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  • Jumis (Baltic deity)

    Baltic religion: Mēness: …fields is also guaranteed by Jumis, who is symbolized by a double head of grain, and by various mothers, such as Lauka māte (“Mother of the Fields”), Linu māte (“Mother of the Flax”), and Mie?a māte (“Mother of the Barley”).

  • Jumna River (river, India)

    Yamuna River, major river of northern India, primarily in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh states. It is one of the country’s most-sacred rivers. The Yamuna rises on the slopes of the Bandarpunch massif in the Great Himalayas near Yamnotri (Jamnotri) in western Uttarakhand. It flows in a southerly

  • Jumo (Finno-Ugric deity)

    Finno-Ugric religion: High gods: Thus, the Cheremis Jumo has a real court with servants in his heaven, and these servants act as intermediaries between humans and the god of the sky. This indicates a Turko-Tatar influence, which can also be seen in the Udmurt Inmar. Christian elements, however, are also found (Inmar’s…

  • Jumo 004 (German jet engine)

    military aircraft: The jet age: …efforts led to the Junkers Jumo 004 engine. This became the most widely produced jet engine of World War II and the first operational axial-flow turbojet, one in which the air flows straight through the engine. By contrast, the Whittle and Heinkel jets used centrifugal flow, in which the air…

  • Jumonville Glen, Battle of (American history [1754])

    Battle of Jumonville Glen, (28 May 1754), opening battle of the French and Indian War and first combat action for George Washington. Imperial ambitions and competition for the rich fur trade with American Indian tribes brought England and France into conflict in the Ohio River Valley. When the

  • jump (ice skating)

    figure skating: Jumps: Jumps are probably the most recognized element of figure skating. All jumps share the same rotational position in the air, and all are landed on one foot, but they are distinguished by their takeoff positions. They fall into two main groups: edge jumps (salchow,…

  • jump ball (sports)

    basketball: Jump ball: A method of putting the ball into play. The referee tosses the ball up between two opponents who try to tap it to a teammate. The jump ball is used to begin games and, in the professional game, when the ball is possessed by…

  • jump blues (music)

    rhythm and blues: This music, sometimes called jump blues, set a pattern that became the dominant black popular music form during and for some time after World War II. Among its leading practitioners were Jordan, Amos Milburn, Roy Milton, Jimmy Liggins, Joe Liggins, Floyd Dixon, Wynonie Harris, Big Joe Turner, and Charles…

  • Jump Jim Crow (minstrel routine by Rice)

    Jim Crow law: Jim Crow was the name of a minstrel routine (actually Jump Jim Crow) performed beginning in 1828 by its author, Thomas Dartmouth (“Daddy”) Rice, and by many imitators, including actor Joseph Jefferson. The term came to be a derogatory epithet for African Americans and a…

  • jump rope (game)

    Jump rope, children’s game played by individuals or teams with a piece of rope, which may have handles attached at each end. Jump rope, which dates back to the 19th century, is traditionally a girls’ playground or sidewalk activity in which two players turn a rope (holding it by its ends and

  • jump rope rhyme

    Jump rope rhyme, any of innumerable chants and rhymes used by children, traditionally girls, to accompany the game of jump rope. Based on a few simple forms, such rhymes characteristically travel very quickly in variation from child to child, in contrast to nursery rhymes, which are passed on by

  • Jumpers (play by Stoppard)

    Tom Stoppard: …The Real Inspector Hound (1968), Jumpers (1972), Travesties (1974; Tony Award for best play), Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (1978), Night and Day (1978), Undiscovered Country (1980, adapted from a play by Arthur Schnitzler), and On the Razzle (1981, adapted from a play by Johann Nestroy

  • Jumpin’ Jack Flash (song by Jagger and Richards)

    the Rolling Stones: First original hits: (I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction and Get off My Cloud: …with the epochal single “Jumpin’ Jack Flash,” which reconnected them to their blues-rock roots, and the album Beggars Banquet. Replacing Jones with the virtuosic but self-effacing guitarist Mick Taylor, they returned to the road in 1969, almost instantly becoming rock’s premier touring attraction.

