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  • Jiangnan Canal (canal, China)

    Zhenjiang: History: …was the place where the Jiangnan Canal (which in turn was connected to the Grand Canal) joined the Yangtze, its importance was greatly increased. It became the chief collecting centre for tax grain from the rich Yangtze delta region; the grain was then shipped across the Yangtze and north via…

  • Jiangnan plain (region, China)

    Jiangsu: Drainage: The Jiangnan plain south of the Yangtze forms the principal part of the Yangtze delta, characterized by flatness and lying only 10 to 16 feet (3 to 5 metres) above sea level. It is crisscrossed by streams and canals and dotted with ponds and lakes, forming…

  • Jiangnan sizhu (Chinese music ensemble)

    sizhu: …most influential has been the Jiangnan sizhu, which in the 19th century became established south of the Yangtze River, especially in the cities of southeast Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang provinces. By the early part of the 20th century, Shanghai had become the centre of sizhu activities; the city’s elite organized…

  • Jiangshanian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Jiangshanian Stage, second of three stages of the Upper Cambrian (Furongian) Series, encompassing all rocks deposited during the Jiangshanian Age (approximately 494 million to 489.5 million years ago) of the Cambrian Period. In 2011 the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) established the

  • Jiangsu (province, China)

    Jiangsu, sheng (province) on the east coast of China. It is bounded by the Yellow Sea to the east, Shanghai municipality to the southeast, and by the provinces of Zhejiang to the south, Anhui to the west, and Shandong to the north. The provincial capital is Nanjing, which was the southern capital

  • Jiangsu lowlands (region, China)

    Jiangsu: Drainage: The Jiangsu lowlands are floodplains formed by the alluvial deposits of the Yangtze, Huai, and (formerly) Huang rivers and their tributaries. Using the Yangtze and the old channel of the Huai as convenient landmarks, the area of these plains may be divided into three sections.

  • Jiangsusheng bowuguan (museum, Nanking, China)

    Kiangsu Provincial Museum, in Nanking, China, one of the outstanding provincial museums of China. It contains objects reflecting 5,000 years of Chinese culture. The prehistoric section contains objects found during excavations in 1954 and 1956 in Kiangsu Province, including polished stone tools, g

  • Jiangxi (province, China)

    Jiangxi, sheng (province) of southeast-central China. It is bounded by the provinces of Hubei and Anhui to the north, Zhejiang and Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, and Hunan to the west. On the map its shape resembles an inverted pear. The port of Jiujiang, some 430 miles (690 km)

  • Jiangxi Soviet (Chinese history)

    Jiangxi Soviet, (1931–34), independent government established by the communist leader Mao Zedong and his comrade Zhu De in Jiangxi province in southeastern China. It was from this small state within a state that Mao gained the experience in guerrilla warfare and peasant organization that he later

  • Jiangxia (China)

    Hankou, large urban area and river port, east-central Hubei sheng (province), central China. Located on the left bank of the Han River at its confluence with the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), it is the largest of the three former cities (the other two being Hanyang and Wuchang) now constituting the

  • Jiangzi (China)

    Gyangzê, town, southern Tibet Autonomous Region, western China. It is situated on the Nianchu River some 53 miles (86 km) southeast of Xigazê and about halfway between Lhasa (capital of Tibet) and the town of Yadong (Xarsingma) on the frontiers with India and Bhutan. Gyangzê is an important route

  • Jiankang (China)

    Nanjing, city, capital of Jiangsu sheng (province), east-central China. It is a port on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and a major industrial and communications centre. Rich in history, it served seven times as the capital of regional empires, twice as the seat of revolutionary government, once

  • Jianming Buliedian Baike Quanshu (Chinese encyclopaedia)

    Concise Encyclop?dia Britannica, 11-volume short-entry encyclopaedia in the Chinese language, published in Beijing in 1985–91 and believed to be the first joint venture by a socialist state and a privately owned Western publishing enterprise. The Concise Encyclop?dia Britannica was published as a

  • Jianshe de wenxue geming (essay by Hu Shih)

    Chinese literature: May Fourth period: …a second article (1918), “Jianshe de wenxue geming” (“Constructive Literary Revolution”), in which he spelled out his formula for a “literary renaissance.”

