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  • Javan cucumber (plant)

    seed: Dispersal by wind: …[6 inches] long) of the Javan cucumber (Alsomitra macrocarpa), a tropical climber.

  • Javan ferret badger (mammal species)

    badger: everetti), and Javan (M. orientalis). They live in grasslands and forests from northeast India to central China and Southeast Asia where they consume mostly insects, worms, small birds, rodents, and wild fruits. They are brownish to blackish gray, with white markings on the face, throat, and sometimes…

  • Javan leopard (mammal)

    leopard: Conservation status: pardus nimr), and Javan leopard (P. pardus melas) continued to decrease, with several of these subspecies declining to critical levels.

  • Javan mongoose (mammal)

    mongoose: Natural history: Some species, mainly the Javan mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) but also the Indian gray mongoose, were introduced to numerous islands, including Mafia Island (off the coast of East Africa), Mauritius, and those of Croatia, Hawaii, and Fiji. Originally intended to help control rodents

  • Javan rhinoceros (mammal)

    Javan rhinoceros, (Rhinoceros sondaicus), one of three Asian species of rhinoceros, found only on the island of Java in Indonesia. It is the rarest living rhinoceros and one of the world’s most endangered mammals. Some 46–66 adults survive, all restricted to Ujung Kulon National Park, a protected

  • Javan slow loris (primate)

    loris: …endangered since 2004, and the Javan slow loris (N. javanicus) has been classified as critically endangered since 2013.

  • Javan tiger (extinct mammal)

    tiger: Tigers and humans: …virgata) of central Asia, the Javan (P. tigris sondaica), and the Bali (P. tigris balica). Because the tiger is so closely related to the lion, they can be crossbred in captivity. The offspring of such matings are called tigons when the male (sire) is a tiger and ligers when the…

  • Javan, Ali (physicist)

    laser: History: In December 1960 Ali Javan, William Bennett, Jr., and Donald Herriott at Bell Labs built the first gas laser, which generated a continuous infrared beam from a mixture of helium and neon. In 1962 Robert N. Hall and coworkers at the General Electric Research and Development Center in…

  • Javanese (people)

    Javanese, largest ethnic group in Indonesia, concentrated on the island of Java and numbering about 85 million in the early 21st century. The Javanese language belongs to the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) family. Islam is the predominant religion, though Hindu traditions of an earlier era are

  • Javanese language

    Javanese language, member of the Western, or Indonesian, branch of the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) language family, spoken as a native language by more than 68 million persons living primarily on the island of Java. The largest of the Austronesian languages in number of speakers, Javanese has

  • Javanese literature

    Southeast Asian arts: Malaysia and Indonesia: …region in the 14th century, Javanese had been the language of culture; afterward, during the Islamic period, Malay became the most important language—and still more so under later Dutch colonial rule so that, logically, it was recognized in 1949 as the official Indonesian language by the newly independent Republic of…

  • Javanese peacock (bird)

    peacock: …and Sri Lanka, and the green, or Javanese, peacock (P. muticus), found from Myanmar (Burma) to Java. The Congo peacock (Afropavo congensis), which inhabits the forested interior of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was discovered in 1936 after a search that began in 1913 with the finding of a…

  • Javanese rod puppet (theatre)

    Richard Teschner: …the artistic potentialities of the Javanese rod puppet for western puppet theatre.

  • Javanese War of Succession, Third (Indonesian history)

    Gustaaf Willem, baron van Imhoff: …brother, thus touching off the Third Javanese War of Succession (1749–57), which left Mataram split into two kingdoms. In Bantam, another kingdom of Java, van Imhoff lent his support to the unpopular faction of a dynastic dispute, bringing on a popular uprising. The rebels were seeking English help when van…

  • Javanthropus (extinct hominid)

    Solo man, prehistoric human known from 11 fossil skulls (without facial skeletons) and 2 leg-bone fragments that were recovered from terraces of the Solo River at Ngandong, Java, in 1931–32. Cranial capacity (1,150–1,300 cubic centimetres) overlaps that of modern man (average 1,350 cu cm). The

