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  • juntian (Asian land system)

    Equal-field system, official institution of land distribution and tax collection in traditional China and Japan. The system originated in China in 485 ce by order of the emperor Xiaowendi of the Bei (Northern) Wei dynasty (386–534/535 ce). It provided for the assignment of agricultural lands to all

  • Junto (social improvement organization)

    Benjamin Franklin: Achievement of security and fame (1726–53): In 1727 he organized the Junto, or Leather Apron Club, to debate questions of morals, politics, and natural philosophy and to exchange knowledge of business affairs. The need of Junto members for easier access to books led in 1731 to the organization of the Library Company of Philadelphia. Through the…

  • Junto Whigs (political party, England)

    United Kingdom: The sinews of war: The ascendancy of the so-called Junto Whigs might have been secured had not European events once again intruded into English affairs. In 1697 the War of the Grand Alliance ended with the Treaty of Rijswijk, in which Louis XIV formally recognized William III as king of England.

  • junzi (Chinese philosophy)

    Junzi, (Chinese: “gentleman”; literally, “ruler’s son” or “noble son”) in Chinese philosophy, a person whose humane conduct (ren) makes him a moral exemplar. The term junzi was originally applied to princes or aristocratic men. Confucius invested the term with an ethical significance while

  • Juozapin?, Mount (mountain, Lithuania)

    Lithuania: Relief: …the A?mena highlands—the latter containing Mount Juozapin?, at 957 feet (292 metres) above sea level the highest point in Lithuania—are located in the extreme east and southeast.

  • Jupiter (Roman god)

    Jupiter, the chief ancient Roman and Italian god. Like Zeus, the Greek god with whom he is etymologically identical (root diu, “bright”), Jupiter was a sky god. One of his most ancient epithets is Lucetius (“Light-Bringer”); and later literature has preserved the same idea in such phrases as sub

  • Jupiter (missile)

    20th-century international relations: The Cuban missile crisis: Those antiquated Jupiters, deployed in the early post-Sputnik scare, were already due for removal, but Kennedy would not do so under Soviet threat. Hence Attorney General Robert Kennedy suggested a ploy: simply reply to Khrushchev’s first note as if the second had never been sent. On the…

  • Jupiter (planet)

    Jupiter, the most massive planet of the solar system and the fifth in distance from the Sun. It is one of the brightest objects in the night sky; only the Moon, Venus, and sometimes Mars are more brilliant. Jupiter is designated by the symbol ?. When ancient astronomers named the planet Jupiter for

  • Jupiter and Thetis (painting by Ingres)

    J.-A.-D. Ingres: Early life and works: …that characterized the figures in Jupiter and Thetis (1811), the culminating work of Ingres’s student years in Rome.

  • Jupiter Capitolinus, Temple of (temple, Rome, Italy)

    Western architecture: Stylistic development: The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome, built about this time, resembled Etruscan buildings in central Italy—at Signia, Orvieto, Veii, and elsewhere—in its podium (base or platform on which it rests), its triple cella, its broad low Etruscan porch, and its characteristic terra-cotta adornment. The Capitolium…

  • Jupiter Dolichenus (classical religion)

    Jupiter Dolichenus, god of a Roman mystery cult, originally a local Hittite-Hurrian god of fertility and thunder worshiped at Doliche (modern Dülük), in southeastern Turkey. Later the deity was given a Semitic character, but, under Achaemenid rule (6th–4th century bc), he was identified with the

  • Jupiter Heliopolitanus (Syrian god)

    mystery religion: Roman imperial times: …of several deities, of which Jupiter Heliopolitanus (the local god of Heliopolis; modern Ba?labakk, Lebanon) and Jupiter Dolichenus (the local god of Doliche in Commagene; modern Dülük, Turkey) were the most important. Adonis (a god of vegetation) of Byblos (in modern Lebanon) had long been familiar to the Greeks and…

  • Jupiter I (satellite of Jupiter)

    Io, innermost of the four large moons (Galilean satellites) discovered around Jupiter by the Italian astronomer Galileo in 1610. It was probably also discovered independently that same year by the German astronomer Simon Marius, who named it after Io of Greek mythology. Io is the most volcanically

  • Jupiter II (satellite of Jupiter)

    Europa, the smallest and second nearest of the four large moons (Galilean satellites) discovered around Jupiter by the Italian astronomer Galileo in 1610. It was probably also discovered independently that same year by the German astronomer Simon Marius, who named it after Europa of Greek

  • Jupiter III (satellite of Jupiter)

    Ganymede, largest of Jupiter’s satellites and of all the satellites in the solar system. One of the Galilean moons, it was discovered by the Italian astronomer Galileo in 1610. It was probably also discovered independently that same year by the German astronomer Simon Marius, who named it after

  • Jupiter IV (satellite of Jupiter)

