopf (1920; Janus-Faced), a highly praised variation of the Jekyll-and-Hyde story that starred Bela Lugosi and Conrad Veidt. Unfortunately, this and most of Murnau’s early films are lost or exist only in fragmentary form.

  • Januskopf, Der (film by Murnau)

    F.W. Murnau: …supernatural in nature, such as Der Januskopf (1920; Janus-Faced), a highly praised variation of the Jekyll-and-Hyde story that starred Bela Lugosi and Conrad Veidt. Unfortunately, this and most of Murnau’s early films are lost or exist only in fragmentary form.

  • japa mala (Hindu prayer beads)

    holy basil: In Hinduism: …to make beads for sacred japa mala (rosaries). The beginning of the Hindu wedding season is marked by a festival known as Tulsi Vivah, in which homes and temples ceremonially wed holy basil to Vishnu. Water infused with the leaves is often given to the dying to help elevate their…

  • japan (varnish)

    Black varnish, any of a class of oil varnishes in which bitumen (a mixture of asphaltlike hydrocarbons) replaces the natural gums or resins used as hardeners in clear varnish. Black varnish is widely used as a protective coating for interior and exterior ironwork such as pipework, tanks, stoves, r

  • Japan

    Japan, island country lying off the east coast of Asia. It consists of a great string of islands in a northeast-southwest arc that stretches for approximately 1,500 miles (2,400 km) through the western North Pacific Ocean. Nearly the entire land area is taken up by the country’s four main islands;

  • Japan Academy of Fine Arts (educational institution)

    Okakura Kakuzō: …established the Nippon Bijutsu-in (Japan Academy of Fine Arts) with the help of such followers as Hishida Shunsō and Yokoyama Taikan.

  • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japanese government agency)

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japanese government agency in charge of research in both aviation and space exploration. Its headquarters are in Tokyo. JAXA is divided into seven bodies: the Space Transportation Mission Directorate, which develops launch vehicles; the Space Applications

  • Japan Air Lines (Japanese airline)

    Japan Airlines (JAL), (Japanese: Nihon Kōkū) Japanese airline that became one of the largest air carriers in the world. Founded in 1951, it was originally a private company. It was reorganized in 1953 as a semigovernmental public corporation and was privatized in 1987. It is headquartered in Tokyo.

  • Japan Airlines (Japanese airline)

    Japan Airlines (JAL), (Japanese: Nihon Kōkū) Japanese airline that became one of the largest air carriers in the world. Founded in 1951, it was originally a private company. It was reorganized in 1953 as a semigovernmental public corporation and was privatized in 1987. It is headquartered in Tokyo.

  • Japan Airlines flight 123 (aviation disaster, Japan [1985])

    Japan Airlines flight 123, crash of a Japan Airlines (JAL) passenger jet on August 12, 1985, in southern Gumma prefecture, Japan, northwest of Tokyo, that killed 520 people. The incident is one of the deadliest single-plane crashes in history. Domestic flight JAL 123 departed Tokyo’s Haneda airport

  • Japan Airlines International Co., Ltd. (Japanese airline)

    Japan Airlines (JAL), (Japanese: Nihon Kōkū) Japanese airline that became one of the largest air carriers in the world. Founded in 1951, it was originally a private company. It was reorganized in 1953 as a semigovernmental public corporation and was privatized in 1987. It is headquartered in Tokyo.

  • Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (institution, Japan)

    fusion reactor: Magnetic confinement: …the Tokamak-60 (JT-60) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute; and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey, respectively.

  • Japan Broadcasting Corporation (Japanese corporation)

    Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai (NHK), public radio and television system of Japan. It operates two television and three radio networks and is notable for its innovations in high-definition television. NHK was founded as a state public utility corporation controlled by Japan’s Ministry of Communications. It

  • japan colour (paint)

    japanning: The word japan survives more actively in an altogether different product—japan colours. These are quick-drying, lustreless paints miscible with turpentine and universally sold in tubes and cans for sign painting and decorative work.

  • Japan Communist Party (political party, Japan)

    Japanese Communist Party (JCP), leftist Japanese political party founded in 1922. Initially, the party was outlawed, and it operated clandestinely until the post-World War II Allied occupation command restored freedom of political association in Japan; it was established legally in October 1945. In

  • Japan Current (oceanic current, Pacific Ocean)

    Kuroshio, (Japanese: “Black Current”, ) strong surface oceanic current of the Pacific Ocean, the northeasterly flowing continuation of the Pacific North Equatorial Current between Luzon of the Philippines and the east coast of Japan. The temperature and salinity of Kuroshio water are relatively

  • Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011

    Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011, severe natural disaster that occurred in northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011. The event began with a powerful earthquake off the northeastern coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which caused widespread damage on land and initiated a series of large tsunami

  • Japan Export Bank (bank, Tokyo, Japan)

    Export-Import Bank of Japan, one of the principal government-funded Japanese financial institutions, which provides a wide range of services to support and encourage Japanese trade and overseas investment. Headquarters are in Tokyo. The Japan Export Bank was established in 1950; its name was c

  • Japan Federation of Employer’s Associations (Japanese business organization)

    industrial relations: Enterprise unions: …Federation of Employers’ Associations (Nikkeiren) embarked on a campaign to form moderate, anti-Communist enterprise unions that included lower level management personnel as well as production workers.