  • Javari River (river, South America)

    Javari River, river that rises on the border between Amazonas state, Brazil, and Loreto department, Peru. It flows northeast for 540 miles (870 km) to join the Amazon River near the Brazilian outpost of Benjamin Constant. The river follows a winding course through unbroken tropical rain forest in w

  • Javari, Rio (river, South America)

    Javari River, river that rises on the border between Amazonas state, Brazil, and Loreto department, Peru. It flows northeast for 540 miles (870 km) to join the Amazon River near the Brazilian outpost of Benjamin Constant. The river follows a winding course through unbroken tropical rain forest in w

  • JavaScript (programming language)

    computer programming language: Web scripting: JavaScript is one such language, designed by the Netscape Communications Corp., which may be used with both Netscape’s and Microsoft’s browsers. JavaScript is a simple language, quite different from Java. A JavaScript program may be embedded in a Web page with the HTML tag &lt;script…

  • javelin (spear)

    military technology: The javelin: Javelins, or throwing spears, were shorter and lighter than spears designed for shock combat and had smaller heads. The distinction between javelin and spear was slow to develop, but by classical times the heavy spear was clearly distinguished from the javelin, and specialized javelin…

  • javelin (mammal)

    Peccary, (family Tayassuidae), any of the three species of piglike mammal found in the southern deserts of the United States southward through the Amazon basin to Patagonian South America (see Patagonia). Closely resembling the wild pig (see boar), the peccary has dark coarse hair and a large head

  • javelin throw (athletics)

    Javelin throw, athletics (track-and-field) sport of throwing a spear for distance, included in the ancient Greek Olympic Games as one of five events of the pentathlon competition. The javelin that is used in modern international men’s competition is a spear of wood or metal with a sharp metal

  • javelina (mammal)

    Peccary, (family Tayassuidae), any of the three species of piglike mammal found in the southern deserts of the United States southward through the Amazon basin to Patagonian South America (see Patagonia). Closely resembling the wild pig (see boar), the peccary has dark coarse hair and a large head

  • Javid, Sajid (British politician)

    Boris Johnson: Ascent to prime minister: …Jeremy Hunt, Michael Gove, and Sajid Javid, the home secretary. After Gove and Javid fell by the wayside in subsequent votes, Johnson and Hunt stood as the final candidates in an election in which all of the party’s nearly 160,000 members were eligible to vote. Some 87 percent of those…

  • Jāvīd-nāmeh (poem by Iqbal)

    Sir Muhammad Iqbal: Early life and career: Jāvīd-nāmeh (1932; “The Song of Eternity”) is considered Iqbal’s masterpiece. Its theme, reminiscent of Dante’s Divine Comedy, is the ascent of the poet, guided by the great 13th-century Persian mystic Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, through all the realms of thought and experience to the final encounter.

  • Javier, San Francisco (Christian missionary)

    St. Francis Xavier, the greatest Roman Catholic missionary of modern times who was instrumental in the establishment of Christianity in India, the Malay Archipelago, and Japan. In Paris in 1534 he pronounced vows as one of the first seven members of the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, under the

  • Javins v. First Nat’l Realty Co. (law case)

    property law: Landlord and tenant: Javins v. First Nat’l Realty Co. (1970), for example, requires that every residential lease have within it an unwaivable warranty of habitability, requiring the landlord to maintain the premises up to the standard of the local housing code. If the landlord does not maintain the…

  • Javor (mountain, Germany)

    Bohemian Forest: …rises to the summits of Grosser Arber (Javor; 4,777 feet [1,456 m]) on the Bavarian (western) side and Plechy (Pl?ckenstein; 4,521 feet [1,378 m]) on the Czech (eastern) side. The ?umava is the source for the Vltava (German: Moldau) River, which cuts a broad trough through part of the region…

