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  • Jackson, Glenda (British actress and politician)

    Glenda Jackson, British actress and Labour Party politician who was a member of the House of Commons (1992–2015). As an actress on stage and screen, she was noted for her tense portrayals of complex women. The daughter of a bricklayer, Jackson quit school at age 16 to join an amateur theatre group

  • Jackson, Helen Hunt (American author)

    Helen Hunt Jackson, American poet and novelist best known for her novel Ramona. She was the daughter of Nathan Fiske, a professor at Amherst (Mass.) College. She lived the life of a young army wife, traveling from post to post, and after the deaths of her first husband, Captain Edward Hunt, and her

  • Jackson, Helen Maria Hunt (American author)

    Helen Hunt Jackson, American poet and novelist best known for her novel Ramona. She was the daughter of Nathan Fiske, a professor at Amherst (Mass.) College. She lived the life of a young army wife, traveling from post to post, and after the deaths of her first husband, Captain Edward Hunt, and her

  • Jackson, Henry (American boxer)

    Henry Armstrong, American boxer, the only professional boxer to hold world championship titles in three weight divisions simultaneously. Armstrong fought as an amateur from 1929 to 1932. Early in his career he boxed under the name Melody Jackson. He first won the featherweight (126-pound) title by

  • Jackson, Henry M. (United States senator)

    Henry M. Jackson , U.S. Democratic senator known for his anticommunist views and as an advocate of high defense spending during the Cold War. He grew up in Everett, Washington, and practiced law after earning a law degree from the University of Washington in Seattle in 1935. Having served as a

  • Jackson, Henry Martin (United States senator)

    Henry M. Jackson , U.S. Democratic senator known for his anticommunist views and as an advocate of high defense spending during the Cold War. He grew up in Everett, Washington, and practiced law after earning a law degree from the University of Washington in Seattle in 1935. Having served as a

  • Jackson, Howell E. (United States jurist)

    Howell E. Jackson, American lawyer and associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1893–95). Jackson practiced law in the towns of Jackson and Memphis, Tenn., until the outbreak of the American Civil War, during which he served the Confederacy as a receiver of sequestered property. He

  • Jackson, Howell Edmunds (United States jurist)

    Howell E. Jackson, American lawyer and associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1893–95). Jackson practiced law in the towns of Jackson and Memphis, Tenn., until the outbreak of the American Civil War, during which he served the Confederacy as a receiver of sequestered property. He

  • Jackson, Jackie (American musician)

    Michael Jackson: …of the Jackson 5 were Jackie Jackson (byname of Sigmund Jackson; b. May 4, 1951, Gary), Tito Jackson (byname of Toriano Jackson; b. October 15, 1953, Gary), Jermaine Jackson (b. December 11, 1954, Gary), and Marlon Jackson (b. March 12, 1957, Gary).

  • Jackson, Jak (British cartoonist)

    Jak Jackson, British political cartoonist whose irreverent Evening Standard drawings entertained Londoners for some 30 years; he claimed he was the first to produce a caricature of Queen Elizabeth II, and one of his cartoons nearly caused the paper’s pressmen to walk out (b. March 11, 1927--d. July

  • Jackson, James (American manufacturer)

    cereal processing: Origins: James Jackson of Dansville, N.Y., produced a cereal food by baking whole-meal dough in thin sheets, breaking and regrinding into small chunks, rebaking and regrinding. J.H. Kellogg of Battle Creek made biscuits about one-half inch thick from a dough mixture of wheatmeal, oatmeal, and cornmeal.…

  • Jackson, Janet (American entertainer)

    Janet Jackson, American singer and actress whose increasingly mature version of dance-pop music made her one of the most popular recording artists of the 1980s and ’90s. The youngest of nine siblings in Motown’s famed Jackson family, Janet Jackson parlayed her family’s success into an independent

  • Jackson, Jermaine (American musician)

    Michael Jackson: October 15, 1953, Gary), Jermaine Jackson (b. December 11, 1954, Gary), and Marlon Jackson (b. March 12, 1957, Gary).

