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  • Jugoslavija, Savezna Republika (former federated nation [1929–2003])

    Yugoslavia, former federated country that was situated in the west-central part of the Balkan Peninsula. This article briefly examines the history of Yugoslavia from 1929 until 2003, when it became the federated union of Serbia and Montenegro (which further separated into its component parts in

  • Jugoslavija, Socijalisticka Federativna Republika (former federated nation [1929–2003])

    Yugoslavia, former federated country that was situated in the west-central part of the Balkan Peninsula. This article briefly examines the history of Yugoslavia from 1929 until 2003, when it became the federated union of Serbia and Montenegro (which further separated into its component parts in

  • Jugoslavija, Socijalisticna Federativna Republika (former federated nation [1929–2003])

    Yugoslavia, former federated country that was situated in the west-central part of the Balkan Peninsula. This article briefly examines the history of Yugoslavia from 1929 until 2003, when it became the federated union of Serbia and Montenegro (which further separated into its component parts in

  • jugs (instrument)

    Geophone, trade name for an acoustic detector that responds to ground vibrations generated by seismic waves. Geophones—also called jugs, pickups, and tortugas—are placed on the ground surface in various patterns, or arrays, to record the vibrations generated by explosives in seismic reflection and

  • jugular foramen (anatomy)

    human skeleton: Interior of the cranium: Through other openings, the jugular foramina, pass the large blood channels called the sigmoid sinuses and also the 9th (glossopharyngeal), 10th (vagus), and 11th (spinal accessory) cranial nerves as they leave the cranial cavity.

  • jugular vein (anatomy)

    Jugular vein, any of several veins of the neck that drain blood from the brain, face, and neck, returning it to the heart via the superior vena cava. The main vessels are the external jugular vein and the interior jugular vein. The external jugular vein receives blood from the neck, the outside of

  • jugum (Roman tax)

    Diocletian: Domestic reforms: …new taxes were instituted, the jugum and the capitatio, the former being the tax on a unit of cultivable land, the latter, a tax on individuals. Taxes were levied on a proportional basis, the amount of the contribution being determined by the productivity and type of cultivation. As a rule,…

  • jugum (lepidopteran wing)

    lepidopteran: Thorax: In primitive moths a fingerlike lobe on the forewing overlaps the base of the hind wing. In most moths a strong bristle or cluster of bristles (frenulum) near the base of the hind wing engages a catch (retinaculum) on the forewing. In some moths and in the skippers and butterflies,…

  • jūgun ianfu (Asian history)

    Comfort women, a euphemism for women who provided sexual services to Japanese Imperial Army troops during Japan’s militaristic period that ended with World War II and who generally lived under conditions of sexual slavery. Estimates of the number of women involved typically range up to 200,000, but

  • Jugurtha (king of Numidia)

    Jugurtha, king of Numidia from 118 to 105, who struggled to free his North African kingdom from Roman rule. Jugurtha was the illegitimate grandson of Masinissa (d. 148), under whom Numidia had become a Roman ally, and the nephew of Masinissa’s successor, Micipsa. Jugurtha became so popular among

  • Jugurthine War, The (monograph by Sallust)

    Sallust: …monograph, Bellum Jugurthinum (41–40 bc; The Jugurthine War), he explored in greater detail the origins of party struggles that arose in Rome when war broke out against Jugurtha, the king of Numidia, who rebelled against Rome at the close of the 2nd century bc. This war provided the opportunity for…

  • Ju?ā (legendary figure)

    Islamic arts: Popular literature: …type of low-class theologian, called Nasreddin Hoca in Turkish, Ju?ā in Arabic, and Mushfiqī in Tajik. Anecdotes about this character, which embody the mixture of silliness and shrewdness displayed by this “type,” have amused generations of Muslims.