  • Javorníky (mountains, Europe)

    Javorníky, mountain range on the western fringe of the Carpathian Mountains that forms the northern segment of the boundary between Moravia (Czech Republic) and Slovakia. The ridge of the Javorníky peaks—the highest, at 3,514 feet (1,071 metres), is Velky Javorník, overlooking the village of Velké

  • Javouhey, Anne-Marie (French missionary)

    French Guiana: History: …at Mana (1827–46) founded by Anne-Marie Javouhey, mother superior of the community of St. Joseph of Cluny. With Father Francis Libermann, she established one of the earliest educational systems for the freed black slaves and women, in the spirit of French Roman Catholic humanism.

  • Javzandamba khutagt (Mongol religious leader)

    Mongolia: Revival of Buddhism: …in 1640 with the title Javzandamba khutagt and proclaimed ?nd?r Geegen (“High Enlightened One”) or Bogd Geegen (“Holy Enlightened One”). The significance of this is underlined by the fact that, as soon as the Manchu controlled Mongolia, they ruled that no man of the lineage of Genghis Khan could be…

  • jaw (anatomy)

    Jaw, either of a pair of bones that form the framework of the mouth of vertebrate animals, usually containing teeth and including a movable lower jaw (mandible) and fixed upper jaw (maxilla). Jaws function by moving in opposition to each other and are used for biting, chewing, and the handling of

  • jaw’s harp (musical instrument)

    Jew’s harp, musical instrument consisting of a thin wood or metal tongue fixed at one end to the base of a two-pronged frame. The player holds the frame to his mouth, which forms a resonance cavity, and activates the instrument’s tongue by either plucking it with the fingers or jerking a string

  • Jawa (island, Indonesia)

    Java, island of Indonesia lying southeast of Malaysia and Sumatra, south of Borneo (Kalimantan), and west of Bali. Java is only the fourth largest island in Indonesia but contains more than half of the nation’s population and dominates it politically and economically. The capital of Java and of the

  • Jawa Barat (province, Indonesia)

    West Java, propinsi (or provinsi; province), western Java, Indonesia. It is bounded by the province of Central Java (Jawa Tengah) to the east, the Indian Ocean to the south, the province of Banten to the west, the special capital district of Jakarta to the northwest, and the Java Sea to the north.

  • Jawa Dam (ancient dam, Jordan)

    dam: The Middle East: The Jawa Dam was built in the 4th millennium bce to hold back the waters of a small stream and allow increased irrigation production on arable land downstream. Evidence exists of another masonry-faced earthen dam built about 2700 bce at Sadd el-Kafara, about 30 km (19…

  • Jawa Tengah (province, Indonesia)

    Central Java, propinsi (or provinsi; province), central Java, Indonesia. It is bounded by West Java (Jawa Barat) province to the west, the Java Sea to the north, East Java (Jawa Timur) province to the east, the Indian Ocean to the south, and Yogyakarta daerah istimewa (special district) to the

  • Jawa Timur (province, Indonesia)

    East Java, propinsi (or provinsi; province), eastern Java, Indonesia. It is bounded by the province of Central Java (Jawa Tengah) to the west, the Java Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, and the Bali Strait to the east. It includes numerous surrounding islands, most notably Madura,

  • Jawa, Laut (sea, Pacific Ocean)

    Java Sea, portion of the western Pacific Ocean between the islands of Java and Borneo. It is bordered by Borneo (Kalimantan) on the north, the southern end of Makassar Strait on the northeast, Celebes and the Flores and Bali seas on the east, Java on the south, the Sunda Straits to the Indian Ocean

  • jawab (Islamic architecture)

    Taj Mahal: History of construction: …the complex—main gateway, garden, mosque, jawāb (literally “answer”; a building mirroring the mosque), and mausoleum (including its four minarets)—were conceived and designed as a unified entity according to the tenets of Mughal building practice, which allowed no subsequent addition or alteration. Building commenced about 1632. More than 20,000 workers were…