  • Jianwen (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Jianwen, reign name (nianhao) of the second emperor of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), under whose brief reign (1398–1402) a civil war nearly destroyed the newly founded dynasty. Succeeding to the throne in 1398, Jianwen continued the efforts of his predecessor to erase the Mongol legacies of the

  • Jianye (China)

    Nanjing, city, capital of Jiangsu sheng (province), east-central China. It is a port on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and a major industrial and communications centre. Rich in history, it served seven times as the capital of regional empires, twice as the seat of revolutionary government, once

  • Jianzhou (China)

    Nanping, city in north-central Fujian sheng (province), China. Nanping occupies an important position in the communications network of northern Fujian. It is situated on the northwest bank of the Min River at the place where that river is formed by the confluence of three major tributary

  • Jianzhou (people)

    Nurhachi: 30, 1626), chieftain of the Jianzhou Juchen, a Manchurian tribe, and one of the founders of the Manchu, or Qing, dynasty. His first attack on China (1618) presaged his son Dorgon’s conquest of the Chinese empire.

  • Jiao Bingzhen (Chinese painter)

    Chinese painting: Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12): …native court artists such as Jiao Bingzhen, who applied Western perspective to his illustrations of the text Gengzhitu (“Rice and Silk Culture”), which were reproduced and distributed in the form of wood engravings in 1696, and by the Italian missionary Giuseppe Castiglione. In the mid-18th century Castiglione produced a Sino-European…

  • Jiao’ao (China)

    Qingdao, port city, eastern Shandong sheng (province), eastern China. It is located on the south coast of the Shandong Peninsula at the eastern entrance to Jiaozhou (Kiaochow) Bay, one of the best natural harbours in northern China. Although the bay sometimes freezes in severe winters, it is always

  • Jiaobinlu kangyi (work by Feng)

    Feng Guifen: …that Feng wrote his well-known Jiaobinlu kangyi (“Protest from the Jiaobin Studio”). In it he warned the Chinese of the difference between the old Confucian world and the new world that had resulted from the intrusion of Western power and technology into China; he argued that the Chinese could best…

  • Jiaohe (ancient city, Xinjiang, China)

    Turfan: The nearby Jiaohe site (one of the cities of the ancient Gaochang kingdom) and the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves are major tourist attractions in the area. Pop. (2000) city, 123,379; (2003 est.) metro. area, 254,900.

  • Jiaolai Plain (region, China)

    China: The Shandong Hills: The Jiaolai Plain divides this region into two parts. The eastern part is lower, lying at elevations averaging below 1,500 feet (450 metres), with only certain peaks and ridges rising to 2,500 feet and (rarely) to 3,000 feet (900 metres); the highest point, Mount Lao, reaches…

  • Jiaozuo (China)

    Jiaozuo, city, northern Henan sheng (province), China. It lies in the foothills at the southern end of the Taihang Mountains, to the west of Xinxiang, in a mining district. Jiaozuo was originally two villages under the administration of Xiuwu county. Exploitation of the villages’ rich coal

  • Jiaqing (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Jiaqing, reign name (nianhao) of the fifth emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose reign (1796–1820) a partial attempt was made to restore the flagging state of the empire. He was proclaimed emperor and assumed the reign title of Jiaqing in 1796, after the abdication of his father,

  • Jiaxing (China)

    Jiaxing, city, northern Zhejiang sheng (province), eastern China. Jiaxing is a communications centre in the southern Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) delta, situated to the southeast of Lake Tai on the Grand Canal, north of the port of Hangzhou and on the railway between Hangzhou and Shanghai. It is