  • Jumpin’ Jack Flash (film by Marshall [1986])

    Penny Marshall: …made her directorial debut with Jumpin’ Jack Flash. She followed with the movie Big (1988); a hit with both critics and moviegoers, it recounted the adventures of a 12-year-old whose wish to be older comes true. It was the first film directed by a woman to gross more than $100…

  • jumping (horsemanship)

    horsemanship: Jumping: The most sensitive parts of the horse when ridden are the mouth and the loins, particularly in jumping. The rider’s hands control the forehand while the legs act on the hindquarters. As speed is increased the seat is raised slightly from the saddle, with…

  • jumping (form of locomotion)

    locomotion: Saltation: The locomotor pattern of saltation (hopping) is confined mainly to kangaroos, anurans (tailless amphibians), rabbits, and some groups of rodents in the vertebrates and to a number of insect families in the arthropods. All saltatory animals have hind legs that are approximately twice as…

  • jumping bean, Mexican

    Mexican jumping bean, the seed of certain Mexican shrubs, especially those of the genus Sebastiania, of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), that contain larvae of a small olethreutid moth (Laspeyresia salitans). The movements of the larvae feeding on the pulp within the seed, which are intensified

  • jumping cholla (cactus)
  • jumping event (athletics)

    athletics: Jumping: Men and women compete in four jumping events: the high jump, long jump, triple jump, and pole vault.

  • jumping gene (genetics)

    Transposon, class of genetic elements that can “jump” to different locations within a genome. Although these elements are frequently called “jumping genes,” they are always maintained in an integrated site in the genome. In addition, most transposons eventually become inactive and no longer move.

  • jumping hare (rodent)

    Spring hare, (Pedetes capensis), a bipedal grazing rodent indigenous to Africa. About the size of a rabbit, the spring hare more closely resembles a giant jerboa in having a short round head, a thick muscular neck, very large eyes, and long, narrow upright ears. Like jerboas, it has short forelegs

  • jumping mouse (rodent)

    Jumping mouse, (subfamily Zapodinae), any of five species of small leaping rodents found in North America and China. Jumping mice weigh from 13 to 26 grams (0.5 to 0.9 ounce) and are 8 to 11 cm (3.1 to 4.3 inches) long, not including the scantily haired tail, which is longer than the body. Their

  • jumping pit viper (snake)

    fer-de-lance: The jumping viper is an aggressive brown or gray Central American snake with diamond-shaped crosswise markings on its back. It is usually about 60 cm (2 feet) long. It strikes so energetically that it may lift itself off the ground. Its venom, however, is not especially…

  • jumping plant louse (insect)

    Jumping plant louse, any member of the approximately 2,000 species of the insect family Psyllidae (order Homoptera). The jumping plant louse is about the size of a pinhead. Its head, long antennae and legs, and transparent wings resemble, on a reduced scale, the features of the cicada. Eggs are

  • jumping saddle (horsemanship)

    horsemanship: Forward seat: The forward seat, favoured for show jumping, hunting, and cross-country riding, is generally considered to conform with the natural action of the horse. The rider sits near the middle of the saddle, his torso a trifle forward, even at the halt. The saddle…

  • jumping spider (arachnid)

    Jumping spider, (family Salticidae), any of more than 5,000 species of spiders (order Araneida) known for their ability to jump and pounce upon their prey. They range in size from 2 to 22 mm (0.08 to 0.87 inch), although most are small to medium-sized. They are very common in the tropics, but some

  • Jumyella (Spain)

    Jumilla, city, Murcia provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southeastern Spain. It lies at the foot of Mount Castillo (near Mount Carche and Sierra de Santa Ana) and on the Arroyo del Judío, a tributary of the Segura River, northwest of Murcia city. The Roman author

  • jum?ah (Islam)

    Jum?ah, Friday of the Muslim week and the special noon service on Friday that all adult, male, free Muslims are obliged to attend. The jum?ah, which replaces the usual noon ritual prayer (?alāt al-?uhr), must take place before a sizable number of Muslims (according to some legal scholars, 40) in

  • Jun kiln (pottery)

    Jun kiln, Chinese kiln known for the stoneware it created during the Northern Song period (960–1126) in Junzhou (now Yuzhou), in northern Henan. One class of glazed wares produced at the kiln consisted mostly of opalescent blue pieces (ranging from grayish blue to a plum colour), many strikingly

