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  • Jeg ser et stort sk?nt land (novel by Kamban)

    Gudmundur Kamban: …et stort sk?nt land (1936; I See a Wondrous Land), a historical novel set in the 11th century that recounts the Viking expeditions to Greenland and America. Kamban’s first plays—Hadda Padda (1914; Eng. trans. Hadda Padda; filmed 1924) and Kongeglimen (1915; “Wrestling Before the King”)—are about the problems of love.…

  • Jegorjevsk (Russia)

    Yegoryevsk, city, Moscow oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the Glushitsy River southeast of the capital. The city of Yegoryevsk was formed in 1778 from the village of Vysokoye and became an important trading centre, especially for grain and cattle from Ryazan oblast. In the 19th

  • jehad (Islam)

    Jihad, (Arabic: “struggle” or “effort”) in Islam, a meritorious struggle or effort. The exact meaning of the term jihād depends on context; it has often been erroneously translated in the West as “holy war.” Jihad, particularly in the religious and ethical realm, primarily refers to the human

  • Jehan de Saintré (work by La Sale)

    Antoine de La Sale: Jehan de Saintré is a pseudobiographical romance of a knight at the court of Anjou who, in real life, achieved great fame in the mid-14th century. Modern criticism ascribes an important place to Saintré in the development of French prose fiction and also extols the…

  • Jehangir (emperor of India)

    Jahāngīr, Mughal emperor of India from 1605 to 1627. Prince Salīm was the eldest son of the emperor Akbar, who early marked Salīm to succeed him. Impatient for power, however, Salīm revolted in 1599 while Akbar was engaged in the Deccan. Akbar on his deathbed confirmed Salīm as his successor. The

  • Jehannet (French painter)

    Jean Clouet, Renaissance painter of portraits celebrated for the depth and delicacy of his characterization. Although he lived in France most of his life, records show that he was not French by origin and was never naturalized. He was one of the chief painters to Francis I as early as 1516 and was

  • Jehoahaz (king of Judah)

    Ahaz, king of Judah (c. 735–720 bc) who became an Assyrian vassal (2 Kings 16; Isaiah 7–8). Ahaz assumed the throne of Judah at the age of 20 or 25. Sometime later his kingdom was invaded by Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin, king of Syria, in an effort to force him into an alliance with them

  • Jehoiachin (king of Judah)

    Jehoiachin, in the Old Testament (II Kings 24), son of King Jehoiakim and king of Judah. He came to the throne at the age of 18 in the midst of the Chaldean invasion of Judah and reigned three months. He was forced to surrender to Nebuchadrezzar II and was taken to Babylon (597 bc), along with 1

  • Jehoiakim (king of Judah)

    Jehoiakim, in the Old Testament (II Kings 23:34–24:17; Jer. 22:13–19; II Chron. 36:4–8), son of King Josiah and king of Judah (c. 609–598 bc). When Josiah died at Megiddo, his younger son, Jehoahaz (or Shallum), was chosen king by the Judahites, but the Egyptian conqueror Necho took Jehoahaz to E

  • Jehol (China)

    Chengde, city in northern Hebei sheng (province), China. The city is situated in the mountains separating the North China Plain from the plateaus of Inner Mongolia, approximately 110 miles (180 km) northeast of Beijing, on the Re River (Re He; “Hot River”), a small tributary of the Luan River. The

  • Jehol Biota (ancient ecosystem, China)

    feathered dinosaur: Discoveries in the Liaoning deposits: …are part of the larger Jehol Biota, a vast assemblage of Cretaceous fossils from northeastern China, and they continue to produce feathered dinosaur fossils, including those of early birds. In terms of historical evolution, many of these feathered dinosaurs were found to be increasingly closer to Archaeopteryx and later birds.…

  • Jehol Uplands (region, China)

    Chengde Uplands, region of extremely complex and rugged topography in northeastern China. It encompasses portions of southwestern Liaoning province, northeastern Hubei province, and southeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The area is mostly composed of Precambrian granites, gneiss, and