  • Jackson, Jesse (American minister and activist)

    Jesse Jackson, American civil rights leader, Baptist minister, and politician whose bids for the U.S. presidency (in the Democratic Party’s nomination races in 1983–84 and 1987–88) were the most successful by an African American until 2008, when Barack Obama captured the Democratic presidential

  • Jackson, Jesse, Jr. (American politician)

    Jesse Jackson: His son Jesse Jackson, Jr., served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1995–2012).

  • Jackson, Jimmie Lee (American civil rights activist)

    Selma March: Voter registration in Selma: …Selma, a state trooper shot Jimmie Lee Jackson, a young African American man, during a nighttime demonstration. After Jackson died of his wounds just over a week later in Selma, leaders called for a march to the state capital, Montgomery, to bring attention to the injustice of Jackson’s death, the…

  • Jackson, John (American guitarist)

    John Jackson, American blues guitarist (born Feb. 25, 1924, Woodville, Va.—died Jan. 20, 2002, Fairfax, Va.), was considered a master of the Piedmont blues tradition. While playing guitar for friends at a gas station in Fairfax, Va., in 1964, Jackson was discovered by University of Virginia f

  • Jackson, John (English boxer)

    John Jackson, English bare-knuckle boxer who was influential in securing acceptance of prizefighting as a legitimate sport in England. Jackson was an amateur boxer of some repute, but he appeared in only three public matches. The third match, on April 15, 1795, against Daniel Mendoza, won him the

  • Jackson, John Hughlings (British physician)

    John Hughlings Jackson, British neurologist whose studies of epilepsy, speech defects, and nervous-system disorders arising from injury to the brain and spinal cord helped to define modern neurology. Jackson was physician to the National Hospital for the Paralyzed and Epileptic, London (1862–1906),

  • Jackson, Joseph Jefferson (American baseball player)

    Shoeless Joe Jackson, American professional baseball player, by many accounts one of the greatest, who was ultimately banned from the game because of his involvement in the 1919 Black Sox Scandal. Born into extreme poverty, Jackson began work in a cotton mill when he was barely six and never went

  • Jackson, Lamar (American football player)

    Baltimore Ravens: Behind second-year quarterback Lamar Jackson, the Ravens took the league by storm in 2019, using a dynamic offensive scheme to set an NFL record with 3,296 team rushing yards and posting a franchise-best 14–2 record. However, Baltimore suffered a stunning playoff defeat in its opening game, losing to…

  • Jackson, Laura (American poet and critic)

    Laura Riding, American poet, critic, and prose writer who was influential among the literary avant-garde during the 1920s and ’30s. From 1918 to 1921 Riding attended Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., and soon her poetry began to gain attention. Early on she came to be associated with the Fugitives,

  • Jackson, Mahalia (American singer)

    Mahalia Jackson, American gospel music singer, known as the “Queen of Gospel Song.” Jackson was brought up in a strict religious atmosphere. Her father’s family included several entertainers, but she was forced to confine her own musical activities to singing in the church choir and

  • Jackson, Margaret Mary (British politician)

    Margaret Beckett, British politician who served as foreign secretary of the United Kingdom (2006–07), the first woman to hold the post. She briefly served (1994) as leader of the Labour Party, the first woman to hold that post. Beckett trained as a scientist, graduating from the Manchester College

  • Jackson, Marjorie (Australian athlete)

    Marjorie Jackson, Australian athlete who won two Olympic gold medals and tied or set 13 world records. During the early 1950s, when Australians dominated women’s sprint events, Jackson was the most outstanding Australian sprinter. Jackson, known as the “Lithgow Flash” after her hometown, was just

  • Jackson, Marlon (American musician)

    Michael Jackson: December 11, 1954, Gary), and Marlon Jackson (b. March 12, 1957, Gary).