    Callisto, outermost of the four large moons (Galilean satellites) discovered around Jupiter by the Italian astronomer Galileo in 1610. It was probably also discovered independently that same year by the German astronomer Simon Marius, who named it after Callisto of Greek mythology. Callisto is a

  • Jupiter Latialis (Roman god)

    Jupiter, the chief ancient Roman and Italian god. Like Zeus, the Greek god with whom he is etymologically identical (root diu, “bright”), Jupiter was a sky god. One of his most ancient epithets is Lucetius (“Light-Bringer”); and later literature has preserved the same idea in such phrases as sub

  • Jupiter Latiaris (Roman god)

    Jupiter, the chief ancient Roman and Italian god. Like Zeus, the Greek god with whom he is etymologically identical (root diu, “bright”), Jupiter was a sky god. One of his most ancient epithets is Lucetius (“Light-Bringer”); and later literature has preserved the same idea in such phrases as sub

  • Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Temple of (ancient temple, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The Capitoline: …bce the site of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, the largest temple in central Italy. The tufa platform on which it was built, now exposed behind and beneath the Palazzo dei Conservatori, measured 203 by 174 feet (62 by 53 metres), probably with three rows of six columns across…

  • Jupiter Symphony (symphony by Mozart)

    Jupiter Symphony, orchestral work by Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, known for its good humour, exuberant energy, and unusually grand scale for a symphony of the Classical period. These qualities likely earned the symphony its nickname “Jupiter”—for the chief god of the ancient Roman

  • Jupiter’s-beard (plant)

    Valerianoideae: Red valerian, or Jupiter’s-beard (Centranthus ruber), native to the Mediterranean, is widely naturalized in British meadows, on roadsides, and on walls. Its billowy masses of pink, white, or red tiny fragrant blooms are borne on stems sometimes reaching 90 cm (3 feet).

  • Jupiter, Temple of (ancient temple, Baalbek, Lebanon)

    Baalbeck: …on the site is the Temple of Jupiter (completed 2nd century ce), only portions of which remain. It was a massive building, entered by a propylaea, or entranceway, leading to a hexagonal forecourt and then to a rectangular main court 343 feet (104.5 metres) long and 338 feet (103 metres)…

  • Jupiter-C (United States missile)

    Wernher von Braun: Work in the United States: Under his leadership, the Redstone, Jupiter-C, Juno, and Pershing missiles were developed. In 1955 he became a U.S. citizen and, characteristically, accepted citizenship wholeheartedly. During the 1950s Braun became a national and international focal point for the promotion of space flight. He was the author or coauthor of popular articles…

  • Jupiter-family comet (astronomy)

    comet: Dynamics: …into two dynamical groups: the short-period comets with orbital periods shorter than 200 years and the long-period comets with orbital periods longer than 200 years. The short-period comets were split into two groups, the Jupiter-family comets with periods shorter than about 20 years and the Halley-type comets with periods longer…

  • Juppé, Alain (prime minister of France)

    Jacques Chirac: Corruption charges: …2004 his former prime minister Alain Juppé was convicted of misappropriating public funds. Chirac, too, was allegedly involved in corrupt political dealings, but he remained immune from prosecution until his term as president ended. In 2009 a magistrate ordered the former president to face trial on charges dating back to…

  • Juppiter indiges (Roman god)

    Aeneas: …god called, according to Livy, Juppiter indiges.

  • Jura (department, France)

    Franche-Comté: …encompassed the eastern départements of Jura, Doubs, Haute-Sa?ne, and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016 the Franche-Comté région was joined with the neighbouring région of Burgundy to form the new administrative entity of Bourgogne–Franche-Comté.

  • Jura (mountain range, Europe)

    Jura Mountains, system of ranges extending for 225 miles (360 km) in an arc on both sides of the Franco-Swiss border from the Rh?ne River to the Rhine. It lies mostly in Switzerland, but a good part of the western sector lies in France. The highest peaks of the Jura are in the south, in the Geneva

  • Jura (island, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Jura, fourth largest island of the Inner Hebrides, Argyll and Bute council area, historic county of Argyllshire, Scotland. It is 27 miles (43 km) long, 2–8 miles (3–13 km) wide, and almost bisected by Loch Tarbert (a sea loch). A mountain range culminating in the Paps of Jura—with an elevation of

  • Jura (canton, Switzerland)

    Jura, canton, northwestern Switzerland, comprising the folded Jura Mountains in the south and extending northward to the hilly region of the limestone Jura Plateau, including the districts of the Franches Montagnes and the Ajoie. Bordering France to the north and west, it is bounded on the south by

  • Jura Mountains (mountain range, Europe)

    Jura Mountains, system of ranges extending for 225 miles (360 km) in an arc on both sides of the Franco-Swiss border from the Rh?ne River to the Rhine. It lies mostly in Switzerland, but a good part of the western sector lies in France. The highest peaks of the Jura are in the south, in the Geneva

  • Jurado, Katy (Mexican actress)