  • Japan New Party (political party, Japan)

    Hosokawa Morihiro: …of the reform political party Japan New Party (Nihon Shintō) and prime minister of Japan in 1993–94.

  • Japan Professional Football League (Japanese soccer league)

    football: Asia and Oceania: Japan’s J-League was launched in 1993, attracting strong public interest and a sprinkling of famous foreign players and coaches (notably from South America). Attendance and revenue declined from 1995, but the league survived and was reorganized into two divisions of 16 and 10 clubs, respectively, by…

  • Japan Railways Group (Japanese organization)

    Japan Railways Group, principal rail network of Japan, consisting of 12 corporations created by the privatization of the government-owned Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The first railroad in Japan, built by British engineers, opened in 1872, between Tokyo and Yokohama. After some initial

  • Japan Renewal Party (political party, Japan)

    Japan: Political developments: …New Party (JNP) and the Japan Renewal Party. These joined several former opposition parties to form a coalition government with Hosokawa Morihiro, leader of the JNP, as prime minister.

  • Japan Restoration Party (political party, Japan)

    Japan: Political developments: …he and his newly formed Japan Restoration Party (Nippon Ishin no Kai) won a total of 54 seats in the chamber.

  • Japan Series (baseball)

    Japan Series, in baseball, a seven-game play-off between champions of the two professional Japanese baseball leagues, the Central League and the Pacific League. Baseball in Japan was established on a professional basis in 1934, and by 1936 seven professional teams had been organized. A system of

  • Japan Series Results

    The 144-game season of the two Japanese baseball leagues culminates annually in the Japan Series, an additional seven-game play-off between the champions of the Central League and the Pacific League. The table provides a list of Japan Series

  • Japan Skating Federation (Japanese sports organization)

    figure skating: Regional and national: The Japan Skating Federation is charged with developing eligible skaters, hosting coaching programs, and training judges. The country is split into six regions, and senior skaters (age 15 and up) must finish high in the standings to advance to the eastern or western sectionals. They must…

  • Japan Social Democratic Party (political party, Japan)

    Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ), leftist party in Japan that supports an evolving socialized economy and a neutralist foreign policy. Japan’s first socialist parties appeared in the mid-1920s; moderate factions of the country’s labour movement combined to form the Social Mass Party (Shakai

  • Japan Socialist Party (political party, Japan)

    Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ), leftist party in Japan that supports an evolving socialized economy and a neutralist foreign policy. Japan’s first socialist parties appeared in the mid-1920s; moderate factions of the country’s labour movement combined to form the Social Mass Party (Shakai

  • Japan That Can Say ‘No’, The (essay by Ishihara and Morita)

    Ishihara Shintarō: …Nō to ieru Nihon (The Japan That Can Say No). Intended for publication in Japan only, where it became a best seller—although it subsequently appeared in English without Morita’s comments—the essay argued that Japan should wean itself from its reliance on the United States and that Americans were guilty…

  • Japan Trench (submarine trench, Pacific Ocean)

    Japan Trench, deep submarine trench lying east of the Japanese islands, in the floor of the western North Pacific Ocean. It is one of a series of depressions stretching south from the Kuril Trench and the Bonin Trench to the Mariana Trench. The 27,929-foot (8,513-metre) Tuscarora Deep (north) was

  • Japan wood oil tree (plant)

    tung tree: montana), Japan wood oil tree (A. cordata), and lumbang tree (A. trisperma), are decorative and are planted as shade trees or as sources of tung oil in the subtropical and tropical areas of many countries, including the American Deep South, where they grow rapidly under favourable…

  • Japan’s Deadly Earthquake and Tsunami

    On March 11, 2011, a massive Earthquake—variously called the Great Sendai Earthquake or the Great Tohoku Earthquake—struck at 2:46 pm local time off the northeastern coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island. The earthquake caused widespread havoc across northeastern Japan (the Tohoku region) and lesser

  • Japan’s First Modern Novel: Ukigumo of Futabatei Shimei (novel by Futabatei Shimei)

    Ukigumo, (Japanese: “The Drifting Clouds”) novel by Futabatei Shimei, published in 1887–89. It was published in three parts, at first under the name of the author’s more-famous friend, Tsubouchi Shōyō. It was published in English as Japan’s First Modern Novel: Ukigumo of Futabatei Shimei. Ukigumo