  • Jiayi (county, Taiwan)

    Chia-i, county (hsien, or xian), west-central Taiwan. Chia-i city, in the eastern part of the county, is the administrative seat. The county is bounded by Yün-lin (Yunlin) and Nan-t’ou (Nantou) counties to the north, by Kao-hsiung (Gaoxiong) and T’ai-nan (Tainan) special municipalities to the east

  • jib (sail)

    Jib, in sailing ships, triangular sail rigged to a stay extending from the foremast, or foretopmast, to the bowsprit or to a spar, the jibboom, that is an extension of the bowsprit. The jib is first known to have been used on one-masted vessels. Its use began to spread about 1600 and extended to

  • jib crane

    crane: …as derrick cranes is the jib, or boom; this is a long beam that is structurally reinforced so that it will not bend. The jib is supported or held aloft by guy wires running from its top to a vertical mast, or pillar, that is itself stiffly braced; the guy…

  • Jib, al- (Palestine)

    Gibeon, important town of ancient Palestine, located northwest of Jerusalem. Its inhabitants submitted voluntarily to Joshua at the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan (Josh. 9). Excavations undertaken in 1956 by a U.S. expedition revealed that the site had been occupied during parts of the

  • jiba (sanctuary)

    Tenrikyō: …of religious activity is the jiba, a sacred recess in the sanctuary of the main temple in Tenri city (Nara Prefecture). The world is said to have been created here, and from the jiba salvation will finally be extended to the entire world. Every member of Tenrikyō is expected to…

  • Jibāl An-Nūbah (mountains, Sudan)

    Sudan: Relief: …group of which forms the Nuba Mountains (Jibāl Al-Nūbah). The western plain is composed primarily of Nubian sandstones, which form a dissected plateau region with flat-topped mesas and buttes. The volcanic highlands of the Marrah Mountains rise out of the Darfur Plateau farther west to elevations between approximately 3,000 and…

  • Jibāl ?uwayq (mountains, Saudi Arabia)

    Riyadh: City site: …and highest of these, the ?uwayq Mountains. With a length of some 800 miles (1,300 km), the ?uwayq Mountains constitute the backbone of the most densely settled part of Najd, of which Riyadh is a part; the topography of Riyadh itself, however, is relatively flat. Soils in and around the…

  • Jibarito, El (Puerto Rican baseball player)

    Latin Americans in Major League Baseball Through the First Years of the 21st Century: The 1930s through World War II: …(“El Jibarito” [“the Little Hick”]) Rodríguez Olmo. Revered on the island and throughout the Caribbean, particularly in Cuba, where he played in the winter of 1947–48, Rodríguez Olmo became a legend in Caribbean baseball. While a major leaguer, he had a creditable career, with a batting average of .281 for…

  • Jibāwīyah (?ūfī order)

    Rifā?īyah: …branch of the order, the Sa?dīyah (or Jibāwīyah), was given its form by Sa?d ad-Dīn al-Jibāwī in Damascus sometime in the 14th century. Among the Sa?dīyah, ecstasy was induced by physical motion—whirling around on the right heel—and the sheikh, or head of the order, rode on horseback over the prone…

  • jibbing (sports)

    snowboarding: Urban and jibbing: …“grind anything” approach of skateboarding, jibbing is a freestyle snowboarding technique that consists of riding on any surface other than snow. Most common surfaces include metal rails, boxes, benches, concrete ledges, walls, rocks, and logs. It typically occurs in a snowboard resort park, but it is also pursued in urban…

  • Jibran, Khalil (Lebanese-American author)

    Khalil Gibran, Lebanese American philosophical essayist, novelist, poet, and artist. Having received his primary education in Beirut, Gibran immigrated with his parents to Boston in 1895. He returned to Lebanon in 1898 and studied in Beirut, where he excelled in the Arabic language. On his return