  • Jawāb-e shikwah (poem by Iqbal)

    Sir Muhammad Iqbal: Early life and career: …this period, Shikwah (“The Complaint”), Jawāb-e shikwah (“The Answer to the Complaint”), and Khizr-e rāh (“Khizr, the Guide”), were published later in 1924 in the Urdu collection Bāng-e darā (“The Call of the Bell”). In those works Iqbal gave intense expression to the anguish of Muslim powerlessness. Khizr (Arabic: Khi?r),…

  • Jawahar Kala Kendra (arts centre, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India)

    Charles Correa: …in Pune, Maharashtra; and the Jawahar Kala Kendra arts complex (1986–92) in Jaipur, Rajasthan. From 1985 to 1988 he served as chairman of India’s National Commission on Urbanisation, and from 1999 he served as a consulting architect to the government of Goa.

  • Jawahar Tunnel (tunnel, India)

    Jammu and Kashmir: Transportation and communications: …was the construction of the Jawahar Tunnel, which at the time of its completion in 1959 was one of the longest in Asia. That road, however, is often made impassable by severe weather, which causes shortages of essential commodities in the vale. A road also connects Srinagar with Kargil and…

  • Jawahiri, Muhammad Mahdi al- (Iraqi poet)

    Muhammad Mahdi al-Jawahiri, Iraqi poet considered one of the Arab world’s all-time finest poets and said to be the last neoclassic Arab bard (b. July 26, 1899?--d. July 27,

  • Jawara, Sir Dawda Kairaba (president of The Gambia)

    Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, politician and veterinarian who was The Gambia’s prime minister from 1962 to 1970 and its president from 1970 until he was overthrown in 1994. The son of a Mande trader, Jawara was educated at a Methodist boys’ school, studied veterinary medicine at the University of

  • jawbone (music)

    percussion instrument: The Americas: The jawbone of a horse, mule, or donkey, with its teeth left in, is played throughout the Americas; its use among coastal Peruvians of African descent goes back to the 18th century. In the United States it has been used in Louisiana and the Carolinas.

  • Jawbone (American company)

    Hosain Rahman: …of the wearable technology company Aliph (also known as Jawbone).

  • Jawf, Al- (Saudi Arabia)

    Al-Jawf, town and oasis, northern Saudi Arabia. It lies at the northern edge of the Al-Nafūd desert near the source of the Wadi Al-Sir?ān. Formerly considered a part of the Jabal Shammar region, the oasis now lies within the northern reaches of the Hejaz. The town is strategically located on an

  • Jawf, Al- (region, Yemen)

    Al-Jawf, oasis region, western Yemen. It is bordered by the far-southwest extension of the Rub? al-Khali, the great sandy desert of the Arabian Peninsula. The Wadi al-Jawf, an intermittent stream with headwaters in the mountains of the Yemen Highlands, crosses the area; its western and southern

  • Jawf, Wadi al- (river, Yemen)

    Al-Jawf: The Wadi al-Jawf, an intermittent stream with headwaters in the mountains of the Yemen Highlands, crosses the area; its western and southern branches are small perennial streams.

  • jawfish (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Opistognathidae (jawfishes) Resemble Clinidae, but jaws large to huge, extending far past eye; dorsal fin long-based; spinous and soft portions continuous; anal fin long-based; body usually elongated, slender; eyes almost at anterior tip of head; pelvic fins below pectorals. About 78 species, mostly small, in shallow…

  • Jawhar (Fā?imid general)

    al-Mu?izz: …958–959 he sent his general Jawhar westward to reduce Fès and other places where the authority of the Fā?imid caliph had been repudiated; after a successful expedition Jawhar advanced to the Atlantic.