  • Jackson, Mary (American artist)

    sweetgrass basket: Those made by Mary Jackson, who won a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Museum of Women in the Arts in 1993 and a MacArthur Foundation fellowship in 2008, showed her to be foremost among the artists creating sweetgrass baskets in the early 21st century.

  • Jackson, Mary (American mathematician and engineer)

    Mary Jackson, American mathematician and aerospace engineer who in 1958 became the first African American female engineer to work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). She was born and raised in Hampton, Virginia. After graduating from high school with highest honours, she

  • Jackson, Maynard (mayor of Atlanta)

    Maynard Jackson, American lawyer and politician, who was the first African American mayor of Atlanta, Georgia, serving three terms (1974–82 and 1990–94). Jackson’s father was a Baptist minister, his mother a professor of French. He entered Morehouse College through a special-entry program and

  • Jackson, Maynard Holbrook, Jr. (mayor of Atlanta)

    Maynard Jackson, American lawyer and politician, who was the first African American mayor of Atlanta, Georgia, serving three terms (1974–82 and 1990–94). Jackson’s father was a Baptist minister, his mother a professor of French. He entered Morehouse College through a special-entry program and

  • Jackson, Melody (American boxer)

    Henry Armstrong, American boxer, the only professional boxer to hold world championship titles in three weight divisions simultaneously. Armstrong fought as an amateur from 1929 to 1932. Early in his career he boxed under the name Melody Jackson. He first won the featherweight (126-pound) title by

  • Jackson, Mercy Ruggles Bisbe (American physician and educator)

    Mercy Ruggles Bisbe Jackson, American physician and educator, a pioneer in the struggle for the admission of women to the practice of medicine. Mercy Ruggles received what was for the time a good education. In June 1823 she married the Reverend John Bisbe, with whom she moved to Hartford,

  • Jackson, Michael (British journalist)

    Michael Jackson, British journalist and beer aficionado (born March 27, 1942, Wetherby, Yorks., Eng.—died Aug. 30, 2007, London, Eng.), became the world’s best-known evangelist for the pleasures of beer, especially English real ale and the wide variety of beers brewed in Belgium. Through his

  • Jackson, Michael (American singer, songwriter, and dancer)

    Michael Jackson, American singer, songwriter, and dancer who was the most popular entertainer in the world in the early and mid-1980s. Reared in Gary, Indiana, in one of the most acclaimed musical families of the rock era, Michael Jackson was the youngest and most talented of five brothers whom his

  • Jackson, Michael Joe (American singer, songwriter, and dancer)

    Michael Jackson, American singer, songwriter, and dancer who was the most popular entertainer in the world in the early and mid-1980s. Reared in Gary, Indiana, in one of the most acclaimed musical families of the rock era, Michael Jackson was the youngest and most talented of five brothers whom his

  • Jackson, Michael Joseph (American singer, songwriter, and dancer)

    Michael Jackson, American singer, songwriter, and dancer who was the most popular entertainer in the world in the early and mid-1980s. Reared in Gary, Indiana, in one of the most acclaimed musical families of the rock era, Michael Jackson was the youngest and most talented of five brothers whom his

  • Jackson, Milt (American musician)

    Milt Jackson, American jazz musician, the first and most influential vibraphone improviser of the postwar, modern jazz era. Jackson began playing the vibraphone (also called vibes or vibraharp) professionally at age 16. He attended Michigan State University and joined Dizzy Gillespie’s sextet in

  • Jackson, Milton (American musician)

    Milt Jackson, American jazz musician, the first and most influential vibraphone improviser of the postwar, modern jazz era. Jackson began playing the vibraphone (also called vibes or vibraharp) professionally at age 16. He attended Michigan State University and joined Dizzy Gillespie’s sextet in

  • Jackson, O’Shea, Sr. (American rapper and actor)