  • Jehonadab (Rechabite zealot)

    Rechabite: …for Rechab, the father of Jehonadab. Jehonadab was an ally of Jehu, a 9th-century-bc king of Israel, and a zealous antagonist against the worshippers of Baal, a Canaanite fertility deity. Though of obscure origin, the Rechabites apparently were related to the Kenites, according to I Chron. 2:55, a tribe eventually…

  • Jehoram (king of Israel)

    Jehoram, one of two contemporary Old Testament kings. Jehoram, the son of Ahab and Jezebel and king (c. 849–c. 842 bc) of Israel, maintained close relations with Judah. Together with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, Jehoram unsuccessfully attempted to subdue a revolt of Moab against Israel. As had his

  • Jehoshaphat (king of Judah)

    Jehoshaphat, king (c. 873–c. 849 bc) of Judah during the reigns in Israel of Ahab, Ahaziah, and Jehoram, with whom he maintained close political and economic alliances. Jehoshaphat aided Ahab in his unsuccessful attempt to recapture the city of Ramoth-gilead, joined Ahaziah in extending maritime t

  • Jehovah

    Jehovah, artificial Latinized rendering of the name of the God of Israel. The name arose among Christians in the Middle Ages through the combination of the consonants YHWH (JHVH) with the vowels of Adonai (“My Lord”). Jews reading the Scriptures aloud substituted Adonai for the sacred name,

  • Jehovah

    Yahweh, the god of the Israelites, whose name was revealed to Moses as four Hebrew consonants (YHWH) called the tetragrammaton. After the Babylonian Exile (6th century bce), and especially from the 3rd century bce on, Jews ceased to use the name Yahweh for two reasons. As Judaism became a universal

  • Jehovah’s Witnesses (religion)

    Jehovah’s Witness, member of a millennialist denomination that developed within the larger 19th-century Adventist movement in the United States and has since spread worldwide. The Jehovah’s Witnesses are an outgrowth of the International Bible Students Association, which was founded in 1872 in

  • Jehu (king of Israel)

    Jehu, king (c. 842–815 bc) of Israel. He was a commander of chariots for the king of Israel, Ahab, and his son Jehoram, on Israel’s frontier facing Damascus and Assyria. Ahab, son of King Omri, was eventually killed in a war with Assyria; during Jehoram’s rule, Jehu accepted the invitation of the p

  • Jehuda ben Moses Cohen (Spanish astronomer)

    Alfonsine Tables: …Castile under the direction of Jehuda ben Moses Cohen and Isaac ben Sid. Although no Castilian version survives, internal evidence—they were calculated for 1252, the initial year of the reign of Alfonso, and at the meridian of Toledo—supports the introduction. The tables were not widely known, however, until a Latin…

  • Jeitun (ancient civilization, Central Asia)

    Turkmenistan: Early civilization and arrival of the Turkmens: …of Ashgabat in the Neolithic Jeitun civilization, which may be dated to the 5th millennium bce. The Jeitun civilization was followed by a series of other Neolithic cultures, and a cultural unification of southern Turkmenistan occurred in the Early Bronze Age (2500–2000 bce). During the course of the following half…

  • Jejak langkah (novel by Pramoedya)

    Pramoedya Ananta Toer: …the tetralogy, Jejak langkah (1985; Footsteps) and Rumah kaca (1988; House of Glass), had to be published abroad. These late works comprehensively depict Javanese society under Dutch colonial rule in the early 20th century. In contrast to Pramoedya’s earlier works, they were written in a plain, fast-paced narrative style.