  • Jun ware (pottery)

    Jun kiln, Chinese kiln known for the stoneware it created during the Northern Song period (960–1126) in Junzhou (now Yuzhou), in northern Henan. One class of glazed wares produced at the kiln consisted mostly of opalescent blue pieces (ranging from grayish blue to a plum colour), many strikingly

  • Jun yao (pottery)

    Jun kiln, Chinese kiln known for the stoneware it created during the Northern Song period (960–1126) in Junzhou (now Yuzhou), in northern Henan. One class of glazed wares produced at the kiln consisted mostly of opalescent blue pieces (ranging from grayish blue to a plum colour), many strikingly

  • Junagadh (India)

    Junagadh, city, southwestern Gujarat state, west-central India. It lies near the Girnar Hills in the southwestern part of the Kathiawar Peninsula. The many temples and mosques in Junagadh’s vicinity reveal the city’s long and complex history. To the east are the Uparkot, an old Hindu citadel;

  • Junagadh (district, India)

    India: Foreign policy: …immediately over to Pakistan—those of Junagadh, Hyderabad, and Kashmir. The nawab of Junagadh and the nizam of Hyderabad were both Muslims, though most of their subjects were Hindus, and both states were surrounded, on land, by India. Junagadh, however, faced Pakistan on the Arabian Sea, and when its nawab followed…

  • Junaluska (Cherokee chief)

    Cherokee: Under Chief Junaluska they aided Andrew Jackson against the Creek in the Creek War, particularly in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. They adopted colonial methods of farming, weaving, and home building. Perhaps most remarkable of all was the syllabary of the Cherokee language, developed in

  • Junayd (Islamic painter)

    Junayd, painter of miniatures and leading illustrator of the Jalāyirid school. His style, using richly dressed figures in formal settings, deeply influenced later developments in Persian painting. Very little is known about Junayd’s life. He was a pupil of the painter Shams ad-Dīn, and from 1382 to

  • Junayd, Abū al-Qāsim al- (Islamic mystic)

    al-?allāj: …al-Makkī, and Abū al-Qāsim al-Junayd, were highly respected among the masters of ?ūfism. Studying first under Sahl at-Tustarī, who lived a quiet and solitary life in the city of Tustar in Khuzistan, al-?allāj later became a disciple of al-Markkī of Basra. During this period he married the daughter of…

  • Junayd, Shaykh (Iranian mystic)

    Shaykh Junayd, fourth head of the ?afavid order of Sufi (Islamic) mystics, who sought to transform the spiritual strength of the order into political power. Little is known of Junayd’s early life except that when his father died in 1447 he became the head of the ?afavid order, which had its capital

  • Junaynah, Al- (Sudan)

    Al-Junaynah, town in the Darfur region of western Sudan. It lies about 15 miles (24 km) east of the Chad border and about 220 miles (350 km) west of Al-Fāshir, with which it is linked by a road. Al-Junaynah is located at an elevation of about 2,800 feet (853 metres). It has a domestic airport and

  • Juncaceae (plant family)

    Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features: …Cyperaceae are the rushes (family Juncaceae). Rushes share with sedges a number of specialized anatomic and developmental features. Both families have chromosomes with a very peculiar structure. The centromeres, the point of attachment of the spindle fibres during meiosis, are not localized at one point near the middle but rather…

  • Juncellus (Spain)

    Jumilla, city, Murcia provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southeastern Spain. It lies at the foot of Mount Castillo (near Mount Carche and Sierra de Santa Ana) and on the Arroyo del Judío, a tributary of the Segura River, northwest of Murcia city. The Roman author

  • Juncker, Jean-Claude (prime minister of Luxembourg)

    Jean-Claude Juncker, Luxembourgian politician who served as prime minister of Luxembourg (1995–2013) and later was president of the European Commission (EC; 2014–19). Juncker grew up in southern Luxembourg and attended boarding school in Belgium. He joined the Christian Social People’s Party

  • junco (bird)

    Junco, any of several birds of the genus Junco, small sparrows of the family Emberizidae. Juncos are about 15 cm (6 inches) long and variable in colour, though generally a shade of gray; they have white outer tail feathers that are flashed in flight to the accompaniment of snapping or twittering