    Ice Cube, American rapper and actor whose membership in the seminal gangsta rap group N.W.A gained him acclaim and launched his controversial but successful solo career. Ice Cube is known by hip-hop critics and fans as one of the greatest and most influential rappers of all time; to many others, he

  • Jackson, Peter (New Zealand director)

    Peter Jackson, New Zealand director, perhaps best known for his film adaptations of J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. When Jackson was eight years old, his parents bought an 8-mm movie camera, and he began making short films. He later purchased a used 16-mm camera and, with his

  • Jackson, Peter (Australian boxer)

    Peter Jackson, an outstanding professional boxer. A victim of racial discrimination (Jackson was black), he was denied a chance to fight for the world heavyweight championship while in his prime. Jackson won the Australian heavyweight championship in 1886 and the British Empire title in 1892. On

  • Jackson, Phil (American basketball player and coach)

    Phil Jackson, American professional basketball player, coach, and executive. Employing an unorthodox New Age coaching style grounded in Eastern philosophy and Native American mysticism, he coached his teams to a record 11 National Basketball Association (NBA) championships. Jackson spent most of

  • Jackson, Philip Douglas (American basketball player and coach)

    Phil Jackson, American professional basketball player, coach, and executive. Employing an unorthodox New Age coaching style grounded in Eastern philosophy and Native American mysticism, he coached his teams to a record 11 National Basketball Association (NBA) championships. Jackson spent most of

  • Jackson, Rachel (wife of Andrew Jackson)

    Rachel Jackson, wife of U.S. Army general and president-elect Andrew Jackson, who became the seventh president of the United States (1829–37). She died less than three months before his inauguration. Rachel, the daughter of Colonel John Donelson, a surveyor, and Rachel Stockley Donelson, enjoyed an

  • Jackson, Rachel Donelson Robards (wife of Andrew Jackson)

    Rachel Jackson, wife of U.S. Army general and president-elect Andrew Jackson, who became the seventh president of the United States (1829–37). She died less than three months before his inauguration. Rachel, the daughter of Colonel John Donelson, a surveyor, and Rachel Stockley Donelson, enjoyed an

  • Jackson, Randy (American music producer)

    American Idol: …star Paula Abdul, music producer Randy Jackson, and British music executive Simon Cowell. During the auditions the judges critiqued the performers in a predictable manner: Abdul’s comments were typically sympathetic, Jackson’s humorous, and Cowell’s biting. After American Idol’s first season (2002), Dunkleman left the program, and Seacrest became its sole…

  • Jackson, Raymond Allen (British cartoonist)

    Jak Jackson, British political cartoonist whose irreverent Evening Standard drawings entertained Londoners for some 30 years; he claimed he was the first to produce a caricature of Queen Elizabeth II, and one of his cartoons nearly caused the paper’s pressmen to walk out (b. March 11, 1927--d. July

  • Jackson, Reggie (American baseball player)

    Reggie Jackson, American professional baseball player whose outstanding performance in World Series games earned him the nickname “Mr. October.” Jackson was encouraged in sports by his father and became a star athlete at Cheltenham High School in Pennsylvania, excelling in track and football as

  • Jackson, Reginald Martinez (American baseball player)

    Reggie Jackson, American professional baseball player whose outstanding performance in World Series games earned him the nickname “Mr. October.” Jackson was encouraged in sports by his father and became a star athlete at Cheltenham High School in Pennsylvania, excelling in track and football as

  • Jackson, Robert (brother of Andrew Jackson)

    The Rise of Andrew Jackson: Youth and Adulthood: …had emigrated with their sons Robert (b. 1765) and Hugh (b. 1763) to colonial North America from County Antrim in what is now Northern Ireland. They settled among kin and other Scots-Irish immigrants in a region called the Waxhaws after its original Indian inhabitants. Remote and thinly populated with scrubby…

  • Jackson, Robert H. (United States jurist)

    Robert H. Jackson, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–54). An adept scholar, Jackson pleaded his first case by special permission while still a minor and was admitted to the bar at the age of 21. He served as corporation counsel for Jamestown, New York, and, after the stock