  • Jejsk (Russia)

    Yeysk, city, Krasnodar kray (territory), southwestern Russia. It was founded as a port in 1848 on the southern side of Taganrog Gulf of the Sea of Azov. Fishing and associated industries (fish canning) are important; other industries include agricultural processing. The city is a noted health

  • Jeju (South Korea)

    Cheju, city and provincial capital, Cheju do (province), on the northern coast of Cheju Island, off the southern coast of South Korea. It is the island’s largest city and has its only airport, which handles both domestic and international flights. The political, commercial, and cultural centre of

  • Jeju, South Korea: Island of Peace and of Controversy

    In 2013 a controversy that had been simmering for the better part of a decade on the small, lush South Korean island of Jeju in the East China Sea intensified, drawing ever more international attention. The issue involved geopolitical, military, cultural, and environmental aspects. When the

  • Jeju-teukbyeoljachi-do (island and province, South Korea)

    Cheju Island, island and (since 2006) special autonomous province of South Korea. The province, the smallest of the republic, is in the East China Sea 60 miles (100 km) southwest of South Ch?lla province, of which it once was a part. The provincial capital is the city of Cheju. Oval in shape, Cheju

  • jejunum (anatomy)

    duodenum: …of the small intestine, the jejunum.

  • Jekri (people)

    Itsekiri, ethnic group inhabiting the westernmost part of the Niger River delta of extreme southern Nigeria. The Itsekiri make up an appreciable proportion of the modern towns of Sapele, Warri, Burutu, and Forcados. They speak a Yoruboid language of the Benue-Congo branch of Niger-Congo languages

  • Jekyll Island (island, Georgia, United States)

    Sea Islands: …half of the 19th century, Jekyll Island was made an exclusive winter playground for members of the Jekyll Island Club; the Carnegie family also secured most of Cumberland Island for the same purpose. Jekyll Island was bought by the state of Georgia and since 1947 has been the site of…

  • Jekyll, Dr. (fictional character)

    Dr. Jekyll, fictional character, the rational, humanistic protagonist of the novel Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) by Robert Louis Stevenson. His alter ego is the evil, barely human Mr. Hyde. John Barrymore (1920), Fredric March (1931), and Spencer Tracy (1941) gave notable film

  • Jekyll, Gertrude (English landscape architect)

    Gertrude Jekyll, English landscape architect who was the most successful advocate of the natural garden and who brought to the theories of her colleague William Robinson a cultivated sensibility he lacked. Born of a prosperous family, Jekyll was educated in music and painting and travelled in the

  • Jekyll, Henry (fictional character)

    Dr. Jekyll, fictional character, the rational, humanistic protagonist of the novel Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) by Robert Louis Stevenson. His alter ego is the evil, barely human Mr. Hyde. John Barrymore (1920), Fredric March (1931), and Spencer Tracy (1941) gave notable film

  • Jela?i?, Josip, Count (Croatian politician and soldier)

    Josip, Count Jela?i?, Croatian politician and soldier who, as ban, or provincial governor, of Croatia under the Austrian Empire, helped crush the Hungarian nationalist revolt against the empire in 1848. As a young Austrian officer, he served in Italy and Bosnia. In March 1848, when the nationalists

  • Jelālī Revolts (Turkish history)

    Jelālī Revolts, rebellions in Anatolia against the Ottoman Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first revolt occurred in 1519 near Tokat under the leadership of Celal, a preacher of Shī?ite Islam. Major revolts later occurred in 1526–28, 1595–1610, 1654–55, and 1658–59. The major uprisings

  • Jelenia Góra (Poland)

    Jelenia Góra, city, Dolno?l?skie województwo (province), southwestern Poland. It lies in the Sudeten (Sudety) mountains near the Czech border, at the confluence of the Bóbr and Kamienna rivers. Archaeological data indicate that the site was occupied by an ancient Slavic tribe. Permanent settlement

  • Jelep La (mountain pass, India-China)

    Jelep Pass, mountain pass on the border of the Indian state of Sikkim and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Jelep Pass lies at an elevation of about 14,390 feet (4,386 metres), in the Dongkya Range of the eastern Himalayas. The pass (la), with its gentle gradient, was a crucial link in the main

  • Jelep Pass (mountain pass, India-China)

    Jelep Pass, mountain pass on the border of the Indian state of Sikkim and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Jelep Pass lies at an elevation of about 14,390 feet (4,386 metres), in the Dongkya Range of the eastern Himalayas. The pass (la), with its gentle gradient, was a crucial link in the main

