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  • Jasmine Revolution (Tunisian history)

    Jasmine Revolution, popular uprising in Tunisia that protested against corruption, poverty, and political repression and forced Pres. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali to step down in January 2011. The success of the uprising, which came to be known in the media as the “Jasmine Revolution,” inspired a wave

  • Jasminum (plant)

    Jasmine, (genus Jasminum), genus of about 200 species of fragrant-flowered shrubs and vines of the olive family (Oleaceae). The plants are native to tropical and to some temperate areas of the Old World. Several are cultivated as ornamentals. Most true jasmines have climbing branches without

  • Jasminum humile (plant)

    jasmine: Major species: Italian jasmine (J. humile), a vinelike shrub with yellow flowers, has many cultivated varieties. The fragrant dried flowers of Arabian jasmine (J. sambac) are used to make jasmine tea.

  • Jasminum mesnyi (plant)

    jasmine: Major species: Japanese, or primrose, jasmine (J. mesnyi) is a similar plant with larger flowers that bloom during the winter. Italian jasmine (J. humile), a vinelike shrub with yellow flowers, has many cultivated varieties. The fragrant dried flowers of Arabian jasmine (J. sambac) are used to make jasmine tea.

  • Jasminum nudiflorum (plant)

    jasmine: Major species: Winter jasmine (J. nudiflorum), a Chinese species with solitary yellow flowers, is used as a cover plant on hillsides. Japanese, or primrose, jasmine (J. mesnyi) is a similar plant with larger flowers that bloom during the winter. Italian jasmine (J. humile), a vinelike shrub with…

  • Jasminum officinale (plant)

    jasmine: Major species: Common jasmine, or poet’s jasmine (Jasminum officinale), native to Iran, produces fragrant white flowers that are the source of attar of jasmine used in perfumery. It is widely cultivated for its shining leaves and clusters of flowers that bloom in summer. Winter jasmine (J. nudiflorum),…

  • Jasminum sambac (plant)

    Oleaceae: The flowers of Jasminum sambac are used for making necklaces, or leis, in Hawaii. Lilacs, jasmines, and Osmanthus are especially noted for their sweetly fragrant flowers. Osmanthus and a few species of jasmines are prized in China and Japan, where their dried flowers are used to scent certain…

  • jasmonate (biochemistry)

    prostaglandin: Biological activities of prostaglandins: …in structure to prostaglandins, including jasmonic acid (jasmonate), which regulates processes such as plant reproduction, fruit ripening, and flowering. Prostaglandins are very potent; for example, in humans some affect blood pressure at concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram per kilogram of body weight. The structural differences between prostaglandins account for…

  • jasmonic acid (biochemistry)

    prostaglandin: Biological activities of prostaglandins: …in structure to prostaglandins, including jasmonic acid (jasmonate), which regulates processes such as plant reproduction, fruit ripening, and flowering. Prostaglandins are very potent; for example, in humans some affect blood pressure at concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram per kilogram of body weight. The structural differences between prostaglandins account for…

  • Jasna Góra (Poland)

    Cz?stochowa: …in the 13th century, and Jasna Góra (Polish: “Shining Mountain”), founded in the 14th—which were merged in 1826. Roman Catholic pilgrimages are made to the Jasna Góra monastery (1382), which contains valuable frescoes and the famous painting Our Lady of Cz?stochowa (also known as The Black Madonna). The monastery was…

  • JASON (scientific advisory group)

    Walter Munk: …he became a member of JASON, a panel of scientists who advised the U.S. government.

  • Jason (Hebrew priest)

    Jason, Hellenistic Jewish high priest (175–172 bce) in Jerusalem under the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes. By promising greater tribute to Antiochus, he obtained the high priesthood and, scorning the traditional Jewish monotheism of the Pharasaic party, promoted Greek culture and religion

  • Jason (Greek mythology)

    Jason, in Greek mythology, leader of the Argonauts and son of Aeson, king of Iolcos in Thessaly. His father’s half-brother Pelias seized Iolcos, and thus for safety Jason was sent away to the Centaur Chiron. Returning as a young man, Jason was promised his inheritance if he fetched the Golden

  • Jason and the Argonauts (film by Chaffey [1963])

    Jason and the Argonauts, American fantasy film, released in 1963, that loosely retells the Greek myth of Jason and features some of the most notable special effects devised by stop-motion animator Ray Harryhausen. Pelias (played by Douglas Wilmer) murders Aristo, his half-brother, to become king of