  • Jibrīl (archangel)

    Jibrīl, in Islam, the archangel who acts as intermediary between God and humans and as bearer of revelation to the prophets, most notably to Muhammad. In biblical literature Gabriel is the counterpart to Jibrīl. Muhammad was not initially aware that Gabriel was his intermediary, and the Qur?ān

  • Jibrīl ibn ?Umar (Muslim leader)

    Usman dan Fodio: Early years: …southern Saharan city of Agadez, Jibrīl ibn ?Umar, a radical figure whom Usman both respected and criticized and by whom he was admitted to the Qādirī and other ?ūfī orders.

  • Jibrīl, A?mad (Palestinian militant leader)

    Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine: … (PFLP-GC) established in 1968 by A?mad Jibrīl. Each of these factions engaged in guerrilla activity against Israel and often undertook acts of terrorism against the Jewish state and Western interests. The PFLP itself carried out or organized many notorious attacks against Israeli and Western targets, most notably the hijacking and…

  • Jibril, Mahmoud (interim prime minister of Libya)

    Libya: Establishment of the General National Congress: …a secular party led by Mahmoud Jibril, a former TNC official and interim prime minister, won the largest number of seats. On August 8 the TNC formally handed over power to the GNC.

  • Jībūtī (national capital, Djibouti)

    Djibouti, port city and capital of the Republic of Djibouti. It lies on the southern shore of the Gulf of Tadjoura, which is an inlet of the Gulf of Aden. Built on three level areas (Djibouti, Serpent, Marabout) linked by jetties, the city has a mixture of old and modern architecture. Menilek

  • Jībūtī, Jumhūrīyah

    Djibouti, small strategically located country on the northeast coast of the Horn of Africa. It is situated on the Bab el Mandeb Strait, which lies to the east and separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden. Formerly known as French Somaliland (1896–1967) and the French Territory of the Afars and

  • jícama (plant)

    Jícama, (Pachyrhizus erosus), leguminous vine of the pea family (Fabaceae), grown for its edible tubers. Jícama is native to Mexico and Central and South America and is an important local food crop. Some varieties (known as jícama de aqua in Spanish) have clear juices, and some (jícama de leche)

  • jícama de aqua (plant)

    jícama: Some varieties (known as jícama de aqua in Spanish) have clear juices, and some (jícama de leche) have milky juice. Both types of tubers are mild-flavoured and usually are eaten raw in salads or sprinkled with lime juice and powdered chili peppers as a snack. Jícama can also be…

  • jícama de leche (plant)

    jícama: …clear juices, and some (jícama de leche) have milky juice. Both types of tubers are mild-flavoured and usually are eaten raw in salads or sprinkled with lime juice and powdered chili peppers as a snack. Jícama can also be cooked. Although the very young seedpods of the plant are…

  • Jicaque (people)

    Jicaque, Indians of the northwest coast of Honduras. Their culture is similar to that of the Sumo and Miskito of northeastern Nicaragua. The Jicaque are an agricultural people, growing sweet manioc (yuca), bitter manioc, beans, and corn (maize) as staples. Fishing and hunting provide other food;

  • Jicaque language

    Mesoamerican Indian languages: The classification and status of Mesoamerican languages:

  • Jicarilla Apache (people)

    Jicarilla Apache, North American Indian tribe living in the southwestern United States, one of several loosely organized autonomous bands of the Eastern Apache. Their traditional lands included parts of present-day Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The Jicarilla lived in wickiups—dwellings made

  • Jichen (Buddhist monk)

    Jien, learned Buddhist monk and poet who became the first great Japanese historian. Born into the highest order of the powerful, aristocratic Fujiwara family, he early in life entered a monastery of the Tendai Buddhist sect, first taking the priestly name Dōkai and later the name Jien. He soon