  • Jackson, Robert Houghwout (United States jurist)

    Robert H. Jackson, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–54). An adept scholar, Jackson pleaded his first case by special permission while still a minor and was admitted to the bar at the age of 21. He served as corporation counsel for Jamestown, New York, and, after the stock

  • Jackson, Ronald Shannon (American musician)

    Ronald Shannon Jackson, American percussionist (born Jan. 12, 1940, Fort Worth, Texas—died Oct. 19, 2013, Fort Worth), was most noted for his drumming with Ornette Coleman and for creating original polyphonic fusions of free jazz, funk, and rock music in conjunction with his own Decoding Society

  • Jackson, Samuel L. (American actor)

    Samuel L. Jackson, American actor who was especially known for his work in action blockbusters and his films with directors Spike Lee (notably Do the Right Thing [1989] and Jungle Fever [1991]) and Quentin Tarantino (Pulp Fiction [1994] and Django Unchained [2012]). Jackson was raised by his

  • Jackson, Samuel Leroy (American actor)

    Samuel L. Jackson, American actor who was especially known for his work in action blockbusters and his films with directors Spike Lee (notably Do the Right Thing [1989] and Jungle Fever [1991]) and Quentin Tarantino (Pulp Fiction [1994] and Django Unchained [2012]). Jackson was raised by his

  • Jackson, Scoop (United States senator)

    Henry M. Jackson , U.S. Democratic senator known for his anticommunist views and as an advocate of high defense spending during the Cold War. He grew up in Everett, Washington, and practiced law after earning a law degree from the University of Washington in Seattle in 1935. Having served as a

  • Jackson, Sheldon (American clergyman)

    Sheldon Jackson, American Presbyterian minister and educator, generally regarded as the foremost apostle of Presbyterianism in America. Jackson attended Union College and the Princeton Theological Seminary. From 1859 to 1869 he was a missionary in Wisconsin and Minnesota, organizing more than 20

  • Jackson, Shirley (American author)

    Shirley Jackson, American novelist and short-story writer best known for her story “The Lottery” (1948). Jackson graduated from Syracuse University in 1940 and married the American literary critic Stanley Edgar Hyman. They settled in North Bennington in 1945. Life Among the Savages (1953) and

  • Jackson, Shirley Hardie (American author)

    Shirley Jackson, American novelist and short-story writer best known for her story “The Lottery” (1948). Jackson graduated from Syracuse University in 1940 and married the American literary critic Stanley Edgar Hyman. They settled in North Bennington in 1945. Life Among the Savages (1953) and

  • Jackson, Shoeless Joe (American baseball player)

    Shoeless Joe Jackson, American professional baseball player, by many accounts one of the greatest, who was ultimately banned from the game because of his involvement in the 1919 Black Sox Scandal. Born into extreme poverty, Jackson began work in a cotton mill when he was barely six and never went

  • Jackson, Sigmund (American musician)

    Michael Jackson: …of the Jackson 5 were Jackie Jackson (byname of Sigmund Jackson; b. May 4, 1951, Gary), Tito Jackson (byname of Toriano Jackson; b. October 15, 1953, Gary), Jermaine Jackson (b. December 11, 1954, Gary), and Marlon Jackson (b. March 12, 1957, Gary).

  • Jackson, Sir Frederick (British explorer)

    Fridtjof Nansen: Early life: …way to Spitsbergen they encountered Frederick Jackson and his party of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition, on June 17, and returned to Norway in his ship Windward, reaching Vard? on August 13. The Fram also reached Norway safely, having drifted north to 85°57′. Nansen and his companions on board the Fram were…

  • Jackson, Sir Henry Bradwardine (British naval officer)

    Sir Henry Bradwardine Jackson, British naval officer responsible for the development of radio telegraphy in the British Navy. Jackson joined the Royal Navy at the age of 13 and was promoted through the ranks to admiral of the fleet in 1919. Naval duties sparked his interest in problems of