  • Juha (work by Aho)

    Juhani Aho: His soundest romantic work, Juha (1911), is the story of the unhappy marriage of a cripple in the Karelian forests. Aho’s short stories, Lastuja, 8 series (1891–1921; “Chips”), have been most enduring; they are concerned with peasant life, fishing, and the wildlife of the lakelands. In these, as in…

  • Juhannus (holiday)

    Midsummer’s Eve, holiday celebrating the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice (June 21). Midsummer’s Eve is observed in several countries. It is a national holiday in Sweden and Finland. In Sweden the holiday is officially observed on a Friday between June 19th

  • Juhaymān al-?Utaybī (Saudi religious extremist)

    Saudi Arabia: Reign of Khālid (1975–82): …of a Saudi religious extremist, Juhaymān al-?Utaybī, who had been educated by the Saudi religious establishment and was a former member of the National Guard. Juhaymān protested what he saw as the un-Islamic behaviour of the Saudi royal family. The rebels occupied the mosque for two weeks before they were…

  • Juhaynah (people)

    Sudan: Ethnic groups: …are the Jalayin and the Juhaynah. The Jalayin encompasses the sedentary agriculturalists along the middle Nile from Dongola south to Khartoum and includes such tribes as the Jalayin tribe proper, the Shāyqiyyah, and the Rubtab. The Juhaynah, by contrast, traditionally consisted of nomadic tribes, although some of them have now…

  • juhhal (Druze rank)

    ?uqqāl: …numbers, who are known as juhhāl (“the ignorant”), as well as from the outside world. Any Druze man or woman deemed worthy after serious scrutiny is eligible for admission into the ?uqqāl.

  • Jui (people)

    Buyei, an official minority group inhabiting large parts of Guizhou province in south-central China. They call themselves Jui or Yoi. There are also some 50,000 Buyei living in Vietnam, where they are an official nationality. They had no written script of their own until 1956, when the Chinese

  • Jui-tsung (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Ruizong, temple name (miaohao) of the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. He was placed on the throne by his mother, the future empress Wuhou, in 684, before she decided to set him aside and rule the country herself in 690. This was the first such usurpation in Chinese history. Although

  • juice (food product)

    sugar: Purification: Raw juice (containing 10 to 14 percent sucrose) is purified in a series of liming and carbonatation steps, often with filtration or thickening being conducted between the first and second carbonatation. One popular multistage system involves cold pre-liming followed by cold main liming, hot main liming,…

  • juice extraction (food processing)

    fruit processing: Juice extraction: Fruit is prepared for juice extraction by removing unwanted parts. This may include pitting operations for stone fruit such as apricots, cherries, or plums or peeling for such fruits as pineapples. In one large class of fruit, citrus fruit, juice extraction and…

  • juice harp (musical instrument)

    Jew’s harp, musical instrument consisting of a thin wood or metal tongue fixed at one end to the base of a two-pronged frame. The player holds the frame to his mouth, which forms a resonance cavity, and activates the instrument’s tongue by either plucking it with the fingers or jerking a string

  • Juice! (novel by Reed)

    Ishmael Reed: … (1989), Japanese by Spring (1993), Juice! (2011), and Conjugating Hindi (2018). He also wrote numerous volumes of poetry and collections of essays, the latter of which included Barack Obama and the Jim Crow Media (2010) and Going Too Far: Essays About America’s Nervous Breakdown (2012). Six of his plays, including…

  • Juicy J (American rap-music producer and performer)
  • Juif errant, Le (work by Sue)

    Eugène Sue: …Misérables—and Le Juif errant (1844–45; The Wandering Jew). Published in installments, these long but exciting novels vastly increased the circulation of the newspapers in which they appeared. Both books display Sue’s powerful imagination, exuberant narrative style, and keen dramatic sense. These qualities, along with Sue’s realistic and sympathetic depictions of…

  • Juifves, Les (play by Garnier)