  • jidai-geki (film genre)

    history of the motion picture: Japan: …efficiency by specializing in either jidai-geki, period films set before 1868 (the year marking the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, 1868–1912, and the abolition of the feudal shogunate), or gendai-geki, films of contemporary life, set any time thereafter. Although, as a matter of geopolitical circumstance, there was hardly any export…

  • Jidai-matsuri (Japanese festival)

    Kyōto: Cultural life: The Jidai-matsuri (“Festival of the Ages”) is a parade depicting, in period costume, Japan’s entire history. The Gion-matsuri (Gion Festival) dates from the 9th century and features more than 30 elaborate, carefully preserved, hand-drawn floats, some decorated with French Gobelin tapestries imported through Nagasaki during Tokugawa…

  • jidaimono (Japanese theatre)

    Kabuki: Subject, purpose, and conventions: …between the historical play (jidaimono) and the domestic play (sewamono). A Kabuki program generally presents them in that order, separated by one or two dance plays featuring ghosts, courtesans, and other exotic creatures. It ends with a lively dance finale (ōgiri shosagoto) with a large cast.

  • Jidda (Saudi Arabia)

    Jeddah, city and major port in central Hejaz region, western Saudi Arabia. It lies along the Red Sea west of Mecca. The principal importance of Jeddah in history is that it constituted the port of Mecca and was thus the site where the majority of Muslim pilgrims landed while journeying to the holy

  • Jidda International Airport (airport, Jidda, Saudi Arabia)

    Gordon Bunshaft: …and Support Complex at the Jidda International Airport (Jidda, Saudi Arabia, 1981), which relied on the long-span structural designs of fellow Skidmore architect Fazlur R. Khan.

  • Jiddah (Saudi Arabia)

    Jeddah, city and major port in central Hejaz region, western Saudi Arabia. It lies along the Red Sea west of Mecca. The principal importance of Jeddah in history is that it constituted the port of Mecca and was thus the site where the majority of Muslim pilgrims landed while journeying to the holy

  • Jiddah (island, Bahrain)

    Bahrain: Land: …the King Fahd Causeway), and Jiddah. The second group consists of the ?awār Islands, which are situated near the coast of Qatar, about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Bahrain Island; a dispute with Qatar over ownership of the islands was resolved in 2001, when the International Court of Justice…

  • Jiddah, Treaty of (United Kingdom-Saudi Arabia [1927])

    Jeddah: In the 1927 Treaty of Jeddah the British recognized Saudi sovereignty over the Hejaz and Najd regions. Jeddah eventually was incorporated into Saudi Arabia. In 1947 the city walls were demolished, and rapid expansion followed. The city takes its name (which means “ancestress” or “grandmother”) from the location…

  • jiehua (Chinese art)

    gongbi: A term related to gongbi, jiehua, or “boundary painting,” refers to the accurate depiction of architectural forms with the aid of a ruler. One of the masters of gongbi is the 16th-century painter Qiu Ying.

  • Jieitai (Japanese armed force)

    Self-Defense Force, Japan’s military after World War II. In Article 9 of Japan’s postwar constitution, the Japanese renounced war and pledged never to maintain land, sea, or air forces. The rearming of Japan in the 1950s was therefore cast in terms of self-defense. In 1950 a small military force

  • Jien (Buddhist monk)

    Jien, learned Buddhist monk and poet who became the first great Japanese historian. Born into the highest order of the powerful, aristocratic Fujiwara family, he early in life entered a monastery of the Tendai Buddhist sect, first taking the priestly name Dōkai and later the name Jien. He soon

  • Jieng (people)

    Dinka, people who live in the savanna country surrounding the central swamps of the Nile basin primarily in South Sudan. They speak a Nilotic language classified within the Eastern Sudanic branch of the Nilo-Saharan languages and are closely related to the Nuer. Numbering some 4,500,000 in the

  • Jieshidiao youlan (Chinese music work)

    qin: …of the textual score of Jieshidiao youlan (“Secluded Orchid in Jieshi Mode”) from the Tang dynasty (618–907), which was handed down by Qiu Ming (494–590).