  • Japan, Bank of (bank, Japan)

    Japan: Banking: The Bank of Japan, established in 1882, is the sole bank that issues the yen; it also plays an important role in determining and enforcing the government’s economic and financial policies. Until the late 1990s the bank was under the indirect control of the Ministry of…

  • Japan, Empire of (historic state)

    Empire of Japan, historical Japanese empire founded on January 3, 1868, when supporters of the emperor Meiji overthrew Yoshinobu, the last Tokugawa shogun. Power would remain nominally vested in the imperial house until the defeat of Japan in World War II and the enactment of Japan’s postwar

  • Japan, flag of

    national flag consisting of a white field bearing a central red disk (a stylized sun). The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 2 to 3.According to tradition, the sun goddess Amaterasu founded Japan in the 7th century bc and was an ancestor of the first of its emperors, Jimmu. Even today the emperor

  • Japan, history of

    Japan: Ancient Japan to 1185: It is not known when humans first settled on the Japanese archipelago. It was long believed that there was no Paleolithic occupation in Japan, but since World War II thousands of sites have been unearthed throughout the country,…

  • Japan, occupation of (Japanese history [1945–1952])

    Occupation of Japan, (1945–52) military occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers after its defeat in World War II. Theoretically an international occupation, in fact it was carried out almost entirely by U.S. forces under Gen. Douglas MacArthur. During the occupation period, Japanese soldiers and

  • Japan, Sea of (sea, Pacific Ocean)

    Sea of Japan, marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. It is bounded by Japan and Sakhalin Island to the east and by Russia and Korea on the Asian mainland to the west. Its area is 377,600 square miles (978,000 square km). It has a mean depth of 5,748 feet (1,752 metres) and a maximum depth of

  • Japan, Supreme Court of (Japanese government)

    Supreme Court of Japan, the highest court in Japan, a court of last resort with powers of judicial review and the responsibility for judicial administration and legal training. The court was created in 1947 during the U.S. occupation and is modelled to some extent after the U.S. Supreme Court. As w

  • Japanese (people)

    Japan: Ethnic groups: The Japanese people constitute the overwhelming majority of the population. They are ethnically closely akin to the other peoples of eastern Asia. During the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867), there was a social division of the populace into four classes—warrior, farmer, craftsman, and merchant—with a peer class…

  • Japanese allspice (plant)

    allspice: Other allspices include: the Japanese allspice (Chimonanthus praecox), native to eastern Asia and planted as an ornamental in England and the United States; the wild allspice, or spicebush (Lindera benzoin), a shrub of eastern North America, with aromatic berries, reputed to have been used as a substitute for true…

  • Japanese Alps (mountains, Japan)

    Japanese Alps, mountains, central Honshu, Japan. The term Japanese Alps was first applied to the Hida Range in the late 19th century but now also includes the Kiso and Akaishi ranges to the south. The ranges are a popular skiing and mountain-climbing area. The Hida Range is included within

  • Japanese American (people)

    United States: Asian Americans: …the transcontinental railroad), and the Japanese were long victims of racial discrimination. In 1924 the law barred further entries; those already in the United States had been ineligible for citizenship since the previous year. In 1942 thousands of Japanese, many born in the United States and therefore American citizens, were…

  • Japanese American internment (United States history)

    Japanese American internment, the forced relocation by the U.S. government of thousands of Japanese Americans to detention camps during World War II. That action was the culmination of the federal government’s long history of racist and discriminatory treatment of Asian immigrants and their

  • Japanese American internment in pictures

    On February 19, 1942, Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, giving the U.S. military the authority to exclude any persons from designated areas. Although the word Japanese did not appear in the order, it was clear that Japanese Americans were the focus of the initiative. On March

  • Japanese anemone (plant)

    anemone: Other species, such as the Japanese anemone (A. hupehensis, or A. japonica), are favourite border plants for autumn flowering. Some species whose fruits bear a long plumose structure are placed in a separate section, Pulsatilla, often given the rank of genus. Anemones are distributed throughout the world but occur most…

  • Japanese aralia (plant species)

    Fatsia, (Fatsia japonica), evergreen shrub or small tree, in the ginseng family (Araliaceae), native to Japan but widely grown indoors for its striking foliage and easy care. In nature it can attain a height to 5 metres (16 feet); the glossy, dark-green leaves, roughly star-shaped, with 7 to 9

  • Japanese architecture

    Japanese architecture, the built structures of Japan and their context. A pervasive characteristic of Japanese architecture—and, indeed, of all the visual arts of Japan—is an understanding of the natural world as a source of spiritual insight and an instructive mirror of human emotion. An

  • Japanese art (visual arts)

    Japanese art, the painting, calligraphy, architecture, pottery, sculpture, bronzes, jade carving, and other fine or decorative visual arts produced in Japan over the centuries. The study of Japanese art has frequently been complicated by the definitions and expectations established in the late 19th

  • Japanese badger (mammal)

    badger: …badger (Meles leucurus) and the Japanese badger (Meles anakuma).