    Robert Garnier: …his two masterpieces, Bradamante and Les Juifves. In Bradamante, the first important French tragicomedy, which alone of his plays has no chorus, he turned from Senecan models and sought his subject in Ludovico Ariosto. The romantic story becomes an effective drama in Garnier’s hands. Although the lovers, Bradamante and Roger,…

  • Juigalpa (Nicaragua)

    Juigalpa, city, central Nicaragua. It is situated on the flanks of the Sierras de Amerrique, in the rift valley in which Lakes Nicaragua and Managua are situated. The city is an agricultural and commercial centre: sugarcane, coffee, grain, and livestock are the principal products. The city contains

  • Juillet, Révolution de (French history)

    July Revolution, (1830), insurrection that brought Louis-Philippe to the throne of France. The revolution was precipitated by Charles X’s publication (July 26) of restrictive ordinances contrary to the spirit of the Charter of 1814. Protests and demonstrations were followed by three days of

  • Juilliard School (school, New York City, New York, United States)

    Juilliard School, internationally renowned school of the performing arts in New York, New York, U.S. It is now the professional educational arm of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. The Juilliard School offers bachelor’s degrees in music, dance, and drama and postgraduate degrees in music.

  • Juilliard String Quartet (American musical group)

    Juilliard School: …is also noted for the Juilliard String Quartet, founded in 1946 and important to the development of chamber music in the United States. Total enrollment is approximately 1,400.

  • Juilliard v. Greenman (law case)

    Horace Gray: In his most notable opinion, Juilliard v. Greenman (1884), Gray upheld the right of the federal government to make paper money legal tender for the payment of private debt even in times of peace, a procedure previously considered constitutional only as an emergency war measure.

  • Juilliard, Augustus D. (American banker and industrialist)

    Augustus D. Juilliard, banker and industrialist who bequeathed the bulk of his multimillion dollar fortune for the advancement of musical education and opera production in the U.S. Born of French parents who emigrated to the U.S., he was raised in Ohio and became a director of several leading

  • Juin, Alphonse (French general)

    Alphonse Juin, officer of the French army who became a leading Free French commander in World War II. The son of a policeman in Algeria, Juin was educated at the military academy of Saint-Cyr and, during World War I, served as captain with Moroccan forces and later as chief of staff to Marshal

  • Juive, La (opera by Halévy)

    Fromental Halévy: …whose five-act grand opera La Juive (1835; “The Jewess”) was, with Giacomo Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots, the prototype of early French grand opera.

  • Juiz de Fora (Brazil)

    Juiz de Fora, city, southeastern Minas Gerais estado (state), Brazil. It is situated in the deep Paraibuna River valley between the Org?os and Mantiqueira ranges. Formerly known as Paraibuna, Juiz de Fora is the centre of a highly developed agricultural region producing rice, bananas, sugarcane,

  • Jujhār Singh (Orchha chief)

    India: The Deccan problem: …next rebellion was led by Jujhar Singh, a Hindu chief of Orchha, in Bundelkhand, who commanded the crucial passage to the Deccan. Jujhar was compelled to submit after his kinsman Bharat Singh defected and joined the Mughals. His refusal to comply with subsequent conditions led, after a protracted conflict, to…

  • Jujiro (film by Kinugasa)

    Kinugasa Teinosuke: Jūjiro (1928; Crossways), was the most famous Japanese silent film. Kinugasa dispensed with chronological construction, using flashbacks to simulate the state of mind of the hero. The picture is also exceptional because of the gloominess of the drab gray setting and the experimental camera technique…

  • jujitsu (martial art)

    Jujitsu, form of martial art and method of fighting that makes use of few or no weapons and employs holds, throws, and paralyzing blows to subdue an opponent. It evolved among the warrior class (bushi, or samurai) in Japan from about the 17th century. Designed to complement a warrior’s

  • juju (magic)

    Juju, an object that has been deliberately infused with magical power or the magical power itself; it also can refer to the belief system involving the use of juju. Juju is practiced in West African countries such as Nigeria, Benin, Togo, and Ghana, although its assumptions are shared by most