  • Jackson, Sir Peter Robert (New Zealand director)

    Peter Jackson, New Zealand director, perhaps best known for his film adaptations of J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. When Jackson was eight years old, his parents bought an 8-mm movie camera, and he began making short films. He later purchased a used 16-mm camera and, with his

  • Jackson, Stonewall (Confederate general)

    Stonewall Jackson, Confederate general in the American Civil War, one of its most skillful tacticians, who gained his sobriquet “Stonewall” by his stand at the First Battle of Bull Run (called First Manassas by the South) in 1861. The early death of his father, who left little support for the

  • Jackson, Thomas Jonathan (Confederate general)

    Stonewall Jackson, Confederate general in the American Civil War, one of its most skillful tacticians, who gained his sobriquet “Stonewall” by his stand at the First Battle of Bull Run (called First Manassas by the South) in 1861. The early death of his father, who left little support for the

  • Jackson, Tito (American musician)

    Michael Jackson: May 4, 1951, Gary), Tito Jackson (byname of Toriano Jackson; b. October 15, 1953, Gary), Jermaine Jackson (b. December 11, 1954, Gary), and Marlon Jackson (b. March 12, 1957, Gary).

  • Jackson, Toriano (American musician)

    Michael Jackson: May 4, 1951, Gary), Tito Jackson (byname of Toriano Jackson; b. October 15, 1953, Gary), Jermaine Jackson (b. December 11, 1954, Gary), and Marlon Jackson (b. March 12, 1957, Gary).

  • Jackson, Vincent Edward (American baseball and football player)

    Bo Jackson, American athlete who starred for the Kansas City Royals of Major League Baseball and the Los Angeles Raiders of the National Football League (NFL) during his short but storied professional career and who is widely considered one of the greatest all-around athletes in history. Jackson’s

  • Jackson, Walter (American publisher)

    Encyclop?dia Britannica: Ninth edition: Hooper, who with another publisher, Walter M. Jackson, bought out the other two partners in 1900 and purchased the Encyclop?dia Britannica outright from A. and C. Black in 1901. Hooper’s advertisements had not concealed the fact that he was selling books originally printed a number of years previously, and in…

  • Jackson, Wanda (American singer)

    Wanda Jackson, American country singer who also achieved substantial success in rock and roll and earned the sobriquet “the Queen of Rockabilly.” Jackson began singing on a daily Oklahoma City radio show in 1952, when she was still in high school. In 1954 country singer Hank Thompson invited her to

  • Jackson, Wanda Lavonne (American singer)

    Wanda Jackson, American country singer who also achieved substantial success in rock and roll and earned the sobriquet “the Queen of Rockabilly.” Jackson began singing on a daily Oklahoma City radio show in 1952, when she was still in high school. In 1954 country singer Hank Thompson invited her to

  • Jackson, William (British composer)

    William Jackson, English composer and writer on music, whose opera The Lord of the Manor (1780) held the stage for many years. Jackson was organist and choirmaster at Exeter cathedral from 1777. His best-known other compositions are Twelve Songs (1755) and Twelve Canzonets for Two Voices (c. 1770).

  • Jackson, William Henry (American photographer)

    William Henry Jackson, American photographer and artist whose landscape photographs of the American West helped popularize the region. Jackson grew up in far-northeastern New York state, where he learned to draw and to paint. As a teen, he got jobs downstate in Troy and later in Rutland, Vermont,

  • Jackson-Nelson, Marjorie (Australian athlete)

    Marjorie Jackson, Australian athlete who won two Olympic gold medals and tied or set 13 world records. During the early 1950s, when Australians dominated women’s sprint events, Jackson was the most outstanding Australian sprinter. Jackson, known as the “Lithgow Flash” after her hometown, was just

  • Jackson-Sherman weathering stages (mineralogy)

    soil: Time: …collectively as the set of Jackson-Sherman weathering stages (see the table). Each downward increment through the table corresponds to increasing mineral residence time, both among and within the three principal stages (early, intermediate, and advanced).