  • Jelgava (Latvia)

    Jelgava, city, Latvia, on the Lielupe River southwest of Riga. In 1226 the Brothers of the Sword, a religious and military order, built the castle of Mitau there; town status was conferred on the settlement in 1376. In 1561, when the Brothers of the Sword were dissolved, it became the capital of

  • jeli (African troubadour-historian)

    Griot, West African troubadour-historian. The griot profession is hereditary and has long been a part of West African culture. The griots’ role has traditionally been to preserve the genealogies, historical narratives, and oral traditions of their people; praise songs are also part of the griot’s

  • Jelinek, Elfriede (Austrian author)

    Elfriede Jelinek, Austrian novelist and playwright noted for her controversial works on gender relations, female sexuality, and popular culture. She was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2004. Jelinek received her education in Vienna, where the combination of her academic studies with a

  • Jelinek, Frederick (Czech-born American engineer)

    Frederick Jelinek, Czech-born American engineer (born Nov. 18, 1932, Kladno, Czech. [now in the Czech Republic—died Sept. 14, 2010, Baltimore, Md.), was instrumental in the development of computerized speech-recognition technology. Jelinek grew up in Czechoslovakia during the Nazi occupation, which

  • jellaba (garment)

    dress: The Middle East from the 6th century: …the Arab world is the jellaba, known as the jellabah in Tunisia, a jubbeh in Syria, a gallibiya in Egypt, or a dishdasha in Algeria. The garment generally has wide, long sleeves, and the long skirt may be slit up the sides; some styles are open in front like a…

  • jellabah (garment)

    dress: The Middle East from the 6th century: …the Arab world is the jellaba, known as the jellabah in Tunisia, a jubbeh in Syria, a gallibiya in Egypt, or a dishdasha in Algeria. The garment generally has wide, long sleeves, and the long skirt may be slit up the sides; some styles are open in front like a…

  • Jellachich, Joseph, Graf (Croatian politician and soldier)

    Josip, Count Jela?i?, Croatian politician and soldier who, as ban, or provincial governor, of Croatia under the Austrian Empire, helped crush the Hungarian nationalist revolt against the empire in 1848. As a young Austrian officer, he served in Italy and Bosnia. In March 1848, when the nationalists

  • Jellicoe, John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl (British admiral)

    John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, British admiral of the fleet who commanded at the crucial Battle of Jutland (May 31, 1916) during World War I. The son of a captain in the mercantile marine, Jellicoe was educated at Rottingdean and entered the Royal Navy as a naval cadet in 1872. He

  • Jellicoe, John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl, Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa, Viscount Brocas of Southampton (British admiral)

    John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, British admiral of the fleet who commanded at the crucial Battle of Jutland (May 31, 1916) during World War I. The son of a captain in the mercantile marine, Jellicoe was educated at Rottingdean and entered the Royal Navy as a naval cadet in 1872. He

  • Jellicoe, Sir Geoffrey Alan (British landscape architect)

    Sir Geoffrey Alan Jellicoe, British landscape architect (born Oct. 8, 1900, London, Eng.—died July 17, 1996, Seaton, Devon, Eng.), considered landscape design the "mother of all arts" and for seven decades was one of its greatest practitioners. Such projects as the grounds of the Royal Lodge at W

  • Jellinek, Adolf (European Jewish rabbi and scholar)

    Adolf Jellinek, rabbi and scholar who was considered to be the most forceful Jewish preacher of his time in central Europe. From 1845 to 1856 Jellinek preached in Leipzig and from 1856 to 1893 in Vienna. Because of his skillful incorporation into his sermons of those Midrashim (rabbinic

  • Jellinek, Elvin M. (American physiologist)

    Elvin M. Jellinek, American physiologist who was a pioneer in the scientific study of alcoholism. Jellinek studied at several European universities and received his master’s degree in 1914 from the University of Leipzig. He became a biometrician (i.e., one concerned with the statistics of