  • juju (music)

    Juju, Nigerian popular music that developed from the comingling of Christian congregational singing, Yoruba vocal and percussion traditions, and assorted African and Western popular genres. The music gained a significant international following in the 1980s largely owing to its adoption and

  • Jūjū shinron (work by Kūkai)

    Kūkai: His major work, the Jūjū shinron (“The Ten Stages of Consciousness”), written in Chinese in a poetic style, classified Confucianism, Taoism, and all the existing Buddhist literature into 10 stages, the last and highest stage being that of Shingon philosophy. That work assured Kūkai a leading rank among the…

  • jujube (tree)

    Jujube, either of two species of small spiny trees of the genus Ziziphus (family Rhamnaceae) and their fruit. Jujube fruits are eaten fresh, dried, boiled, stewed, and baked and are used to flavour tea. When made into glacé fruits by boiling in honey and sugar syrup, they resemble Persian dates and

  • jujutsu (martial art)

    Jujitsu, form of martial art and method of fighting that makes use of few or no weapons and employs holds, throws, and paralyzing blows to subdue an opponent. It evolved among the warrior class (bushi, or samurai) in Japan from about the 17th century. Designed to complement a warrior’s

  • Jujuy (province, Argentina)

    Jujuy, provincia (province), extreme northwestern Argentina, bordering Chile (west) and Bolivia (north). San Salvador de Jujuy, in the far southeast, is the provincial capital. Jujuy encompasses several cordilleras of the Andes Mountains—reaching elevations of 16,500 feet (5,000 metres) and

  • Jukagir (people)

    Yukaghir, remnant of an ancient human population of the tundra and taiga zones of Arctic Siberia east of the Lena River in Russia, an area with one of the most severe climates in the inhabited world. Brought close to extinction by privation, encroachment, and diseases introduced by other groups,

  • jukebox (music)

    music recording: Birth of a mass medium: …mainly on dance records in jukeboxes to satisfy a dwindled market, Europe supplied a slow but steady trickle of classical recordings. In 1931 the His Master’s Voice (HMV) label in Great Britain began its “Society” issues: a limited public was asked to subscribe in advance to then esoteric releases—the complete…

  • Juksakka (Scandinavian deity)

    Madderakka: …Uksakka, the door woman; and Juksakka, the bow woman—who watch over the development of the child from conception through early childhood. Madderakka was believed to receive the soul of a child from Veralden-radien, the world ruler deity, and to give it a body, which Sarakka would then place in the…

  • juku (Japanese tutoring school)

    Juku, Japanese privately run, after-hours tutoring school geared to help elementary and secondary students perform better in their regular daytime schoolwork and to offer cram courses in preparation for university entry examinations. Juku (from gakushū juku, “tutoring school”) range from individual

  • Jukun (people)

    Jukun, a people living on the upper Benue River in Nigeria, commonly believed to be descendants of the people of Kororofa, one of the most powerful Sudanic kingdoms during the late European Middle Ages. The ruins of a great settlement to the northeast of the Jukun’s present location are thought to

  • Jula (people)

    Dyula, people of western Africa who speak a Mande language of the Niger-Congo language family. Most are Muslims, and they have long been noted as commercial traders. The Dyula were active gold traders as long ago as the time of the ancient African kingdom of Ghana. They flourished under the empire

  • Julandā ibn Mas?ūd, al- (Ibā?ī imam)

    history of Arabia: Oman: …the first Ibā?ite imam, al-Julandā ibn Mas?ūd, was elected at about the beginning of the Abbasid caliphate. After the Ibā?ite invasion of southern Arabia in 893, Oman wavered between independence and subjection to the Abbasids and their Būyid or Seljuq supporters. By the 12th century the Seljuq hold had…

  • Julemysteriet (novel by Gaarder)