  • Jawizān ibn Sahl (Islamic religious leader)

    Khorram-dīnān: …to possess the soul of Jawizān ibn Sahl, a former leader of the Khorram-dīnān. In 816 Bābak, believing that he had a divinely inspired mission to right all the wrongs of the temporal world, led the Khorram-dīnān in open rebellion against the ?Abbāsid caliphs that ruled from Baghdad. The rebellion…

  • Jawl, Al- (region, Saudi Arabia)

    Arabian Desert: Physiography: …south, where the plateau of Al-Jawl (Jol) is located. The ?uwayq Mountains are the most prominent of the cuestas.

  • Jawlān, Al (region, Middle East)

    Golan Heights, hilly area overlooking the upper Jordan River valley on the west. The area was part of extreme southwestern Syria until 1967, when it came under Israeli military occupation, and in December 1981 Israel unilaterally annexed the part of the Golan it held. The area’s name is from the

  • Jawlensky, Alexey von (Russian painter)

    Alexey von Jawlensky, Russian painter noted for his Expressionistic portraits and the mystical tone of his late paintings of abstract faces. In 1889 Jawlensky gave up an established career in the Russian Imperial Guard to study painting under the Russian historical painter Ilya Repin. In 1896,

  • jawless fish (vertebrate)

    Agnathan, (superclass Agnatha), any member of the group of primitive jawless fishes that includes the lampreys (order Petromyzoniformes), hagfishes (order Myxiniformes), and several extinct groups. Hagfishes are minor pests of commercial food fisheries of the North Atlantic, but lampreys, because

  • Jaworski, Leon (American lawyer)

    Leon Jaworski, American lawyer who rose to national prominence on Nov. 5, 1973, when he was sworn in as Watergate special prosecutor and made constitutional history when he convinced the U.S. Supreme Court that President Richard M. Nixon was bound to obey a subpoena and turn over 64 White House

  • Jaworski, Ron (American football player)

    Philadelphia Eagles: …the passing duo of quarterback Ron Jaworski and the towering (6 feet 8 inches [2.03 metres] tall) wide receiver Harold Carmichael. This span was highlighted by Philadelphia’s first Super Bowl berth in 1981, though it lost to the Oakland Raiders, 27–10. Before the 1985 season, the Eagles made two significant…

  • Jaworzno (Poland)

    Jaworzno, city, ?l?skie województwo (province), south-central Poland. It was founded in the 18th century when rich deposits of zinc and lead ore and beds of coal were discovered nearby. Jaworzno is an important coal-mining and industrial city, with large chemical factories and several massive

  • Jaws (film by Spielberg [1975])

    Steven Spielberg: Commercial success: Spielberg’s next movie, Jaws (1975), established him as a leading director, and it was one of the highest-grossing films ever. It featured Roy Scheider as the police chief of a resort town who battles a man-eating white shark. Joining him are Richard Dreyfuss as a marine biologist and…

  • Jawsaq al-Khāqānī (palace-city, Iraq)

    Islamic arts: Palaces: Jawsaq al-Khāqānī, for instance, is a walled architectural complex nearly one mile to a side that in reality is an entire city. It contains a formal succession of large gates and courts leading to a cross-shaped throne room, a group of smaller living units, basins…

  • JAXA (Japanese government agency)

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japanese government agency in charge of research in both aviation and space exploration. Its headquarters are in Tokyo. JAXA is divided into seven bodies: the Space Transportation Mission Directorate, which develops launch vehicles; the Space Applications

  • Jaxartes (river, Central Asia)

    Syr Darya, river in the Central Asian republics of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. The Syr Darya is formed by the confluence of the Naryn and Qoradaryo rivers in the eastern Fergana Valley and generally flows northwest until it empties into the Aral Sea. With a length of 1,374 miles (2,212

  • jay (bird)

    Jay, any of about 35 to 40 bird species belonging to the family Corvidae (order Passeriformes) that inhabit woodlands and are known for their bold, raucous manner. Most are found in the New World, but several are Eurasian. Jays are nearly omnivorous; some are egg stealers, and many store seeds and

  • Jay Leno Show, The (American television show)