  • Jellinek, Elvin Morton (American physiologist)

    Elvin M. Jellinek, American physiologist who was a pioneer in the scientific study of alcoholism. Jellinek studied at several European universities and received his master’s degree in 1914 from the University of Leipzig. He became a biometrician (i.e., one concerned with the statistics of

  • Jellinek, Georg (German philosopher)

    Georg Jellinek, German legal and political philosopher who, in his book Die sozialethische Bedeutung von Recht, Unrecht und Strafe (1878; 2nd ed., 1908; “The Social-Ethical Significance of Right, Wrong, and Punishment”), defined the law as an ethical minimum—i.e., as a body of normative principles

  • Jelling (ancient site, Denmark)

    Denmark: The Viking era: …on a huge gravestone at Jelling, one of the so-called Jelling stones. Harald’s conquest of Norway was short-lived, however, and his son Sweyn I (Forkbeard) was forced to rewin the country. Sweyn also exhausted England in annual raids and was finally accepted as king of that country, but he died…

  • Jelling stones (Danish gravestones)

    Jelling stones, two 10th-century royal gravestones found in Jutland, best known of all Danish runic inscriptions. The earlier stone, a memorial honouring Queen Thyre, was commissioned by her husband, King Gorm the Old, last pagan king of Denmark. The other, erected in memory of his parents by

  • jelly (food)

    food preservation: Concentration of moist foods: Fruit jelly and preserve manufacture, an important fruit by-product industry, is based on the high-solids–high-acid principle, with its moderate heat-treatment requirements. Fruits that possess excellent qualities but are visually unattractive may be preserved and utilized in the form of concentrates, which have a pleasing taste…

  • jelly (confection)

    Jelly, a semitransparent confection consisting of the strained juice of various fruits or vegetables, singly or in combination, sweetened, boiled, slowly simmered, and congealed, often with the aid of pectin, gelatin, or a similar substance. The juices of most fruits and berries and many vegetables

  • jelly bean (candy)

    jelly: …of the popular gumdrop and jelly bean candies is imparted by various grain starches. Jellies made from the seaweed extract agar-agar, valued for their clarity and body, are used to coat various candy centres or to make colourful simulated fruit slices.

  • jelly fungus (order of fungus)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Tremellales Parasitic on mosses, vascular plants, or insects, although most are saprotrophic; basidiocarps well-formed, appearing as inconspicuous horny crusts when dry but usually bright-coloured to black gelatinous masses after a rain; example genera include Tremella, Trichosporon, and Christiansenia. Class Dacrymycetes

  • Jelly’s Last Jam (American musical)

    Savion Glover: …Roll Morton in the musical Jelly’s Last Jam, which debuted in Los Angeles in 1991 before opening on Broadway the following year and touring in 1994. In 1995 Bring in ’Da Noise, Bring in ’Da Funk opened Off-Broadway. Glover choreographed and starred in the musical, which featured a series of…

  • Jellyby, Mrs. (fictional character)

    Mrs. Jellyby, satiric character in the novel Bleak House (1852–53) by Charles Dickens, one of his memorable caricatures. Matronly Mrs. Jellyby is a philanthropist who devotes her time and energy to setting up a mission in Africa while ignoring the needy in her own family and

  • jellyfish (marine invertebrate)

    Jellyfish, any planktonic marine member of the class Scyphozoa (phylum Cnidaria), a group of invertebrate animals composed of about 200 described species, or of the class Cubozoa (approximately 20 species). The term is also frequently applied to certain other cnidarians (such as members of the

  • Jelnik (Polish knight)

    Jelenia Góra: …in the 11th century by Jelnik, a knight who built the castle Nowy Dwór. The surrounding settlement was known as Jelenia Góra. The town reached its economic zenith, mainly because of its weaving industry, in the 15th and 16th centuries but was devastated by the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) and,…

  • Jelutong Press (Malaysian company)