    Jostein Gaarder: Gaarder’s next novel, Julemysteriet (1992; The Christmas Mystery), was a journey through the history of Christianity, while I et speil, I en gate (1993; Through a Glass, Darkly), which took its title from a line in the First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians, was written as a dialogue between…

  • Jules and Jim (film by Truffaut [1962])

    Jules and Jim, French film, released in 1962, that is the definitive New Wave movie by director Fran?ois Truffaut. It epitomizes the type of groundbreaking cinema that originated in Europe during the postwar years through the 1960s. The simple tale concerns a love triangle involving three young

  • Jules et Jim (film by Truffaut [1962])

    Jules and Jim, French film, released in 1962, that is the definitive New Wave movie by director Fran?ois Truffaut. It epitomizes the type of groundbreaking cinema that originated in Europe during the postwar years through the 1960s. The simple tale concerns a love triangle involving three young

  • Jules Rimet Trophy (soccer)

    World Cup: …1930 to 1970 was the Jules Rimet Trophy, named for the Frenchman who proposed the tournament. This cup was permanently awarded in 1970 to then three-time winner Brazil (1958, 1962, and 1970), and a new trophy called the FIFA World Cup was put up for competition. Many other sports have…

  • Jules Verne (spacecraft)

    Automated Transfer Vehicle: The first ATV, Jules Verne, named after the French author, was launched on March 9, 2008.

  • Jules Verne Trophy (yachting race)

    Bruno Peyron: …(1993, 2002, 2005) of the Jules Verne Trophy for the fastest trip around the world under sail.

  • Juli, El (Spanish bullfighter)

    El Juli, Spanish matador, who created a sensation in the bullfighting world at the end of the 20th century. López was nine years old when he caped his first calf, and his parents, recognizing his talent, enrolled him in the Madrid Academy of Tauromachy, where he excelled for four years. Because of

  • Julia (American television series)

    Television in the United States: The new cultural landscape: The Bill Cosby Show (1969–71), Julia (1968–71), and The Flip Wilson Show (1970–74) were among the first programs to feature African Americans in starring roles since the stereotyped presentations of Amos ’n’ Andy and Beulah (ABC, 1950–53). Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In was proving, as had The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour

  • Julia (film by Zinnemann [1977])

    Fred Zinnemann: Last films: Julia (1977), a much warmer film based on a portion of playwright Lillian Hellman’s memoirs, starred Jane Fonda as Hellman and Vanessa Redgrave as the title character, a noble activist who enlists her friend Hellman to aid in her efforts against the Nazis. Jason Robards…

  • Julia (daughter of Augustus)

    Julia, the Roman emperor Augustus’ only child, whose scandalous behaviour eventually caused him to exile her. Julia’s mother was Scribonia, who was divorced by Augustus when the child was a few days old. Julia was brought up strictly, her every word and action being watched. After a brief marriage

  • Julia (daughter of Julius Caesar)

    Pompey the Great: The First Triumvirate: …who now married Caesar’s daughter, Julia, saw Caesar as his necessary instrument. Caesar, once consul, immediately forced through a land bill and, shortly after, another appropriating public lands in Campania. Once he had secured a five-year command in Illyria and Gaul he could be relied on to take off a…

  • Julia and Julia (film by Del Monte [1987])

    Sting: Solo career: (1979), Dune (1984), and Julia and Julia (1987). During the 1980s Sting also became recognized for his interest in social causes. He performed at Live Aid, a benefit concert for famine relief in Ethiopia, in 1985, and in 1986 and 1988 he performed at the Amnesty International concerts for…

  • Julia Augusta (Roman patrician)

    Livia Drusilla, Caesar Augustus’s devoted and influential wife who counseled him on affairs of state and who, in her efforts to secure the imperial succession for her son Tiberius, was reputed to have caused the deaths of many of his rivals, including Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Gaius and Lucius

  • Julia Domna (Roman emperor)