    Jay Leno: In September Leno began hosting The Jay Leno Show, a prime-time hour-long program that aired Monday through Friday. The show, however, failed to catch on with viewers, and in January 2010 it was canceled; the last episode aired in February. Later in January it was announced that Leno would replace…

  • Jay of Battersea, Douglas Patrick Thomas Jay, Baron (British politician)

    Douglas Patrick Thomas Jay Jay of Battersea, BARON, British Labour Party politician and economist whose vehement opposition to the U.K.’s membership in the European Economic Community led to his dismissal as the president of the Board of Trade in 1967, though he retained his seat in Parliament

  • Jay Polyglot Bible, Le (Bible)

    Ibrāhīm al-?āqilānī: …he began collaborating on the Le Jay Polyglot Bible, publishing the Book of Ruth in Arabic, Syriac, and Latin and 3 Maccabees in Latin and Arabic. In 1646 he became professor at the Collège de France, Paris, but in 1652 he returned to Rome to work on preparation of the…

  • Jay Treaty (United States-Great Britain [1794])

    Jay Treaty, (Nov. 19, 1794), agreement that assuaged antagonisms between the United States and Great Britain, established a base upon which America could build a sound national economy, and assured its commercial prosperity. Negotiations were undertaken because of the fears of Federalist leaders

  • Jay Z (American rapper and entrepreneur)

    JAY-Z, American rapper and entrepreneur, one of the most influential figures in hip-hop in the 1990s and early 21st century. Shawn Carter grew up in Brooklyn’s often dangerous Marcy Projects, where he was raised mainly by his mother. His firsthand experience with illicit drug dealing would inform

  • Jay, John (United States statesman and chief justice)

    John Jay, a Founding Father of the United States who served the new nation in both law and diplomacy. He established important judicial precedents as the first chief justice of the United States (1789–95) and negotiated the Jay Treaty of 1794, which settled major grievances with Great Britain and

  • Jay, Ricky (American magician, actor, author, and historian)

    Ricky Jay, American magician, actor, author, and historian, widely regarded as the most gifted sleight-of-hand artist of his generation. He made his performing debut at age four during a backyard barbecue held by his grandfather Max Katz, then the president of the Society of American Magicians. By

  • Jay-Z (American rapper and entrepreneur)

    JAY-Z, American rapper and entrepreneur, one of the most influential figures in hip-hop in the 1990s and early 21st century. Shawn Carter grew up in Brooklyn’s often dangerous Marcy Projects, where he was raised mainly by his mother. His firsthand experience with illicit drug dealing would inform

  • JAY-Z (American rapper and entrepreneur)

    JAY-Z, American rapper and entrepreneur, one of the most influential figures in hip-hop in the 1990s and early 21st century. Shawn Carter grew up in Brooklyn’s often dangerous Marcy Projects, where he was raised mainly by his mother. His firsthand experience with illicit drug dealing would inform

  • Jaya Harivarman I (king of Champa)

    Suryavarman II: …under a new leader, King Jaya Harivarman I, defeated Khmer troops in a decisive battle at Chakling, near Phan Rang, in southern Vietnam. Suryavarman put his brother-in-law, Harideva, on the Cham throne, but Jaya Harivarman I deposed him and reclaimed that throne. In 1150 Suryavarman died in the midst of…

  • Jaya Indravarman III (king of Champa)

    Suryavarman II: …in 1136 the Cham king, Jaya Indravarman III, defected and made an alliance with the Vietnamese.

  • Jaya Peak (mountain peak, Indonesia)

    Jaya Peak, highest peak on the island of New Guinea, in the Sudirman Range, western central highlands. Located in the Indonesian province of Papua, the 16,024-foot (4,884-metre) summit is the highest in the southwestern Pacific and the highest island peak in the world. It marks the terminus of a

  • Jaya Sthiti (Nepali ruler)

    Nepal: Middle period: …and the great Malla ruler Jaya Sthiti (reigned c. 1382–95) introduced the first legal and social code strongly influenced by contemporary Hindu principles.