    Sayyid Shaykh bin Ahmad al-Hadi: …(1919), Sayyid Shaykh founded the Jelutong Press in Penang in 1927. For the next 14 years, until the Japanese invasion, Jelutong published a stream of books, journals, and other publications broadly reformist in general tendency but encompassing modern literature of all kinds, from popular journalism to the first Malay novels.…

  • Jem (novel by Pohl)

    Frederik Pohl: …Nebula Award for best novel; Jem (1980), the first and only novel to capture a National Book Award for science fiction (hardcover), bestowed only in 1980; Chernobyl (1987); and All the Lives He Led (2011). The trilogy composed of The Other End of Time (1996), The Siege of Eternity (1997),…

  • Jem (Ottoman prince)

    Bayezid II: …father in 1481, his brother Cem contested the succession. Bayezid, supported by a strong faction of court officials at Constantinople, succeeded in taking the throne. Cem eventually sought refuge with the Knights of Saint John at Rhodes and remained a captive until his death in 1495.

  • JEM (Sudanese rebel group)

    Janjaweed: …most prominent rebel groups, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA), mounted a joint raid on the Sudanese air base at Al-Fāshir in April 2003, destroying aircraft and capturing dozens of prisoners. The Al-Fāshir raid was a psychological blow to the government in Khartoum, and…

  • Jem, El (Tunisia)

    Thysdrus, ancient Roman city south of Hadrumetum (modern Sousse) in what is now Tunisia. Although it was originally a native community influenced by Carthaginian civilization, Thysdrus probably received Julius Caesar’s veterans as settlers in 45 bce. Thysdrus did not become a municipium (settlement

  • Jemaa (Nigeria)

    Jemaa, town, Kaduna state, central Nigeria, near the Darroro Hills and on a road from Jos to Jagindi. A 2,000-year-old terra-cotta head discovered at Jemaa in 1944 proved to be vital to an understanding of the Nok culture, a civilization that probably flourished in the area between 900 bce and 200

  • Jemaah Islamiyah (Islamic militant organization)

    2002 Bali Bombings: …task forces—identified the terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah (an Islamic group) as responsible for the bombings. Suspected of having carried out several other terrorist attacks in the past, Jemaah Islamiyah was also linked by the Indonesian government to al-Qaeda, the international terrorist network founded by Osama bin Laden.

  • Jemappes (Belgium)

    Borinage: …metallurgy (in the town of Jemappes) and glassmaking (at Boussu). The city and workshops of Grand Hornu constitute a remarkable reconstruction (begun c. 1820) of an ancient mine and its attendant industrial complex.

  • Jember (Indonesia)

    Jember, city, East Java (Jawa Timur) propinsi (or provinsi; province), southeastern Java, Indonesia. It is located at the foot of Mount Argopuro, about 95 miles (150 km) southeast of Surabaya, the provincial capital. Roads and railway link it with Banyuwangi to the east, Probolinggo to the

  • Jemgum, Battle of (Dutch history)

    Louis of Nassau: …beaten by Alba’s forces at Jemgum on the Ems (July 21). After fighting alongside his brother William of Orange in another disastrous campaign in the south, he retreated to France, where he established excellent relations with the Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny and, through him, with the French king Charles…

  • Jemison, Mae (American physician and astronaut)

    Mae Jemison, American physician and the first African American woman to become an astronaut. In 1992 she spent more than a week orbiting Earth in the space shuttle Endeavour. Jemison moved with her family to Chicago at the age of three. There she was introduced to science by her uncle and developed

  • Jemison, Mae Carol (American physician and astronaut)

    Mae Jemison, American physician and the first African American woman to become an astronaut. In 1992 she spent more than a week orbiting Earth in the space shuttle Endeavour. Jemison moved with her family to Chicago at the age of three. There she was introduced to science by her uncle and developed

  • Jemison, Mary (American frontierswoman)

    Mary Jemison, captive of Native American Indians, whose published life story became one of the most popular in the 19th-century genre of captivity stories. Jemison grew up on a farm near the site of present-day Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. On April 5, 1758, a raiding party of French soldiers and