  • Jason of Cyrene (Jewish historian)

    Judaism: Egyptian Jewish literature: On the other hand, Jason of Cyrene (c. 100 bce) wrote a history, of which 2 Maccabees is a summary, glorifying the Temple and violently attacking the Jewish Hellenizers, but his manner of writing history is typically Hellenistic. In addition, 3 Maccabees (1st century bce) is a work of…

  • Jaspar, Henri (Belgian statesman)

    Henri Jaspar, Belgian statesman and one of his country’s chief negotiators in the peace conferences following World War I. As prime minister (1926–31), he resolved a serious financial crisis at the outset of his ministry. Jaspar entered politics in the Catholic Party, was appointed minister for

  • jasper (mineral)

    Jasper, opaque, fine-grained or dense variety of the silica mineral chert that exhibits various colours. Chiefly brick red to brownish red, it owes its colour to admixed hematite; but when it occurs with clay admixed, the colour is a yellowish white or gray, or with goethite a brown or yellow.

  • Jasper (Alberta, Canada)

    Jasper, unincorporated community, western Alberta, Canada. It lies at the confluence of the Athabasca and Miette rivers, within the boundaries of Jasper National Park. The park was designated part of UNESCO’s Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage site in 1984. The community and park take

  • Jasper (Alabama, United States)

    Jasper, city, seat (1824) of Walker county, northwestern Alabama, U.S., about 40 miles (65 km) northwest of Birmingham. Settled in 1815, it was named for Sergeant William Jasper, a defender of Fort Moultrie (then Fort Sullivan) during the American Revolution. It developed after the arrival of the

  • Jasper (county, South Carolina, United States)

    Jasper, county, southern South Carolina, U.S. It is bounded to the west by the Savannah River border with Georgia. The county’s short southern coast along the Atlantic Ocean includes a portion of the Sea Islands and, at the southern tip, Tybee National Wildlife Refuge. Jasper county consists of

  • Jasper National Park (national park, Alberta, Canada)

    Jasper National Park, national park in western Alberta, Canada, located on the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains, north of Banff National Park. Jasper spans 4,200 square miles (10,878 square km) and contains significant active geologic processes, scenic mountains, and diverse animal and plant

  • Jasper of Hatfield (Welsh noble)

    Jasper Tudor, duke of Bedford, leader of the Lancastrians in Wales, uncle and guardian of Henry, earl of Richmond, afterward Henry VII of England. The second son of Owen Tudor, founder of the family’s fortunes, he was knighted in 1449 and created earl of Pembroke about 1452. Between 1456 and 1459

  • Jasper, Chris (American musician)

    the Isley Brothers: …6, 2010, Chicago, Illinois), and Chris Jasper (b. December 30, 1951, Cincinnati).

  • Jaspers, Karl (German philosopher)

    Karl Jaspers, German philosopher, one of the most important Existentialists in Germany, who approached the subject from man’s direct concern with his own existence. In his later work, as a reaction to the disruptions of Nazi rule in Germany and World War II, he searched for a new unity of thinking

  • Jaspers, Karl Theodor (German philosopher)

    Karl Jaspers, German philosopher, one of the most important Existentialists in Germany, who approached the subject from man’s direct concern with his own existence. In his later work, as a reaction to the disruptions of Nazi rule in Germany and World War II, he searched for a new unity of thinking

  • jasperware (stoneware)

    Jasperware, type of fine-grained, unglazed stoneware introduced by the English potter Josiah Wedgwood in 1775 as the result of a long series of experiments aimed at discovering the techniques of porcelain manufacture. Its name derives from the fact that it resembles the natural stone jasper in its

  • Jassā Singh Ahluwāliā (Sikh leader)

    India: From Banda Singh Bahadur to Ranjit Singh: …the Sikh warrior-leaders, such as Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, later the founder of the kingdom of Kapurthala. The mushrooming of pockets under the authority of Sikh leaders was thus a feature of the two decades preceding Durrānī’s invasion of the Punjab and took place not merely in the eastern Punjab but…

  • Jasset, Victorin (French director)

    history of the motion picture: Pre-World War I European cinema: …crime film was pioneered by Victorin Jasset in the Nick Carter series, produced for the small éclair Company, but it remained for Gaumont’s Louis Feuillade to bring the genre to aesthetic perfection in the extremely successful serials Fant?mas (1913–14), Les Vampires (1915–16), and Judex (1916).