  • Junco hymenalis (bird)

    junco: The dark-eyed, or slate-coloured, junco (J. hyemalis) breeds across Canada and in the Appalachian Mountains; northern migrants are the “snowbirds” of the eastern United States. In western North America there are several forms of junco with brown or pinkish markings; among them is the yellow-eyed Mexican…

  • Junction (former town, Utah, United States)

    Capitol Reef National Park: The contemporary park: The small Mormon community of Fruita (originally called Junction) began to develop along the Fremont River in the 1880s, and it persevered even after the national monument was established in 1937. The monument remained virtually isolated and largely unvisited during its first decade of existence. However, after a paved road…

  • junction box (electronics)

    construction: Electrical systems: …above ceilings and terminate in junction boxes flush with a wall surface. The junction boxes contain terminal devices such as the convenience outlet, control switches, or the connection point for built-in light fixtures.

  • junction breakdown (electronics)

    semiconductor device: The p-n junction: …is referred to as the junction breakdown, usually a nondestructive phenomenon if the resulting power dissipation is limited to a safe value. The applied forward voltage is usually less than one volt, but the reverse critical voltage, called the breakdown voltage, can vary from less than one volt to many…

  • Junction City (Kansas, United States)

    Junction City, city, seat (1860) of Geary county (until 1889 designated as Davis county), northeastern Kansas, U.S. It is situated at the confluence of the Republican and Smoky Hill rivers. Junction City was founded in 1858 and named for the river confluence. It developed as a trading centre for

  • junction diode (electronics)

    electricity: Electroluminescence: …in a reverse-biased semiconductor p–n junction diode—i.e., a p–n junction diode in which the applied potential is in the direction of small current flow. Electrons in the intense field at the depleted junction easily acquire enough energy to excite atoms. Little of this energy finally emerges as light, though the…

  • junction effect (physics)

    radiation measurement: Silicon detectors: …one surface, forming a rectifying junction—i.e., one that allows current to flow freely in only one direction. If voltage is now applied to reverse-bias this diode so that the free electrons and positive holes flow away from the junction, a depletion region is formed in the vicinity of the junction.…

  • junction field-effect transistor (electronics)

    electronics: Using MOSFETs: Another type, the junction field-effect transistor, works in a similar fashion but is much less frequently used. The MOSFET consists of two regions: (1) the source (here shown connected to the silicon substrate) and (2) the drain of one conductivity type embedded in a body of the opposite…

  • junction theorem (electronics)

    Kirchhoff's rules: The first rule, the junction theorem, states that the sum of the currents into a specific junction in the circuit equals the sum of the currents out of the same junction. Electric charge is conserved: it does not suddenly appear or disappear; it does not pile up at one…

  • junction transistor, bipolar (electronics)

    semiconductor device: Bipolar transistors: This type of transistor is one of the most important of the semiconductor devices. It is a bipolar device in that both electrons and holes are involved in the conduction process. The bipolar transistor delivers a change in output current in response to…

  • junction, cell (biology)

    cell: Tissue and species recognition: …adhesion is carried out by cell junctions.

  • junction, gap (physiology)

    animal: The nervous system: …by the formation of membrane-bound gap junctions, which connect adjacent cells, enables an impulse to pass unimpeded to a connecting cell. The increase in speed of transmission provided by a gap junction, however, is offset by a loss in flexibility; gap junctions essentially create a single neuron from several. The…

  • junctional diversification (genetics)

    immune system: Diversity of lymphocytes: …of gene segments—a process called junctional diversification—through which the ends of the gene segments can be shortened or lengthened. The genetic rearrangement takes place at the stage when the lymphocytes generated from stem cells first become functional, so that each mature lymphocyte is able to make only one type of…

  • Juncus effusus (plant)

    rush: effusus, called soft rush, is used to make the tatami mats of Japan. The bulrush, also called reed mace and cattail, is Typha angustifolia, belonging to the family Typhaceae; its stems and leaves are used in North India for ropes, mats, and baskets. The horsetail genus (Equisetum)…

  • jund (military unit)

    Spain: Society: The units (jund), grouped according to the places of origin of their men, were deployed strategically along the borders and possessed extraordinary mobility at the time of the caliphate. Holding castles close to the enemy lands as their bases of operation, they were glad to welcome into…