  • Jemison, T. J. (American civil rights leader)

    T(heodore) J(udson) Jemison, American civil rights leader (born Aug. 1, 1918, Selma, Ala.—died Nov. 15, 2013, Baton Rouge, La.), championed the rights of African Americans; he was especially well known for leading a 1953 bus boycott in Baton Rouge, La., which served as a model for the Montgomery,

  • Jemison, Theodore Judson (American civil rights leader)

    T(heodore) J(udson) Jemison, American civil rights leader (born Aug. 1, 1918, Selma, Ala.—died Nov. 15, 2013, Baton Rouge, La.), championed the rights of African Americans; he was especially well known for leading a 1953 bus boycott in Baton Rouge, La., which served as a model for the Montgomery,

  • Jemtegaard, Genevieve (American law enforcement officer)

    Melvin Calvin: In 1942 Calvin married Genevieve Jemtegaard, with later Nobel chemistry laureate Glenn T. Seaborg as best man. The married couple collaborated on an interdisciplinary project to investigate the chemical factors in the Rh blood group system. Genevieve was a juvenile probation officer, but, according to Calvin’s autobiography, “she spent…

  • jen (Chinese philosophy)

    Ren, (Chinese: “humanity,” “humaneness,” “goodness,” “benevolence,” or “love”) the foundational virtue of Confucianism. It characterizes the bearing and behaviour that a paradigmatic human being exhibits in order to promote a flourishing human community. The concept of ren reflects presuppositions

  • jen sheng (herb)

    Ginseng, (genus Panax), genus of 12 species of medicinal herbs of the family Araliaceae. The root of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), native to Manchuria and Korea, has long been used as a drug and is made into a stimulating tea in China, Korea, and Japan. American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), native

  • Jen, Gish (American author)

    American literature: Multicultural writing: …important Asian American writers included Gish Jen, whose Typical American (1991) dealt with immigrant striving and frustration; the Korean American Chang-rae Lee, who focused on family life, political awakening, and generational differences in Native Speaker (1995) and A Gesture Life (1999); and Ha Jin, whose Waiting (1999; National Book Award),…

  • Jen-min Jih-pao (Chinese newspaper)

    Renmin Ribao, (Chinese: “People’s Daily”) daily newspaper published in Beijing as the official organ of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. The paper was established in 1948, toward the end of China’s civil war, and has been based in Beijing since 1949. Renmin Ribao carries

  • jen-min kung-she (Chinese agriculture)

    Commune, type of large rural organization introduced in China in 1958. Communes began as amalgamations of collective farms; but, in contrast to the collectives, which had been engaged exclusively in agricultural activities, the communes were to become multipurpose organizations for the direction of

  • Jen-tsung (emperor of Yuan dynasty)

    Buyantu, (reigned 1311–20), Mongol emperor of the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368) of China, who was a patron of literature. He distributed offices more equitably between Chinese and Mongols than had his predecessors, and during his reign commercial ties with Europe

  • Jen-tsung (emperor of Song dynasty)

    Renzong, temple name (miaohao) of the fourth emperor (reigned 1022–63) of the Song dynasty (960–1279) of China, one of the most able and humane rulers in Chinese history. Under him the Song government is generally believed to have come closer than ever before to reaching the Confucian ideal of just

  • Jena (Germany)

    Jena, city, Thuringia Land (state), east-central Germany. It lies on the Saale River, east of Weimar. First mentioned in the 9th century as Jani, it was chartered in 1230 and belonged to the margraves of Meissen from the mid-14th century. The house of Wettin, which held the margraviate and (after

  • Jena Bridge (bridge, Paris, France)

    Paris: Around the Eiffel Tower: …of the slope the five-arched Jena Bridge (Pont d’Iéna) leads across the river. It was built for Napoleon I in 1813 to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Jena in 1806.