  • Jassey (Romania)

    Ia?i, city, northeastern Romania. It is situated on the Bahlui River near its confluence with the Prut River in the Moldavian plain, 8 miles (13 km) west of the border with Moldova and 200 miles (320 km) northeast of Bucharest. There were recognizable settlements at the site in the 7th century. The

  • Jassidae (insect)

    Leafhopper, any of the small, slender, often beautifully coloured and marked sap-sucking insects of the large family Cicadellidae (Jassidae) of the order Homoptera. They are found on almost all types of plants; however, individual species are host-specific. Although a single leafhopper does no

  • Jassy (Romania)

    Ia?i, city, northeastern Romania. It is situated on the Bahlui River near its confluence with the Prut River in the Moldavian plain, 8 miles (13 km) west of the border with Moldova and 200 miles (320 km) northeast of Bucharest. There were recognizable settlements at the site in the 7th century. The

  • Jassy, Treaty of (1792)

    Treaty of Jassy, (Jan. 9, 1792), pact signed at Jassy in Moldavia (modern Ia?i, Romania), at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92; it confirmed Russian dominance in the Black Sea. The Russian empress Catherine II the Great had entered the war envisioning a partition of the Ottoman

  • Jastrow, Robert (American astrophysicist)

    Robert Jastrow, American astrophysicist (born Sept. 7, 1925, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 8, 2008, Arlington, Va.), popularized space science as a commentator on dozens of television programs and as the author of numerous books, notably the best-selling Red Giants and White Dwarfs (1967); he also

  • Jastrun, Mieczys?aw (Polish author and poet)

    Mieczys?aw Jastrun, Polish lyric poet and essayist whose work represents a constant quest for new poetic forms of expression. Jastrun received his doctorate in Polish literature at the Jagiellonian University of Kraków. The dozen volumes of poems that he published between the two world wars show

  • Jastrz?bie Zdrój (Poland)

    Jastrz?bie Zdrój, city, ?l?skie województwo (province), southern Poland. Joined by the cities of Racibórz and Rybnik, Jastrz?bie Zdrój forms a secondary industrial zone within the Upper Silesian area that borders the Czech industrial region of Ostrava. Jastrz?bie Zdrój became popular in the 1860s

  • Jaswant Rao Holkar (Indian ruler)

    India: The government of Lord Wellesley: The chiefs Holkar and Dawlat Rao Sindhia contended for power over the peshwa, Baj Rao II. On Holkar’s success in 1802, Baji Rao fled to Bassein and applied for British aid. Such an opportunity at the centre of Maratha power was not to be missed; there was…

  • Jaswant Thada (monument, Jodhpur, India)

    Jodhpur: The contemporary city: …hotel, and the white marble Jaswant Thada, a memorial to the 19th-century ruler Jaswant Singh II.

  • Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (county, Hungary)

    Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, megye (county), east-central Hungary. It is bounded by the counties of Heves and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén to the north, Hajdú-Bihar and Békés to the east, Csongrád to the south, Bács-Kiskun to the southwest, and Pest to the west. The county seat is Szolnok, and the principal

  • Jászai Mari (Hungarian actress)

    Mari Jászai, Hungarian actress, one of the greatest Hungarian tragediennes. Jászai’s rise to the top of her profession from a background of poverty was the result of enormous strength of will and an exceptional sense of vocation. She started her career as a chorus singer with small companies, first

  • Jászai, Mari (Hungarian actress)

    Mari Jászai, Hungarian actress, one of the greatest Hungarian tragediennes. Jászai’s rise to the top of her profession from a background of poverty was the result of enormous strength of will and an exceptional sense of vocation. She started her career as a chorus singer with small companies, first

  • Jászberény (Hungary)

    Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok: …and the principal cities are Jászberény, Mez?túr, Karcag, and T?r?kszentmiklós.