  • Jifārah, al- (plain, Africa)

    Al-Jifārah, coastal plain of northern Africa, on the Mediterranean coast of extreme northwestern Libya and of southeastern Tunisia. Roughly semicircular, it extends from Qābis (Gabes), Tunisia, to about 12 miles (20 km) east of Tripoli, Libya. Its maximum inland extent is approximately 80 miles

  • jig (dance)

    Jig, folk dance, usually solo, that was popular in Scotland and northern England in the 16th and 17th centuries and in Ireland since the 18th century. It is an improvised dance performed with rapid footwork and a rigid torso. In England jigs were sometimes danced across crossed flails and clay

  • jig (theatre)

    Lazzo, (Italian: “joke”, ) improvised comic dialogue or action in the commedia dell’arte. The word may have derived from lacci (Italian: “connecting link”), comic interludes performed by the character Arlecchino (Harlequin) between scenes, but is more likely a derivation of le azioni (“actions”).

  • jig-rtenskyong (Hindu and Buddhist mythology)

    Lokapāla, in Hindu and Buddhist mythology, any of the guardians of the four cardinal directions. They are known in Tibetan as ’jig-rtenskyong, in Chinese as t’ien-wang, and in Japanese as shi-tennō. The Hindu protectors, who ride on elephants, are Indra, who governs the east, Yama the south, Varu?a

  • jigai (suicide)

    seppuku: …also committed ritual suicide, called jigai, but, instead of slicing the abdomen, they slashed their throats with a short sword or dagger.

  • Jigat (India)

    Dwarka, town, southwestern Gujarat state, west-central India. It lies on the western shore of the Okhamandal Peninsula, a small western extension of the Kathiawar Peninsula. Dwarka was the legendary capital of the god Krishna, who founded it after his flight from Mathura. Its consequent sanctity

  • Jigawa (state, Nigeria)

    Jigawa, state, northern Nigeria. It was created from the northeastern half of Kano state in 1991. Jigawa borders the Republic of Niger to the north and the Nigerian states of Yobe to the northeast, Bauchi to the southeast and south, Kano to the southwest, and Katsina to the northwest. The state

  • jigg (burlesque entertainment)

    Music in Shakespeare's Plays: The vocal music: Jiggs (bawdy, half-improvised low-comedy burlesques) were put on at the conclusion of a history play or tragedy. They involved from two to five characters, were sung to popular melodies (such as “Walsingham” and “Rowland”), and were accompanied by the fiddle or cittern (a small wire-strung…

  • jigger flea (insect)

    mamey apple: …used locally for destroying skin-infesting chigoe fleas, and the bitter resinous seeds are used as an antiworming agent.

  • jiggering (ceramics)

    whiteware: Processing: …addition to these standard processes, jiggering is employed in the manufacture of tableware. Jiggering involves the mixing of a plastic mass and turning it on a wheel beneath a template to a specified size and shape.

  • Jiggery-Pokery: A Compendium of Double Dactyls (work by Hecht and Hollander)

    double dactyls: According to the introduction to Jiggery-Pokery: A Compendium of Double Dactyls (1967), edited by the poets Anthony Hecht and John Hollander, this single word should appear “somewhere in the poem, though preferably in the second stanza, and ideally in the antepenultimate line,” though that ambivalence has, for some, hardened into…

  • jigging (industrial process)

    mineral processing: Gravity separation: In the process called jigging, a water stream is pulsed, or moved by pistons upward and downward, through the material bed. Under the influence of this oscillating motion, the bed is separated into layers of different densities, the heaviest concentrate forming the lowest layer and the lightest product the…

  • jigging puppet

    puppetry: Other types: …representation is provided by the jigging puppets, or marionnettes à la planchette, that were, during the 18th and 19th centuries, frequently performed at street corners throughout Europe. These small figures were made to dance, more or less accidentally, by the slight variations in the tension of a thread passing through…

  • jiggle TV (television programming)

    Television in the United States: Jiggle TV: The escapist fare of the late 1970s, however, was not the same as that which had dominated in the days before All in the Family. The relevance programs had brought on a relaxation of industry and public attitudes regarding appropriate television content, and…

  • Jigme Dorji National Park (park, Bhutan)

    Bhutan: Plant and animal life: The extensive Jigme Dorji National Park (1974), in northwestern Bhutan, is unique in spanning all three of the country’s climate zones.