    Julia Domna, second wife of the Roman emperor Septimius Severus (reigned 193–211) and a powerful figure in the regime of his successor, the emperor Caracalla. Julia was a Syrian (Domna being her Syrian name) and was the daughter of the hereditary high priest Bassianus at Emesa (present-day ?im?) in

  • Julia Libyca (Spain)

    Llívia, town and enclave of Spanish territory in the French département (department) of Pyrénées-Orientales, administratively part of the provincia (province) of Girona, Spain. The area was named Julia Libyca by the Romans, and the name evolved into Julia Livia and, finally, Llívia. It lay within

  • Julia Livia (Spain)

    Llívia, town and enclave of Spanish territory in the French département (department) of Pyrénées-Orientales, administratively part of the provincia (province) of Girona, Spain. The area was named Julia Libyca by the Romans, and the name evolved into Julia Livia and, finally, Llívia. It lay within

  • Julia Maesa (Roman aristocrat)

    Julia Maesa, sister-in-law of the Roman emperor Septimius Severus and an influential power in the government of the empire who managed to make two of her grandsons emperors. Julia was the daughter of the hereditary high priest Bassianus at Emesa in Syria (Maesa was her Syrian name), and she married

  • Julia Mamaea (Roman aristocrat)

    Julia Mamaea, mother of the Roman emperor Severus Alexander and the dominant power in his regime. Mamaea was the daughter of Julia Maesa and niece of the former emperor Septimius Severus. Maesa persuaded her grandson Elagabalus (emperor 218–222) to adopt Mamaea’s son Alexander and make him caesar

  • Julia Misbehaves (film by Conway [1948])

    Jack Conway: The 1940s: Finally, there was Julia Misbehaves (1948), a playful comedy with Pidgeon and Greer Garson as the bickering parents of a bride-to-be (Elizabeth Taylor). Conway, who suffered from illness in the last years of his life, subsequently retired from directing.

  • Julia Molina (Dominican Republic)

    Nagua, city, northern Dominican Republic, located just north of the mouth of the Nagua River, facing Escocesa Bay, on the Atlantic Ocean. Nagua is located on the main coastal road connecting the main cities of the region. The major functions of the city are administrative and agricultural,

  • Julia Municipalis, Lex (Roman law)

    epigraphy: Ancient Rome: …found at Rome; Julius Caesar’s Lex Julia Municipalis of 45 bce was found near Heraclea in Lucania. On the whole, however, the transmission of Roman law, from the earliest fragments to the mature codifications, is nonepigraphic. In later times the flood of administrative decrees increases with the growth of centralized…

  • Julia Neapolis (city, West Bank)

    Nāblus, city in the West Bank. It lies in an enclosed, fertile valley and is the market centre of a natural oasis that is watered by numerous springs. Founded under the auspices of the Roman emperor Vespasian in 72 ce and originally named Flavia Neapolis, the city prospered in particular because of

  • Julia set (mathematics)

    Gaston Maurice Julia: …and the latter to the Julia set of the iteration. Julia showed that, except in the simplest cases, the Julia set is infinite, and he described how it is related to the periodic points of the iteration (those that return to themselves after a certain number of iterations). In some…

  • Julia Taurinorum (Italy)

    Turin, city, capital of Torino provincia and of Piemonte (Piedmont) regione, northwestern Italy. It is located on the Po River near its junction with the Sangone, Dora Riparia, and Stura di Lanzo rivers. The original settlement of Taurisia, founded by the Taurini, was partly destroyed by the

  • Julia y Arcelay, Raúl Rafael Carlos (American actor)

    Raul Julia, (RAúL RAFAEL CARLOS JULIA Y ARCELAY), Puerto Rican-born U.S. actor (born March 9, 1940, San Juan, P.R.—died Oct. 24, 1994, New York, N.Y.), was a dashing and handsome Latin stage and film star, whose versatility stretched from drama to farcical comedy; his compelling film performance a