  • Jackson–Vanik Amendment (United States [1973])

    20th-century international relations: The distraction of Watergate: The Stevenson and Jackson–Vanik amendments imposed conditions (regarding Soviet policy on Jewish emigration) on administration plans to expand trade with the U.S.S.R. In 1974–75 Congress prevented the President from involving the United States in a crisis in Cyprus or aiding anti-Communist forces in Angola and passed the Arms…

  • Jacksonburgh (Michigan, United States)

    Jackson, city, seat (1832) of Jackson county, south-central Michigan, U.S. It lies along the Grand River, about 75 miles (120 km) west of Detroit. Settled in 1829 at the meeting point of several Indian trails, it was named for U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson and was known successively as Jacksonburgh,

  • Jacksonian Democracy (United States history)

    United States: Jacksonian democracy: Nevertheless, American politics became increasingly democratic during the 1820s and ’30s. Local and state offices that had earlier been appointive became elective. Suffrage was expanded as property and other restrictions on voting were reduced or abandoned in most states.…

  • jacksonian epilepsy (pathology)

    epilepsy: Partial-onset seizures: Jacksonian seizures are partial seizures that begin in one part of the body such as the side of the face, the toes on one foot, or the fingers on one hand. The jerking movements then spread to other muscles on the same side of the…

  • jacksonian fit (pathology)

    epilepsy: Partial-onset seizures: Jacksonian seizures are partial seizures that begin in one part of the body such as the side of the face, the toes on one foot, or the fingers on one hand. The jerking movements then spread to other muscles on the same side of the…

  • Jacksonian Party (political party, United States)

    Democratic Party, in the United States, one of the two major political parties, the other being the Republican Party. The Democratic Party has changed significantly during its more than two centuries of existence. During the 19th century the party supported or tolerated slavery, and it opposed

  • Jacksonopolis (Michigan, United States)

    Jackson, city, seat (1832) of Jackson county, south-central Michigan, U.S. It lies along the Grand River, about 75 miles (120 km) west of Detroit. Settled in 1829 at the meeting point of several Indian trails, it was named for U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson and was known successively as Jacksonburgh,

  • Jacksons, the (American singing group)

    Michael Jackson: …child stars known as the Jackson 5. In addition to Michael, the members of the Jackson 5 were Jackie Jackson (byname of Sigmund Jackson; b. May 4, 1951, Gary), Tito Jackson (byname of Toriano Jackson; b. October 15, 1953, Gary), Jermaine Jackson (b. December 11, 1954, Gary), and Marlon Jackson…

  • Jacksonville (Florida, United States)

    Jacksonville, city, seat (1822) of Duval county, northeastern Florida, U.S., the centre of Florida’s “First Coast” region. It lies along the St. Johns River near its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean, about 25 miles (40 km) south of the Georgia border. Jacksonville consolidated (1968) with most of Duval

  • Jacksonville (Illinois, United States)

    Jacksonville, city, seat (1825) of Morgan county, west-central Illinois, U.S. It lies about 35 miles (55 km) west of Springfield. Laid out in 1825 as the county seat by Johnston Shelton, the county surveyor, and named in honour of U.S. President Andrew Jackson (some have also said that the city’s

  • Jacksonville (North Carolina, United States)

    Jacksonville, city, seat (1755) of Onslow county, southeastern North Carolina, U.S. It lies along the New River at the head of its estuary, about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Wilmington. Originally settled as Wantland’s Ferry (c. 1757), its name was changed to Onslow Courthouse and then

  • Jacksonville (Oregon, United States)

    Jacksonville, city, Jackson county, southwestern Oregon, U.S. It lies along Jackson Creek, just west of Medford, in the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains. It began in 1851–52 as a mining camp with placer gold discoveries along the creek (named for a prospector). By the 1920s mining activities had