  • Japanese barberry (plant)

    barberry: Japanese barberry (B. thunbergii) often is cultivated as a hedge or ornamental shrub for its scarlet fall foliage and bright-red, long-lasting berries. Several varieties with purple or yellow foliage, spinelessness, or dwarf habit are useful in the landscape. Another widely planted species is wintergreen barberry…

  • Japanese baseball leagues (baseball, Japan)

    Japanese baseball leagues, professional baseball leagues in Japan. Baseball was introduced to Japan in the 1870s by teachers from the United States, and, by the end of the century, it had become a national sport. The first professional leagues were organized in 1936, but the current league

  • Japanese beech (tree)

    beech: The Japanese, or Siebold’s, beech (F. crenata) is grown as an ornamental in the Western Hemisphere. The Mexican beech, or haya (F. mexicana), a timber tree often 40 metres (130 feet) tall, has wedge-shaped leaves. The Oriental beech (F. orientalis), a pyramidal Eurasian tree about 30 metres (about…

  • Japanese beetle (insect)

    Japanese beetle, (species Popillia japonica), an insect that is a major pest and belongs to the subfamily Rutelinae (family Scarabaeidae, order Coleoptera). It was accidentally introduced into the United States from Japan about 1916, probably as larvae in the soil around imported plants. Japanese

  • Japanese blood grass (plant)

    Cogon grass, (Imperata cylindrica), species of perennial grass in the family Poaceae, native to temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. Cogon grass is a serious weed in cultivated areas of South Africa and Australia and is considered an invasive species in many areas outside its native

  • Japanese blue beech (tree, Fagus japonica)

    beech: …65 feet) tall, and the Japanese blue beech (F. japonica), up to 24 metres (79 feet) tall, divide at the base into several stems. The Japanese, or Siebold’s, beech (F. crenata) is grown as an ornamental in the Western Hemisphere. The Mexican beech, or haya (F. mexicana), a timber tree…

  • Japanese box (plant species)

    boxwood: The Japanese boxwood (B. microphylla) and its varieties provide a wide range of ornamental shrubs.

  • Japanese boxwood (plant species)

    boxwood: The Japanese boxwood (B. microphylla) and its varieties provide a wide range of ornamental shrubs.

  • Japanese by Spring (novel by Reed)

    Ishmael Reed: …sequel The Terrible Threes (1989), Japanese by Spring (1993), Juice! (2011), and Conjugating Hindi (2018). He also wrote numerous volumes of poetry and collections of essays, the latter of which included Barack Obama and the Jim Crow Media (2010) and Going Too Far: Essays About America’s Nervous Breakdown (2012). Six…

  • Japanese calligraphy

    Japanese calligraphy, the fine art of writing as it has been practiced in Japan throughout the ages. The art of calligraphy has long been highly esteemed in Japan. There is no definite record of when the Japanese began to use Chinese words—called kanji in Japanese, but it is known that a Korean

  • Japanese cedar (tree)

    Japanese cedar, (Cryptomeria japonica), a coniferous evergreen timber tree and only species of the genus Cryptomeria of the family Cupressaceae (sometimes classified in the so-called deciduous cypress family Taxodiaceae), native to eastern Asia. The tree may attain 45 metres (150 feet) or more in

  • Japanese chess (game)

    Shogi, Japanese form of chess, the history of which is obscure. Traditionally it is thought to have originated in India and to have been transmitted to Japan via China and Korea. Shogi, like Western chess and Chinese chess, is played by two persons on a board with pieces of varying powers, and the

  • Japanese chestnut (plant)

    chestnut blight: mollissima) and Japanese (C. crenata) chestnuts are resistant. Crosses between American and Asian species have produced varieties with excellent nuts, but timber quality is closely linked with blight susceptibility. In the 1970s a native strain of chestnut blight was identified in North America. Experiments indicated that the…

  • Japanese Chin (breed of dog)

    Japanese spaniel, breed of toy dog that originated in China and was introduced to Japan, where it was kept by royalty. The breed became known in the West when Commodore Matthew Perry returned from Japan in 1853 with several dogs that had been presented to him. The Japanese spaniel is a compact,

  • Japanese Civil Code (Japanese law)

    Japanese Civil Code, body of private law adopted in 1896 that, with post-World War II modifications, remains in effect in present-day Japan. The code was the result of various movements for modernization following the Meiji Restoration of 1868. A legal code was required that would fill the needs

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