  • Jászság (region, Hungary)

    Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok: …the Zagyva River crosses the Jászság, a marginal depression of the Alfold, which extends into Pest county and produces vegetables, fruit, and poultry for the Budapest market. East of the Tisza is the Nagykunság, a loess plain covered with a high-grade chernozem (black) soil. It is mostly farmland, with high…

  • Jat (caste)

    Jat, traditionally rural ethnic group of northern India and Pakistan. In the early 21st century the Jats constituted about one-fourth of the populations of Punjab and Haryana; nearly 10 percent of the population of Balochistan, Rajasthan, and Delhi; and from 2 to 5 percent of the populations of

  • jat (Hindu caste)

    Jati, caste, in Hindu society. The term is derived from the Sanskrit jāta, “born” or “brought into existence,” and indicates a form of existence determined by birth. In Indian philosophy, jati (genus) describes any group of things that have generic characteristics in common. Sociologically, jati

  • Jataí (Brazil)

    Jataí, town, southwestern Goiás estado (“state”), south-central Brazil. It lies at the confluence of the Claro and S?o Pedro rivers at 2,323 feet (708 metres) above sea level. Livestock raising is the principal source of income, and agriculture (especially rice and coffee) is also important. Jataí

  • Jataka (Buddhist literature)

    Jataka, (Pali and Sanskrit: “Birth”) any of the extremely popular stories of former lives of the Buddha, which are preserved in all branches of Buddhism. Some Jataka tales are scattered in various sections of the Pali canon of Buddhist writings, including a group of 35 that were collected for

  • Jatau (king of Zazzau)

    Suleja: Abu Ja (Jatau), his brother and successor as sarkin Zazzau, founded Abuja town in 1828, began construction of its wall a year later, and proclaimed himself the first emir of Abuja. Withstanding Zaria attacks, the Abuja emirate remained an independent Hausa refuge. Trade with the…

  • jati (Hindu caste)

    Jati, caste, in Hindu society. The term is derived from the Sanskrit jāta, “born” or “brought into existence,” and indicates a form of existence determined by birth. In Indian philosophy, jati (genus) describes any group of things that have generic characteristics in common. Sociologically, jati

  • jati (music)

    South Asian arts: Mode, or jati: From each of the two parent scales were derived seven modal sequences (the murchanas described above), based on each of the seven notes. The two murchanas of a corresponding pair differed from each other only in the tuning of the note pa (A), the…

  • Jati Savara (people)

    Savara: …the basis of occupation: the Jati Savara are cultivators; the Arsi, weavers of cloth; the Muli, workers in iron; the Kindal, basket makers; and the Kumbi, potters. The traditional social unit is the extended family, including both males and females descended from a common male ancestor.

  • Jatiya Sangsad (Bangladeshi government)

    Bangladesh: Constitutional framework: …parliament of Bangladesh, called the Jatiya Sangsad (House of the Nation), is a unicameral entity consisting of some 350 seats, most of which are filled through direct election. The remaining seats are reserved for women; these members are elected by the parliament itself. Legislators serve five-year terms. The parliament elects…

  • Jatki language (Indo-Aryan language)

    Lahnda language, group of Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in and around the western districts of Punjab province in Pakistan. The Punjabi word lahnda, literally meaning “west,” was first used in this sense by Irish linguist Sir George Grierson in the Linguistic Survey of India (1903–28) as a convenient

  • Jatra (Bengali folk theatre)

    South Asian arts: Folk theatre: Of the nonreligious forms, the jatra and the tamasha are most important. The jatra, also popular in Orissa and eastern Bihar, originated in Bengal in the 15th century as a result of the bhakti movement, in which devotees of Krishna went singing and dancing in processions and in their frenzied…

  • jatropha (plant)

    Jatropha, (genus Jatropha), member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), native in both New World and Old World tropics and containing about 175 species of milky-juiced herbs, shrubs, and trees, some useful for their oils or as ornamental plants in tropical gardens. A garden curiosity is tartogo,

  • Jatropha berlandieri (plant)

    jatropha: J. berlandieri, a perennial 30 cm (12 inches) tall distributed from Texas to Central America, is characterized by long-stalked, purple flowers.

  • Jatropha curcas (plant)

    jatropha: The barbados nut (J. curcas), with yellow-green flowers and three- to five-lobed leaves on trees 6 m tall from Mexico and Central America, produces seeds from which cooking oil, soap, and a strong purgative are obtained. The seeds themselves are eaten if thoroughly roasted to remove…

  • Jatropha integerrima (plant)

    jatropha: The peregrina (J. integerrima) from Cuba, about 5 m tall with spadelike leaves sharply lobed at the base, bears crimson flower clusters the year round. J. berlandieri, a perennial 30 cm (12 inches) tall distributed from Texas to Central America, is characterized by long-stalked, purple flowers.