  • Jacksonville (Arkansas, United States)

    Jacksonville, city, Pulaski county, central Arkansas, U.S., 15 miles (24 km) northeast of Little Rock. The locality was settled before the American Civil War but did not develop until the 1860s, when a local resident, Nicholas Jackson, offered land for a Cairo and Fulton (now Union Pacific)

  • Jacksonville Jaguars (American football team)

    Jacksonville Jaguars, American professional gridiron football team based in Jacksonville, Florida, that plays in the American Football Conference (AFC) of the National Football League (NFL). The Jaguars began play in 1995 as an expansion team alongside the Carolina Panthers of the National Football

  • jackstones (game)

    Jacks, game of great antiquity and worldwide distribution, now played with stones, bones, seeds, filled cloth bags, or metal or plastic counters (the jacks), with or without a ball. The name derives from “chackstones”—stones to be tossed. The knuckle, wrist, or ankle bones (astragals) of goats,

  • jackstraws (game)

    Pick-up-sticks, game of skill, played by both children and adults, with thin wooden sticks or with straws or matches. In the early 18th century sticks were made of ivory or bone; later they were made of wood or plastic. To begin the game, 20 to 50 sticks are bunched in one hand and set vertically

  • Jacmel (Haiti)

    Jacmel, town and port, on the southern coast of Haiti, 24 miles (39 km) southwest of Port-au-Prince across the Tiburon Peninsula. Situated on a hillside overlooking palm-fringed Jacmel Bay, the town flourished under the French as a port for transshipment of sugar, coffee, and cotton. It continues

  • Jaco (island, East Timor)

    East Timor: …islands of Atauro (Kambing) and Jaco, and the enclave of Ambeno, including the town of Pante Makasar, on the northwestern coast of Timor. Dili is the capital and largest city.

  • Jacob (Hebrew patriarch)

    Jacob, Hebrew patriarch who was the grandson of Abraham, the son of Isaac and Rebekah, and the traditional ancestor of the people of Israel. Stories about Jacob in the Bible begin at Genesis 25:19. According to the Old Testament, Jacob was the younger twin brother of Esau, who was the ancestor of E

  • Jacob (Congo)

    Nkayi, town (commune), southwestern Congo. It lies west of the capital, Brazzaville, and northeast of the port of Pointe-Noire, on the Brazzaville–Pointe-Noire railway; its airport has scheduled flights to both cities. Nkayi is the major sugar-producing centre in the Niari River valley agricultural

  • Jacob (duke of Courland)

    Baltic states: The early modern age: Duke Jacob (1642–82) actively fostered trade and industry and created a navy. He acquired two colonies: Tobago in the West Indies and a settlement in Gambia on the west coast of Africa.

  • Jacob ben Asher (Spanish scholar)

    Jacob ben Asher, Jewish scholar whose codification of Jewish law was considered standard until the publication in 1565 of the Shul?an ?arukh (“The Well-Laid Table”) by Joseph Karo. Little of certainty is known about Jacob’s life. In 1303 he immigrated to Spain with his brothers and father, the

  • Jacob ben Hayim ibn Adonijah (editor)

    biblical literature: Printed editions: The second edition, edited by Jacob ben Hayyim ibn Adonijah and issued by Bomberg in four volumes (Venice, 1524/25), became the prototype of future Hebrew Bibles down to the 20th century. It contained a vast text-critical apparatus of Masoretic notes never since equalled in any edition. Unfortunately, Ben Hayyim had…

  • Jacob ben Isaac Ashkenazi (Polish writer)

    Yiddish literature: Old Yiddish literature: Tsenerene) by Jacob ben Isaac Ashkenazi. The text is a loose paraphrase of the biblical passages that are read in the synagogue: the Five Books of Moses, the supplementary readings (haftarot), and the five scrolls (megillot). First published about 1600, Tsenerene incorporated a wide selection of commentaries…

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