  • Julia, Gaston Maurice (French mathematician)

    Gaston Maurice Julia, one of the two main inventors of iteration theory and the modern theory of fractals. Julia emerged as a leading expert in the theory of complex number functions in the years before World War I. In 1915 he exhibited great bravery in the face of a German attack in which he lost

  • Julia, Raul (American actor)

    Raul Julia, (RAúL RAFAEL CARLOS JULIA Y ARCELAY), Puerto Rican-born U.S. actor (born March 9, 1940, San Juan, P.R.—died Oct. 24, 1994, New York, N.Y.), was a dashing and handsome Latin stage and film star, whose versatility stretched from drama to farcical comedy; his compelling film performance a

  • Julian (Roman emperor)

    Julian, Roman emperor from ad 361 to 363, nephew of Constantine the Great, and noted scholar and military leader who was proclaimed emperor by his troops. A persistent enemy of Christianity, he publicly announced his conversion to paganism in 361, thus acquiring the epithet “the Apostate.” Julian

  • Julian (bishop of Halicarnassus)

    Aphthartodocetism: …extreme; it was proclaimed by Julian, bishop of Halicarnassus, who asserted that the body of Christ was divine and therefore naturally incorruptible and impassible; Christ, however, was free to will his sufferings and death voluntarily. Severus, patriarch of Antioch, himself a condemned Monophysite, vigorously challenged Julian on the ground that…

  • Julian (Christian missionary)

    Sudan: Medieval Christian kingdoms: …Christianity by the work of Julian, a missionary who proselytized in Nobatia (543–545), and his successor Longinus, who between 569 and 575 consolidated the work of Julian in Nobatia and even carried Christianity to ?Alwah in the south. The new religion appears to have been adopted with considerable enthusiasm. Christian…

  • Julian (novel by Vidal)

    Gore Vidal: …returned to writing novels with Julian (1964), a sympathetic fictional portrait of Julian the Apostate, the 4th-century pagan Roman emperor who opposed Christianity. He published a revised version of The City and the Pillar in 1965. Washington, D.C. (1967), an ironic examination of political morality in the U.S. capital, was…

  • Julian Alps (mountains, Europe)

    Julian Alps, range of the Eastern Alps, extending southeastward from the Carnic Alps and the town of Tarvisio in northeastern Italy to near the city of Ljubljana in Slovenia. Composed mainly of limestone, the mountains are bounded by the Fella River and Sella di (Pass of) Camporosso (northwest) and

  • Julian Assange: The Unauthorised Autobiography (memoir by Assange)

    Julian Assange: Early WikiLeaks activity and legal issues: ” Assange’s memoir, Julian Assange: The Unauthorised Autobiography, was published against his wishes in September 2011. Assange had received a sizable advance payment for the book, but he withdrew his support for the project after sitting for some 50 hours of interviews, and the resulting manuscript, although at…

  • Julian Bream Consort (music group)

    Julian Bream: In 1961 he organized the Julian Bream Consort, one of the first groups to specialize in early ensemble music. The Consort is composed of violin, alto flute, bass viol, pandora, cittern, and lute. Composers who wrote music for Bream include Benjamin Britten, William Walton, and Malcolm Arnold. Another great influence…

  • Julian calendar (chronology)

    Julian calendar, dating system established by Julius Caesar as a reform of the Roman republican calendar. By the 40s bce the Roman civic calendar was three months ahead of the solar calendar. Caesar, advised by the Alexandrian astronomer Sosigenes, introduced the Egyptian solar calendar, taking the

  • Julian day (chronology)

    Julian period, chronological system now used chiefly by astronomers and based on the consecutive numbering of days from Jan. 1, 4713 bc. Not to be confused with the Julian calendar, the Julian period was proposed by the scholar Joseph Justus Scaliger in 1583 and named by him for his father, Julius

  • Julian of Eclanum (bishop of Eclanum)