  • Jundiaí (Brazil)

    Jundiaí, city, in the highlands of southern S?o Paulo estado (state), Brazil. It lies at 2,460 feet (750 metres) above sea level along the Jundiaí River. Formerly called Porta do Sert?o, Mato Grosso de Jundiaí, and Vila Formosa de Nossa Senhora do Destêrro de Jundiaí, it was given town status and

  • Jundūbah (Tunisia)

    Jendouba, town, northwestern Tunisia, about 95 miles (150 km) west of Tunis. It lies along the middle Wadi Majardah (Medjerda). The town was developed on the railway from Tunis to Algeria during the French protectorate (1881–1955) and still serves as an important crossroads and administrative

  • June (month)

    June, sixth month of the Gregorian calendar. It was named after Juno, the Roman goddess of childbirth and

  • June 30 Revolution (Egypt [2013])

    Abdel Fattah al-Sisi: June 30 Revolution: Sisi took centre stage in Egyptian politics in the summer of 2013, after a protest movement dubbed Tamarrud (“Rebellion”) emerged demanding that Morsi be removed or replaced through an early election. On June 30, demonstrations against Morsi had reached a size and…

  • June beetle (insect)

    June beetle, (genus Phyllophaga), genus of nearly 300 species of beetles belonging to the widely distributed plant-eating subfamily Melolonthinae (family Scarabaeidae, order Coleoptera). These red-brown beetles commonly appear in the Northern Hemisphere during warm spring evenings and are attracted

  • June Bug (airplane)

    AEA June Bug, biplane designed, built, and tested by members of the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) in 1908. For a table of pioneer aircraft, see history of flight. Alexander Graham Bell, one of the founders of the AEA, gave the third and most famous of the powered airplanes constructed by the

  • June bug (insect)

    June beetle, (genus Phyllophaga), genus of nearly 300 species of beetles belonging to the widely distributed plant-eating subfamily Melolonthinae (family Scarabaeidae, order Coleoptera). These red-brown beetles commonly appear in the Northern Hemisphere during warm spring evenings and are attracted

  • June Constitution (Danish history)

    Denmark: The liberal movement: …was replaced by the so-called June constitution of June 5, 1849. Together with the king and his ministers, there was now also a parliament with two chambers: the Folketing and the Landsting. Both were elected by popular vote, but seats in the Landsting had a relatively high property-owning qualification. The…

  • June Days (French history)

    June Days, (June 23–26, 1848) in French history, a brief and bloody civil uprising in Paris in the early days of the Second Republic. The new government instituted numerous radical reforms, but the new assembly, composed mainly of moderate and conservative candidates, was determined to cut costs

  • June Fourth incident (Chinese history [1989])

    Tiananmen Square incident, series of protests and demonstrations in China in the spring of 1989 that culminated on the night of June 3–4 with a government crackdown on the demonstrators in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Although the demonstrations and their subsequent repression occurred in cities

  • June Offensive (Russian military operation [1917])

    June Offensive, (June [July, New Style], 1917), unsuccessful military operation of World War I, planned by the Russian minister of war Aleksandr Kerensky. The operation not only demonstrated the degree to which the Russian army had disintegrated but also the extent of the Provisional Government’s

  • June War (Middle East [1967])

    Six-Day War, brief war that took place June 5–10, 1967, and was the third of the Arab-Israeli wars. Israel’s decisive victory included the capture of the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, Old City of Jerusalem, and Golan Heights; the status of these territories subsequently became a major

  • June, Jennie (American journalist)

    Jane Cunningham Croly, English-born American journalist and clubwoman whose popular writings and socially conscious advocacy reflected, in different spheres, her belief that equal rights and economic independence for women would allow them to become fully responsible, productive citizens. Jane

  • Juneau (Alaska, United States)

    Juneau, city and borough, capital (since 1906) of Alaska, U.S. The city, at the heart of the Inside Passage (Alaska Marine Highway), is located in the southeastern part of the state, on the Gastineau Channel. Sheltered from the Pacific Ocean by a belt of islands 75 miles (120 km) wide, it lies at

  • juneberry (plant)

    Serviceberry, (genus Amelanchier), genus of some 20 species of flowering shrubs and small trees of the rose family (Rosaceae). Most species are North American; exceptions include the snowy mespilus (Amelanchier ovalis), which ranges over Europe, and the Asian serviceberry, or Korean juneberry (A.