  • Jatropha multifida (plant)

    jatropha: The coral plant (J. multifida) from South America is outstanding for its huge, deeply cut, 11-lobed leaves on plants, 3 m (10 feet) tall, bearing small, coral-red clusters of flowers.

  • Jatropha podagrica (plant)

    jatropha: A garden curiosity is tartogo, or gouty jatropha (J. podagrica), from Guatemala and Honduras; it has a short trunk that is swollen at the base, erect red clusters of small flowers borne most of the year, and three- to five-lobed palmate (fanlike) leaves. The coral plant (J. multifida) from…

  • Jaú (Brazil)

    Jaú, city, central S?o Paulo estado (state), Brazil, on the Jaú River, a tributary of the Tietê River, at an elevation of 1,775 feet (541 metres) above sea level. It was given town status and made the seat of a municipality in 1866. Sugarcane, feij?o (beans), cotton, rice, coffee, and a variety of

  • Jaucourt, Louis de (French scholar and editor)

    encyclopaedia: Authorship: …that Diderot’s collaborator, the Chevalier Louis de Jaucourt (aided by secretaries), contributed about three-quarters of the articles in that work. The pattern for future encyclopaedias was established: for any substantial work, it would be necessary not only to have contributions from the experts of the day, but it would also…

  • Jáudenes, Fermín (Spanish governor of Philippines)

    Philippine-American War: Fermín Jáudenes had secretly arranged a surrender after a mock show of resistance to salvage his honour. With American troops in possession of the city and Filipino insurgents controlling the rest of the country, conflict was inevitable.

  • Jauf, al- (region, Yemen)

    Al-Jawf, oasis region, western Yemen. It is bordered by the far-southwest extension of the Rub? al-Khali, the great sandy desert of the Arabian Peninsula. The Wadi al-Jawf, an intermittent stream with headwaters in the mountains of the Yemen Highlands, crosses the area; its western and southern

  • Jaufré Rudel, Seigneur de Blaye (French troubadour)

    Seigneur de Blaye Jaufré Rudel, second to Guilhem VII, count of Poitiers on the ordinary list of great troubadours, wrote stanzas of simple and pathetic accents. The story of his “far-away love,” possibly the Countess of Tripoli, gave rise to a legend that became popular in literature, notably

  • jauhar (Indian rite)

    Jauhar, historically, Indian rite of collective self-immolation, performed by the women, young children, and other dependants of a besieged fort or town when it was felt that holding out against the enemy was no longer possible and that death appeared the only honourable way out of the impasse. The

  • Jaumann co-rotational rate (mechanics)

    mechanics of solids: Inelastic response: …rates are expressed as the Jaumann co-rotational ratesis a derivative following the motion of a material point and where the spin Ωij is defined by 2Ωij = ?vi/?xj ? ?vj/?xi. The co-rotational stress rates are those calculated by an observer who spins with the average

  • Jaumann, Gustav Andreas Johannes (Polish mathematician)

    mechanics of solids: Viscoelasticity: …applied mathematicians Stanis?aw Zaremba and Gustav Andreas Johannes Jaumann in the first decade of the 1900s; they showed how to make tensorial definitions of stress rate that were invariant to superposed spin and thus were suitable for use in constitutive relations. But it was only during the 1950s that these…

  • Jaunde (people)

    Yaunde, a Bantu-speaking people of the hilly area of south-central Cameroon who live in and around the capital city of Yaoundé. The Yaunde and a closely related people, the Eton, comprise the two main subgroups of the Beti, which in turn constitute one of the three major subdivisions of the cluster

  • jaundice (pathology)

    Jaundice, excess accumulation of bile pigments in the bloodstream and bodily tissues that causes a yellow to orange and sometimes even greenish discoloration of the skin, the whites of the eyes, and the mucous membranes. Jaundice is best seen in natural daylight and may not be apparent under

  • jaundice of the newborn (pathology)

    childhood disease and disorder: Metabolic disturbances: Jaundice in the newborn is ordinarily related to an imbalance between the rate of destruction of red blood cells and the metabolism of hemoglobin to bilirubin and the rate of excretion of bilirubin in the bile; there is a resultant temporary elevation of bilirubin level…

  • jaundice, artificial (medical condition)

    Carotenemia, yellow skin discoloration caused by excess blood carotene; it may follow overeating of such carotenoid-rich foods as carrots, sweet potatoes, or