  • Jaya, Mount (mountain peak, Indonesia)

    Jaya Peak, highest peak on the island of New Guinea, in the Sudirman Range, western central highlands. Located in the Indonesian province of Papua, the 16,024-foot (4,884-metre) summit is the highest in the southwestern Pacific and the highest island peak in the world. It marks the terminus of a

  • Jayabhaya (Indonesian ruler)

    Ka?iri: Jayabhaya of Ka?iri (reigned 1135–57) successfully annexed Janggala. Jayabhaya and succeeding kings of Ka?iri expanded their territories to non-Javanese areas, including coastal areas of Borneo and the island of Bali. Ka?iri could not control Sumatra, however, because the ?rivijaya empire, though by now in decline,…

  • Jayacandra (Gāha?avāla king)

    India: The Rajputs: The king Jayacandra (12th century) is mentioned in the poem Prithviraja-raso by Candbardai, in which his daughter, the princess Sanyogita, elopes with the Cauhan king Prithviraja. Jayacandra died in battle against the Turkish leader, Mu?izz al-Dīn Mu?ammad ibn Sām (Mu?ammad of Ghūr), and his kingdom was annexed.

  • Jayadeva (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: The ultralogical period: …members of this school were Pakshadhara Mishra of Mithila, Vasudeva Sarvabhauma (16th century), his disciple Raghunatha Shiromani (both of Bengal), and Gadadhara Bhattacharyya.

  • Jayadeva (Indian poet)

    Jayadeva, Indian author of the Sanskrit poem Gita Govinda (“Song of the Cowherd [Krishna]”). The son of Bhojadeva, a Brahman, he was born in the village of Kenduli Sasan, Orissa (now Odisha), near the city of Puri, and was married to Padmavati. Jayadeva was closely associated with the temple of

  • Jayakanthan (Indian writer)

    South Asian arts: Tamil: …urban Tamil middle-class family life; Jayakanthan, a sharp and passionate writer, with a tendency to shock his readers; and L.S. Ramatirthan, probably the finest stylist at work in Tamil today, who started by writing in English.

  • Jayanagara (Indonesian king)

    Gajah Mada: …courage, and loyalty to King Jayanagara (1309–28) during a rebellion led by Kuti in 1319. He served as the head of the royal bodyguard that escorted King Jayanagara to Badander, when Kuti captured the capital of Majapahit. After finding a safe place for the King, he returned to the capital…

  • Jayapāla (Shāhi king)

    India: The coming of the Turks: The Punjab was ruled by Jayapala of the Hindu Shahi family (Shahiya), which had in the 9th century wrested the Kābul valley and Gandhara from a Turkish Shah. Political and economic relations were extremely close between the Punjab and Afghanistan. Afghanistan in turn was closely involved with Central Asian politics.…

  • Jayapura (Indonesia)

    Jayapura, city and capital of Papua propinsi (or provinsi; province), eastern Indonesia, on the northern coast of the island of New Guinea. It is a port on Yos Sudarso (Humboldt) Bay at the foot of Mount Cycloop (7,087 feet [2,160 metres]). During World War II the Japanese established an air base

  • Jayaram, Jayalalitha (Indian actress and politician)

    Jayalalitha Jayaram, Indian film actress, politician, and government official who long served as the leader of the All India Dravidian Progressive Federation (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam; AIADMK), a political party based in Tamil Nadu state, India. Known simply by the name Jayalalitha,

  • Jayaram, Jayalalithaa (Indian actress and politician)

    Jayalalitha Jayaram, Indian film actress, politician, and government official who long served as the leader of the All India Dravidian Progressive Federation (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam; AIADMK), a political party based in Tamil Nadu state, India. Known simply by the name Jayalalitha,

  • Jayasena, Henry (Ceylonese producer, writer, and actor)

    South Asian arts: Masked drama: …most significant of whom was Henry Jayasena. A producer-writer-actor, Jayasena wrote and staged plays in Sinhalese and translations of foreign plays, remaining active in his field until his death in 2009.