  • Jigoku (Japanese Buddhism)

    Jigoku, in Japanese Buddhism, hell, a region popularly believed to be composed of a number of hot and cold regions located under the Earth. Jigoku is ruled over by Emma-ō, the Japanese lord of death, who judges the dead by consulting a register in which are entered all of their sins. He is

  • Jigoku-zōshi (Japanese scroll)

    Jigoku: The Jigoku-zōshi, a late 12th-century scroll, depicts the 8 great hells and the 16 lesser hells in both text and paintings.

  • Jigokumon (film Kinugasa [1953])

    Daiei Motion Picture Company: …directed by Mizoguchi Kenji; and Gate of Hell (1953–54), the first Japanese film to use colour, eased the company’s financial difficulties. Despite its transition to wide-screen productions in the 1950s, the Daiei company was forced to declare bankruptcy in December 1971.

  • jigs and fixtures (tools)

    Jigs and fixtures, Components of machine-tool installations, specially designed in each case to position the workpiece, hold it firmly in place, and guide the motion of the power tool (e.g., a punch press). Jigs can also be guides for tools or templates, as in the furniture industry. Special

  • jigsaw (tool)

    saw: The power jigsaw, or scroll saw, does mechanically the same irregular cutting as the hand coping saw. The straight, narrow blade is mounted vertically between a pulsating lower shaft and a reciprocating upper shaft, which together move the blade rapidly up and down. Power hacksaws, driven by…

  • jigsaw puzzle

    Jigsaw puzzle, any set of varied, irregularly shaped pieces that, when properly assembled, form a picture or map. The puzzle is so named because the picture, originally attached to wood and later to paperboard, was cut into its pieces with a jigsaw, which cuts intricate lines and curves. Jigsaw

  • Jigu suanjing (work by Wang Xiaotong)

    Wang Xiaotong: About 630 Wang finished his Jigu suanjing (“Continuation of Ancient Mathematics”), of which he was so proud that, in his dedication to the emperor Li Shimin, son and successor of Li Yuan, he promised to award 1,000 taels of silver to whoever could find a single mistake in it. All…

  • jiguan (philosophy)

    Tiantai: …doctrine is summarized as the triple truth, or jiguan (“perfected comprehension”): (1) all things (dharmas) lack ontological reality; (2) they, nevertheless, have a temporary existence; (3) they are simultaneously unreal and temporarily existing—being the middle, or absolute, truth, which includes and yet surpasses the others. The three truths are considered…

  • Jih-k’a-tse (China)

    Xigazê, city, south-central Tibet Autonomous Region, western China. Situated on a well-defended height (elevation 12,800 feet [3,900 metres]) overlooking the confluence of two rivers in one of the most fertile valley areas of Tibet, it is the traditional centre of the area known as Tsang or

  • jihad (Islam)

    Jihad, (Arabic: “struggle” or “effort”) in Islam, a meritorious struggle or effort. The exact meaning of the term jihād depends on context; it has often been erroneously translated in the West as “holy war.” Jihad, particularly in the religious and ethical realm, primarily refers to the human

  • jihād (Islam)

    Jihad, (Arabic: “struggle” or “effort”) in Islam, a meritorious struggle or effort. The exact meaning of the term jihād depends on context; it has often been erroneously translated in the West as “holy war.” Jihad, particularly in the religious and ethical realm, primarily refers to the human