  • jaundice, infectious (pathology)

    Leptospirosis, acute systemic illness of animals, occasionally communicable to humans, that is characterized by extensive inflammation of the blood vessels. It is caused by a spirochete, or spiral-shaped bacterium, of the genus Leptospira. Leptospires infect most mammals, particularly rodents and

  • Jaunpur (India)

    Jaunpur, city, southeastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It straddles the Gomati River, about 35 miles (55 km) northwest of Varanasi (Benares). Jaunpur probably was originally founded in the 11th century but was washed away by Gomati floods. It was rebuilt in 1359 by Fīrūz Shah Tughluq,

  • jaunting car (carriage)

    Jaunting car, two-wheeled, open vehicle, popular in Ireland from the early 19th century. It was unusual in having lengthwise, back-to-back or face-to-face passenger seats. The light, horse-drawn cart carried four passengers (although the earliest versions carried more). It usually had a narrow,

  • jaunty car (carriage)

    Jaunting car, two-wheeled, open vehicle, popular in Ireland from the early 19th century. It was unusual in having lengthwise, back-to-back or face-to-face passenger seats. The light, horse-drawn cart carried four passengers (although the earliest versions carried more). It usually had a narrow,

  • Jaurès, Auguste-Marie-Joseph-Jean (French politician)

    Jean Jaurès, French socialist leader, cofounder of the newspaper L’Humanité, and member of the French Chamber of Deputies (1885–89, 1893–98, 1902–14); he achieved the unification of several factions into a single socialist party, the Section Fran?aise de l’Internationale Ouvrière. During the war

  • Jaurès, Jean (French politician)

    Jean Jaurès, French socialist leader, cofounder of the newspaper L’Humanité, and member of the French Chamber of Deputies (1885–89, 1893–98, 1902–14); he achieved the unification of several factions into a single socialist party, the Section Fran?aise de l’Internationale Ouvrière. During the war

  • Jauru River (river, South America)

    Río de la Plata: Physiography of the Paraguay basin: …20 miles downstream, where the Jauru River joins it at an elevation of 400 feet, the Paraguay enters the Pantanal, a vast seasonal swamp that covers much of southern Mato Grosso and northwestern Mato Grosso do Sul state. During the dry season (May to October) the swamps in the Pantanal…

  • Jauss, Hans Robert (German theorist)

    art criticism: The role of the critic: As the German theorist Hans Robert Jauss wrote, every work of art exists within a social and historical “horizon of expectation.” The aesthetic response elicited by the work often depends upon how much it does or does not conform to historically conditioned social expectations. Critical recognition and advocacy, as…

  • Java (computer programming language)

    Java, modern object-oriented computer programming language. Java was created at Sun Microsystems, Inc., where James Gosling led a team of researchers in an effort to create a new language that would allow consumer electronic devices to communicate with each other. Work on the language began in

  • Java (British ship)

    William Bainbridge: …who captured the British frigate Java in the War of 1812.

  • Java (island, Indonesia)

    Java, island of Indonesia lying southeast of Malaysia and Sumatra, south of Borneo (Kalimantan), and west of Bali. Java is only the fourth largest island in Indonesia but contains more than half of the nation’s population and dominates it politically and economically. The capital of Java and of the

  • Java almond (plant)

    Sapindales: Burseraceae: commune (Java almond) of Indo-Malaysia, a source of Manila elemi, also produce commercially valuable resins. The seed of the latter, which is cultivated in Australia, is edible, as are those of several other East Asian species, which also may be processed to produce cooking oil. The…

  • Java Bytecode (computer programming language)

    computer science: Programming languages: …into an intermediate language called Java Bytecode, which runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Programs on the JVM can be executed on most contemporary computer platforms, including Intel-based systems, Apple Macintoshes, and various Android-based smartphones and tablets. Thus, Linux, iOS, Windows, and other operating systems can run Java

  • Java cotton (plant fibre)

    Kapok, (Ceiba pentandra), seed-hair fibre obtained from the fruit of the kapok tree or the kapok tree itself. The kapok is a gigantic tree of the tropical forest canopy and emergent layer. Common throughout the tropics, the kapok is native to the New World and to Africa and was transported to Asia,

  • java jute (plant)