  • Jayavardhanapura Kotte (Sri Lanka)

    Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, city and legislative capital of Sri Lanka. It is located in the southwestern part of the country, about 5 miles (8 km) southeast of the commercial capital of Colombo, of which it was once a suburb. An urban council governs Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte and the neighbouring

  • Jayavarman II (king of Khmer empire)

    Jayavarman II, founder of the Khmer, or Cambodian, empire and outstanding member of the series of rulers of the Angkor period (802–1431). Among Jayavarman II’s accomplishments were the deification of the Cambodian monarchy, the establishment of the devarāja cult as the official state religion, and

  • Jayavarman V (king of Angkor)

    Cambodia: Angkorean civilization: …the reign of his successor, Jayavarman V (968–c. 1000), the rose-coloured sandstone shrine of Banteai Srei—arguably the loveliest temple at Angkor—was built on the outskirts of the capital under the patronage of a wealthy priestly family, one of whose members had been Jayavarman’s teacher. In Ya?odharapura itself, Jayavarman V began…

  • Jayavarman VII (king of Khmer empire)

    Jayavarman VII, one of the most forceful and productive kings of the Khmer (Cambodian) empire of Angkor (reigning 1181–c. 1220). He expanded the empire to its greatest territorial extent and engaged in a building program that yielded numerous temples (including Angkor Thom), highways, rest houses,

  • Jayawardene, Junius Richard (president of Sri Lanka)

    J.R. Jayewardene, lawyer and public official who served as president of Sri Lanka from 1978 to 1989. The son of a Supreme Court judge, Jayewardene graduated from Ceylon Law College in Colombo in 1932 and practiced as a barrister until 1943. He joined the Ceylon National Congress party and in 1943

  • Jayawardene, Mahela (Sri Lankan athlete)

    cricket: Sri Lanka: …players that included Sanath Jayasuriya; Mahela Jayawardene, an elegant and aggressive batsmen; and Muttiah Muralitharan, who in 2010 became the first bowler to take 800 Test wickets. The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 devastated the cricket-playing regions of southern Sri Lanka, including the Test match ground at Galle, and took…

  • Jayawijaya Mountains (mountains, Indonesia)

    Jayawijaya Mountains, eastern section of the Maoke Mountains, part of the central highlands of the island of New Guinea. Located in the Indonesian province of Papua, the range extends for 230 miles (370 km) east of the Sudirman Range to the Star Mountains and the border with Papua New Guinea. The

  • Jayawijaya, Pegunungan (mountains, Indonesia)

    Jayawijaya Mountains, eastern section of the Maoke Mountains, part of the central highlands of the island of New Guinea. Located in the Indonesian province of Papua, the range extends for 230 miles (370 km) east of the Sudirman Range to the Star Mountains and the border with Papua New Guinea. The

  • Jayewardene, J. R. (president of Sri Lanka)

    J.R. Jayewardene, lawyer and public official who served as president of Sri Lanka from 1978 to 1989. The son of a Supreme Court judge, Jayewardene graduated from Ceylon Law College in Colombo in 1932 and practiced as a barrister until 1943. He joined the Ceylon National Congress party and in 1943

  • Jayewardene, Junius Richard (president of Sri Lanka)

    J.R. Jayewardene, lawyer and public official who served as president of Sri Lanka from 1978 to 1989. The son of a Supreme Court judge, Jayewardene graduated from Ceylon Law College in Colombo in 1932 and practiced as a barrister until 1943. He joined the Ceylon National Congress party and in 1943

  • Jay?ūn (river, Asia)

    Amu Darya, one of the longest rivers of Central Asia. The Amu Darya was traditionally known to the Western world from Greek and Roman times as the Oxus and was called the Jay?ūn by the Arabs. It allegedly derives its present name from the city of āmul, which is said to have occupied the site of

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