  • Junebug (film by Morrison [2005])

    Amy Adams: …Ashley in the independent film Junebug (2005), about the troubled relationships hidden in a Southern family, earned her an Academy Award nomination for best supporting actress. That charismatic innocence led to Adams’s later successes as Giselle in Enchanted (2007), an animated and live-action film about a fairy-tale princess in New…

  • Junee (New South Wales, Australia)

    Junee, town, south-central New South Wales, Australia. It lies just north of Wagga Wagga in the fertile Riverina district. It was founded in 1863 as Jewnee and was known as Jewnee Junction or Loftus when it was proclaimed a town in 1883. The town was gazetted a municipality in 1886, and it became a

  • Junejo, Mohammad Khan (prime minister of Pakistan)

    Yousaf Raza Gilani: …the cabinet of Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo, but a conflict with Junejo led to Gilani’s being replaced in 1986 and in his eventual marginalization within the PML.

  • Junejo, Muhammad Khan (prime minister of Pakistan)

    Yousaf Raza Gilani: …the cabinet of Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo, but a conflict with Junejo led to Gilani’s being replaced in 1986 and in his eventual marginalization within the PML.

  • Juneteenth (United States holiday)

    Juneteenth, holiday commemorating the end of slavery in the United States, observed annually on June 19. In 1863, during the American Civil War, Pres. Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared more than three million slaves living in the Confederate states to be free.

  • Juneteenth (novel by Ellison)

    Ralph Ellison: …in a much-shortened form, as Juneteenth in 1999. The Selected Letters of Ralph Ellison was released in 2019.

  • Juneteenth Independence Day (United States holiday)

    Juneteenth, holiday commemorating the end of slavery in the United States, observed annually on June 19. In 1863, during the American Civil War, Pres. Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared more than three million slaves living in the Confederate states to be free.

  • junfa (Chinese history)

    Warlord, independent military commander in China in the early and mid-20th century. Warlords ruled various parts of the country following the death of Yuan Shikai (1859–1916), who had served as the first president of the Republic of China from 1912 to 1916. Yuan’s power had come from his position

  • Jung Bahadur (prime minister of Nepal)

    Jung Bahadur, prime minister and virtual ruler of Nepal from 1846 to 1877, who established the powerful Rana dynasty of hereditary prime ministers, an office that remained in his family until 1951. Jung Bahadur, a man of great courage and ability, gained control over the government after killing a

  • Jung Codex (Gnostic text)

    patristic literature: The gnostic writers: Among these, the Jung Codex (named in honour of the psychoanalyst Carl Jung by those who purchased it for his library) includes five important items: a Prayer of the Apostle Paul; an Apocryphon of James, recording revelations imparted by the risen Christ to the Apostles; the Gospel of…

  • Jung I-jen (Chinese official)

    Rong Yiren, Chinese businessman and politician. He was the founder (in 1979) and president of China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC), China’s largest investment company at the time, and later (1993–98) was vice president of China. Rong was educated at a British-run

  • Jung Ji Hoon (South Korean singer and actor)

    Rain, South Korean pop singer and actor known for his boyish good looks and smooth hip-hop dance moves. Rain began performing in his teens as a rapper in a short-lived band called Fanclub and later became a backup dancer for popular Korean singer Park Ji-Yoon. Deciding to pursue a solo music

  • Jung, Andrea (American businesswoman)

    Andrea Jung, Canadian-born American businesswoman who was chairman (2001–12) and CEO (1999–2012) of Avon Products, Inc. She later became president and CEO (2014– ) of Grameen America. Jung moved with her family from Toronto to Wellesley, Massachusetts, when she was a young child. Her father was an

  • Jung, Carl (Swiss psychologist)

    Carl Jung, Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytic psychology, in some aspects a response to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the extraverted and the introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. His work has been

  • Jung, Carl Gustav (Swiss psychologist)

    Carl Jung, Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytic psychology, in some aspects a response to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the extraverted and the introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. His work has been

  • Jung, George (American drug dealer)