  • Jihad, al- (Egyptian extremist organization)

    Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Egyptian extremist organization that originated in the late 1970s and developed into a powerful force in the 1980s and 1990s. Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) allied with the al-Qaeda network in the late 1990s, and the two groups merged in 2001. EIJ coalesced out of a

  • jihād, al- (Islam)

    Jihad, (Arabic: “struggle” or “effort”) in Islam, a meritorious struggle or effort. The exact meaning of the term jihād depends on context; it has often been erroneously translated in the West as “holy war.” Jihad, particularly in the religious and ethical realm, primarily refers to the human

  • Jihān Shāh (Turkmen leader)

    Jahān Shāh, leader (c. 1438–67) of the Turkmen Kara Koyunlu (“Black Sheep”) in Azerbaijan. Under Jahān Shāh’s rule the Kara Koyunlu extended their domain over Iraq, Fārs, and E?fahān (1453). In 1458 he invaded Khorāsān and seized Herāt from the Timurid Abū Sa?īd, but the growing power of the Ak

  • Jihannuma (work by Katip ?elebi)

    Katip ?elebi: His Jihannuma (“View of the World”) is a geographical work that makes the first use, in Turkey, of European atlases and other sources. Tuhfat al-Kibar fi Asfar il-Bahar (Eng. trans. of chapters I-IV, The Maritime Wars of the Turks) is a history of the Ottoman navy;…

  • Jihe tongjie (work by Mei Wending)

    Mei Wending: 300 bc) in his Jihe tongjie (“Complete Explanation of Geometry”), by reference to the chapter devoted to right-angled triangles in Jiuzhang suanshu (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Procedures), a mathematical classic completed during the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220). Mei helped rehabilitate traditional Chinese mathematics, and he was most…

  • Jihei (Japanese artist)

    Suzuki Harunobu, Japanese artist of the Ukiyo-e movement (paintings and wood-block prints of the “floating world”), who established the art of nishiki-e, or polychrome prints. He created a fashion for pictures of lyrical scenes with figures of exquisite grace. It is believed that Harunobu studied

  • Jihlava (Czech Republic)

    Jihlava, city, south-central Czech Republic. It lies in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, along the Jihlava River. From about 1240, its prosperity rested on its silver mines. A royal mint operated there from about 1260, and a codified town mining law (Ius Regale Montanorum) served as a model for

  • Jihlava Heights (mountains, Czech Republic)

    Bohemian-Moravian Highlands: …are two highland areas: the Jihlava Heights (Jihlavské vrchy) to the south rise to 2,746 feet (837 m) at Javo?ice, and the ?d’ár Heights (?d’árské vrchy) to the north rise to 2,743 feet (836 m) at Devět skal. On the Moravian side, the Drahanská vrchovina group of limestone hills contains…

  • Jihlavské vrchy (mountains, Czech Republic)

    Bohemian-Moravian Highlands: …are two highland areas: the Jihlava Heights (Jihlavské vrchy) to the south rise to 2,746 feet (837 m) at Javo?ice, and the ?d’ár Heights (?d’árské vrchy) to the north rise to 2,743 feet (836 m) at Devět skal. On the Moravian side, the Drahanská vrchovina group of limestone hills contains…

  • jiifto (style of poetry)

    African literature: Somali: …the gabay, usually chanted, the jiifto, also chanted and usually moody, the geeraar, short and dealing with war, the buraambur, composed by women, the heello, or balwo, made up of short love poems and popular on the radio, and the hees, popular poetry. Maxamed

  • Jijel (Algeria)

    Jijel, town and roadstead port, northeastern Algeria, on the Mediterranean seacoast and the western edge of the Collo Kabylie region. The city of Jijel, originally a Phoenician trading post, passed successively to the Romans (as Igilgili), the Arabs, and, in the 16th century, to the pirate Khayr

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