    Julian Of Eclanum, bishop of Eclanum who is considered to be the most intellectual leader of the Pelagians (see Pelagianism). Julian was married c. 402, but upon the death of his wife he was ordained and c. 417 succeeded his father, Memorius, as bishop by appointment of Pope St. Innocent I. An

  • Julian of Norwich (English mystic)

    Julian of Norwich, celebrated mystic whose Revelations of Divine Love (or Showings) is generally considered one of the most remarkable documents of medieval religious experience. She spent the latter part of her life as a recluse at St. Julian’s Church, Norwich. On May 13, 1373, Julian was healed

  • Julian period (chronology)

    Julian period, chronological system now used chiefly by astronomers and based on the consecutive numbering of days from Jan. 1, 4713 bc. Not to be confused with the Julian calendar, the Julian period was proposed by the scholar Joseph Justus Scaliger in 1583 and named by him for his father, Julius

  • Julian the Apostate (Roman emperor)

    Julian, Roman emperor from ad 361 to 363, nephew of Constantine the Great, and noted scholar and military leader who was proclaimed emperor by his troops. A persistent enemy of Christianity, he publicly announced his conversion to paganism in 361, thus acquiring the epithet “the Apostate.” Julian

  • Julian, Académie (art institution, France)

    Henri Matisse: Formative years: …enrolled in the privately run Académie Julian, where the master was the strictly academic William-Adolphe Bouguereau. That Matisse should have begun his studies in such a conservative school may seem surprising, and he once explained the fact by saying that he was acting on the recommendation of a Saint-Quentin painter…

  • Julian, George W. (American politician)

    George W. Julian, American reform politician who began as an abolitionist, served in Congress as a Radical Republican during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, and later championed woman suffrage and other liberal measures. After a public school education and a brief stint as a

  • Julian, George Washington (American politician)

    George W. Julian, American reform politician who began as an abolitionist, served in Congress as a Radical Republican during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, and later championed woman suffrage and other liberal measures. After a public school education and a brief stint as a

  • Julian, Percy (American chemist)

    Percy Julian, American chemist, synthesist of cortisone, hormones, and other products from soybeans. Percy Julian attended De Pauw University (A.B., 1920) and Harvard University (M.A., 1923) and studied under Ernst Sp?th, who synthesized nicotine and ephedrine, at the University of Vienna (Ph.D.,

  • Julian, Percy Lavon (American chemist)

    Percy Julian, American chemist, synthesist of cortisone, hormones, and other products from soybeans. Percy Julian attended De Pauw University (A.B., 1920) and Harvard University (M.A., 1923) and studied under Ernst Sp?th, who synthesized nicotine and ephedrine, at the University of Vienna (Ph.D.,

  • Juliana (queen of The Netherlands)

    Juliana, queen of The Netherlands from 1948 to 1980. Juliana, the only child of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, studied law at the University of Leiden (1927–30) and in 1931 helped form the Nationaal Crisis Comité to foster measures by private enterprise to alleviate the

  • Juliana (English mystic)

    Julian of Norwich, celebrated mystic whose Revelations of Divine Love (or Showings) is generally considered one of the most remarkable documents of medieval religious experience. She spent the latter part of her life as a recluse at St. Julian’s Church, Norwich. On May 13, 1373, Julian was healed

  • Juliana (work by Cynewulf)

    Cynewulf: …also called Christ II) and Juliana are in the Exeter Book. An epilogue to each poem, asking for prayers for the author, contains runic characters representing the letters c, y, n, (e), w, u, l, f, which are thought to spell his name. A rhymed passage in the Elene shows…

  • Juliana Canal (canal, Netherlands)

    canals and inland waterways: Major inland waterways of Europe: …between Roermond and Maastricht, the Juliana Canal was built in 1935 and improved after World War II. The Twente Canal, opened in 1936, improved communication with the industrial east. Most important of the postwar projects was the building of the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal to enhance the capital’s value as a transshipment…

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