    Carlos Lehder: There he was housed with George Jung, who had established an operation using airplanes to bring marijuana into the United States. By Jung’s account, Lehder persuaded him that importing cocaine by airplane would be significantly more lucrative, and upon their release in 1976 the two went into business together, transporting…

  • Jung, Joachim (logician)

    history of logic: The 17th century: Joachim Jung (also called Jungius or Junge) was one replacement for the “Protestant” logic of Melanchthon. Its chief virtue was the care with which late medieval theories and techniques were gathered and presented. Jung devoted considerable attention to valid arguments that do not fit into…

  • Jung, Johann Heinrich (German author)

    Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling, German writer best known for his autobiography, Heinrich Stillings Leben, 5 vol. (1806), the first two volumes of which give a vividly realistic picture of village life in an 18th-century pietistic family. Jung-Stilling worked as a schoolteacher at age 15 and later

  • Jung, Marianne (German aristocrat)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Napoleonic period (1805–16): In Frankfurt he met Marianne Jung, just 30 years old and about to marry the 54-year-old banker Johann Jakob von Willemer; Goethe and Marianne took to writing each other love poems in the ?āfe? manner and continued to write them, both after Goethe had returned to Weimar and when…

  • Jung-lu (Chinese official)

    Ronglu, official and general during the last years of the Qing dynasty who organized and led one of the first brigades of Chinese troops that used Western firearms and drill. He achieved high office as a favourite of the powerful empress dowager Cixi, and he ensured that the army remained loyal to

  • Jung-Stilling, Johann Heinrich (German author)

    Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling, German writer best known for his autobiography, Heinrich Stillings Leben, 5 vol. (1806), the first two volumes of which give a vividly realistic picture of village life in an 18th-century pietistic family. Jung-Stilling worked as a schoolteacher at age 15 and later

  • Jungar (people)

    Dzungar, people of Central Asia, so called because they formed the left wing (dson, “left”; gar, “hand”) of the Mongol army. A western Mongol people whose home was the Ili River valley and Chinese Turkistan, they adopted Buddhism in the 17th century. They are for all practical purposes identical

  • Jungbunzlau (Czech Republic)

    Mladá Boleslav, city, north-central Czech Republic. It lies northeast of Prague, at the confluence of the Jizera and Klenice rivers. Occupied in 995 and founded as a city in 1334, it was a centre of the Bohemian Unitas Fratrum (“Unity of Brethren”) Protestant group in the 16th century. It has a

  • Junge Gelehrte, Der (play by Lessing)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Education and first dramatic works.: …1748 successfully produced his comedy Der junge Gelehrte (“The Young Scholar”). The play is a delightful satire on an arrogant, superficial, vain, and easily offended scholar, a figure through which Lessing mocked his own bookishness. The other comedies belonging to this Leipzig period of 1747–49 (Damon, Die alte Jungfer [“The…

  • junge Magd, Die (song cycle by Hindemith)

    Paul Hindemith: …the viola; the song cycles Die junge Magd (1922; “The Young Maid”), based on poems by Georg Trakl, and Das Marienleben (1924, rev. 1948; “The Life of Mary”); and the opera Cardillac (1926), based on E.T.A. Hoffmann’s Das Fr?ulein von Scuderi (“The Girl from Scuderi”). By the late 1920s Hindemith…

  • Junge T?rless, Der (film by Schl?ndorff [1966])

    Volker Schl?ndorff: …feature, Der junge T?rless (1966; Young T?rless), an adaptation of the Robert Musil novella Die Verwirrungen des Z?glings T?rless, earned him instant recognition. This study of a sensitive boy in a brutal German military academy exhibited the cool, straightforward directorial style that would come to distinguish Schl?ndorff from his more…

  • Junge, Alfred (German motion-picture set designer)

    Alfred Junge, German motion-picture set designer who worked in England for more than 30 years and who was credited with doing more for the reputation of British set design than any Englishman. Junge’s early career included work as a scenic artist at the Berlin State Opera and State Theatre Studios.

  • Junge, Gertraud Humps (German secretary)

    Traudl Junge, (Gertraud Humps Junge), German secretary (born March 16, 1920, Munich, Ger.—died Feb. 10/11, 2002, Munich), was Adolf Hitler’s private secretary from December 1942 until he dictated his last will and testament to her shortly before his suicide in April 1945. Junge was hired o

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