  • Jena glass

    Jena glass, fine-quality glass with improved resistance to heat and shock, suited for chemical ware. It was developed for thermometers and measuring vessels, optical ware, and scientific and industrial uses. Jena glass was first produced by the German glass chemist Otto Schott, who, with Ernst Abbe

  • Jena Romanticism (German literature)

    Jena Romanticism, a first phase of Romanticism in German literature, centred in Jena from about 1798 to 1804. The group was led by the versatile writer Ludwig Tieck. Two members of the group, the brothers August Wilhelm and Friedrich von Schlegel, who laid down the theoretical basis for Romanticism

  • Jena, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Jena, (Oct. 14, 1806), military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, fought between 122,000 French troops and 114,000 Prussians and Saxons, at Jena and Auerst?dt, in Saxony (modern Germany). In the battle, Napoleon smashed the outdated Prussian army inherited from Frederick II the Great,

  • Jena, Friedrich Schiller University of (university, Jena, Germany)

    Jena: The city’s Friedrich-Schiller University was founded by the elector John Frederick the Magnanimous in 1548 as an academy and was raised to university status in 1577. It flourished under the duke Charles Augustus, patron of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, from 1787 to 1806, when the philosophers Johann…

  • Jena, University of (university, Jena, Germany)

    Jena: The city’s Friedrich-Schiller University was founded by the elector John Frederick the Magnanimous in 1548 as an academy and was raised to university status in 1577. It flourished under the duke Charles Augustus, patron of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, from 1787 to 1806, when the philosophers Johann…

  • Jena-Auerst?dt, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Jena, (Oct. 14, 1806), military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, fought between 122,000 French troops and 114,000 Prussians and Saxons, at Jena and Auerst?dt, in Saxony (modern Germany). In the battle, Napoleon smashed the outdated Prussian army inherited from Frederick II the Great,

  • Jenaer Glas

    Jena glass, fine-quality glass with improved resistance to heat and shock, suited for chemical ware. It was developed for thermometers and measuring vessels, optical ware, and scientific and industrial uses. Jena glass was first produced by the German glass chemist Otto Schott, who, with Ernst Abbe

  • Jenaer Romantik (German literature)

    Jena Romanticism, a first phase of Romanticism in German literature, centred in Jena from about 1798 to 1804. The group was led by the versatile writer Ludwig Tieck. Two members of the group, the brothers August Wilhelm and Friedrich von Schlegel, who laid down the theoretical basis for Romanticism

  • Jenakijevo (Ukraine)

    Yenakiyeve, city, eastern Ukraine. It lies along the Krynka River. A pig-iron concern began there in 1858 but lasted only eight years; not until the first coal mines opened in the locality in 1883 did industrialization begin. A metallurgical factory established in 1895–97 was later reconstructed.

  • Jenatsch, Georg (Swiss political leader)

    Georg Jenatsch, Swiss political and military leader of the Grisons (now Graubünden, the most easterly of Swiss cantons) during the complex struggles of the Thirty Years’ War. The son of the Protestant vicar of Samaden, Jenatsch became vicar of Scharans in 1617. Ambition and thirst for action led

  • Jenatzy, Camille (French inventor)

    automobile: Early electric automobiles: …hour was an electric (Camille Jenatzy’s La Jamais Contente, 1899). An electric, also Jenatzy’s, had been the easy winner in 1898 of a French hill-climb contest to assay the three forms of power.

  • Jenckes, Joseph (British-American inventor)

    Joseph Jenks, British American inventor. A skilled ironworker, Jenks emigrated to America in 1642 to help establish the first American ironworks (see Saugus Iron Works). He cut the dies for the first coins minted in Boston (1652) and built the first American fire engine (1654). The scythe he

  • Jencks v. United States (law case)

    William Brennan: …of the confession; and in Jencks v. United States (1957), in which Brennan gave the court’s opinion, establishing a defendant’s right to examine the reports of government witnesses. In his dissents in Ker v. California and Lopez v. United States (both 1963), Brennan argued for the right to privacy as…

  • Jencks, Christopher (American journalist)
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