    Roselle, (Hibiscus sabdariffa), plant of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), and its fibre, one of the bast fibre group. Roselle is probably native to West Africa and includes H. sabdariffa variety altissima, grown for fibre, and H. sabdariffa variety sabdariffa, cultivated for the edible

  • Java kapok (plant fibre)

    Kapok, (Ceiba pentandra), seed-hair fibre obtained from the fruit of the kapok tree or the kapok tree itself. The kapok is a gigantic tree of the tropical forest canopy and emergent layer. Common throughout the tropics, the kapok is native to the New World and to Africa and was transported to Asia,

  • Java man (extinct hominid)

    Java man, extinct hominin (member of the human lineage) known from fossil remains found on the island of Java, Indonesia. A skullcap and femur (thighbone) discovered by the Dutch anatomist and geologist Eugène Dubois in the early 1890s were the first known fossils of the species Homo erectus.

  • Java Runtime Environment (software)

    Java: …interpreted by software called the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), or the Java virtual machine. The JRE acts as a virtual computer that interprets Bytecode and translates it for the host computer. Because of this, Java code can be written the same way for many platforms (“write once, run anywhere”), which…

  • Java Sea (sea, Pacific Ocean)

    Java Sea, portion of the western Pacific Ocean between the islands of Java and Borneo. It is bordered by Borneo (Kalimantan) on the north, the southern end of Makassar Strait on the northeast, Celebes and the Flores and Bali seas on the east, Java on the south, the Sunda Straits to the Indian Ocean

  • Java Sea, Battle of the (World War II)

    Karel Doorman: …the Netherlands East Indies, the Battle of the Java Sea ended in disaster for the Allied fleet, and Doorman himself perished.

  • Java shrew-mouse (rodent)

    mouse: General features: crociduroides) and Java (M. vulcani), whose soft, short, and dense coat appears woolly or velvety. All the other species have a soft or slightly coarse, moderately thick coat with short or long hairs. A colour combination common to many mice is gray to brown upperparts, white underparts,…

  • Java sparrow (bird)

    Java sparrow, (Padda oryzivora), bird of the mannikin group in the family Estrildidae (order Passeriformes). One of the best-known cage birds, it is an attractive pet that chirps and trills. Native to Java and Bali, it has become established in the wild elsewhere in Asia as well as in Fiji, Mexico,

  • Java Trench (Indian Ocean)

    Java Trench, deep submarine depression in the eastern Indian Ocean that extends some 2,000 miles (3,200 km) in a northwest-southeast arc along the southwestern and southern Indonesian archipelago. It is located about 190 miles (305 km) off the southwestern coasts of the islands of Sumatra and Java,

  • Java virtual machine (software)

    Java: …interpreted by software called the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), or the Java virtual machine. The JRE acts as a virtual computer that interprets Bytecode and translates it for the host computer. Because of this, Java code can be written the same way for many platforms (“write once, run anywhere”), which…

  • Java War (Indonesian history)

    history of Southeast Asia: Crisis and response: …it was only the devastating Java War (1825–30) that finally tamed the Javanese elite and, oddly enough, left the Dutch to determine the final shape of Javanese culture until the mid-20th century.

  • Javacheff, Christo (Bulgarian artist)

    Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Early life: Christo attended the Fine Arts Academy in Sofia, Bulgaria, and had begun working with the Burian Theatre in Prague when the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 broke out. He fled to Vienna, where he studied for a semester, and then, after a brief stay in Switzerland,…

  • Javadi Hills (hills, India)

    Javadi Hills, range of hills, one of the larger of the Eastern Ghats, in northern Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India. About 50 miles (80 km) wide and 20 miles (32 km) long, they are bisected into eastern and western sections by the Cheyyar and Agaram rivers, tributaries of the Palar River. They

  • Javakhishvili, Mikheil (Georgian writer)

    Georgian literature: The 20th century: …and ’30s the prose writer Mikheil Javakhishvili—who, having been sentenced to death by Soviet authorities but later released, went on to become a great writer—produced inventive and captivating prose that often tells the story of a sympathetic doomed rogue, as in the novels Kvachi Kvachantiradze da misi tavgadasavali (1924; “Kvachi…

  • javali (music)

    South Asian arts: South India: Pada and javali are two kinds of love songs using the poetic imagery characteristic of the romantic-devotional movement mentioned earlier. Tillana has a text composed mostly of meaningless syllables, which may include the onomatopoeic syllables used to represent the different drum sounds. This is a very rhythmic…

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