    Katy Jurado, (María Cristina Estella Marcella Jurado García), Mexican actress (born Jan. 16, 1924, Guadalajara, Mex.—died July 5, 2002, Cuernavaca, Mex.), projected a smoldering sensuality and vitality that captured audiences’ attention first in Mexico and later in the U.S.—where she was one of t

  • Jurado, Rocío (Spanish singer)

    Rocío Jurado, (María del Rocío Trinidad Mohedano Jurado), Spanish singer and actress (born Sept. 18, 1944, Chipiona, Spain—died June 1, 2006, Madrid, Spain), recorded more than 30 records and appeared in almost a dozen films during a career that spanned nearly 40 years. Jurado began singing p

  • Juraga, Boris (art director)
  • Juran (Chinese painter)

    Juran, Chinese painter of the Five Dynasties (907–960) period, he was one of the most innovative artists working in the pure landscape tradition. Little is known of Juran other than that he was a Buddhist priest (Juran is a priestly name—his family name is never mentioned) and that he worked for

  • Juran, Joseph (American engineer and quality-control authority)

    Joseph Moses Juran, American quality-control authority (born Dec. 24, 1904, Braila, Rom.—died Feb. 28, 2008, Rye, N.Y.), established the involvement of top management as a crucial step in the process of dealing with quality issues in business and manufacturing. Juran began his career (1924) as a

  • Juran, Nathan (American director, art director, and writer)

    First Men in the Moon: Production notes and credits:

  • Jurassic Park (film by Spielberg [1993])

    Steven Spielberg: The 1990s: The first, Jurassic Park, was an adaptation of Michael Crichton’s best-selling novel (1990) about dinosaurs re-created and running amok on a remote isle. Its scenes of peril are less deftly blended with character-focused downtime activity than in Jaws, but technology is employed to great effect, and there…

  • Jurassic Park (novel by Crichton)

    Michael Crichton: …the massively successful science-fiction thriller Jurassic Park, which grimly envisions the human resurrection of the dinosaurs through genetic engineering. He wrote the screenplay for the 1993 film adaptation, which was a box-office hit, and for such other works as The Lost World (1995; film 1997), a sequel to Jurassic Park.…

  • Jurassic Period (geochronology)

    Jurassic Period, second of three periods of the Mesozoic Era. Extending from 201.3 million to 145 million years ago, it immediately followed the Triassic Period (251.9 million to 201.3 million years ago) and was succeeded by the Cretaceous Period (145 million to 66 million years ago). The Morrison

  • Jurassic System (stratigraphy)

    Nevadan orogeny: …the formation of vast Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous batholiths (large bodies of igneous rock that formed underground) in southern California, the Sierra Nevada, the Coast Ranges, Idaho, and British Columbia. Folding and thrust faulting took place on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada and in the Klamath Mountains…

  • Jurassien (people)

    Europe: Culture groups: … of southern Belgium and the Jurassiens of the Jura in Switzerland both speak French, yet they see themselves as quite different from the French because their groups have developed almost completely outside the boundaries of France. Even when coexisting within the same state, some groups may have similar languages and…

  • Jürched dynasty (China-Mongolia [1115-1234])

    Jin dynasty, (1115–1234), dynasty that ruled an empire formed by the Tungus Juchen (or Jurchen) tribes of Manchuria. The empire covered much of Inner Asia and all of present-day North China. Originally subjects of the Liao, an Inner Asian dynasty created in the 10th century by the Khitan tribes,

  • Jurchen dynasty (China-Mongolia [1115-1234])

    Jin dynasty, (1115–1234), dynasty that ruled an empire formed by the Tungus Juchen (or Jurchen) tribes of Manchuria. The empire covered much of Inner Asia and all of present-day North China. Originally subjects of the Liao, an Inner Asian dynasty created in the 10th century by the Khitan tribes,

  • Jurchen language (language)

    Manchu-Tungus languages: Linguistic history: …of the Manchu-Tungus family is Juchen (Jurchen), which was spoken by the founders of the Chin dynasty (1115–1234) in northern China. Almost nothing is known about this now-extinct language because few examples of written Juchen remain, these being inscriptions on stelae found in Manchuria and Korea. Juchen script was borrowed…

  • Jürchid dynasty (China-Mongolia [1115-1234])

    Jin dynasty, (1115–1234), dynasty that ruled an empire formed by the Tungus Juchen (or Jurchen) tribes of Manchuria. The empire covered much of Inner Asia and all of present-day North China. Originally subjects of the Liao, an Inner Asian dynasty created in the 10th century by the Khitan tribes,

  • Jurek v. Texas (law case)

    John Paul Stevens: …coauthored the majority opinion in Jurek v. Texas (1976), which reinstated the death penalty in the United States, he remained suspicious of capital punishment, opposing it for convicted rapists and for those under age 18 at the time their crimes were committed. Eventually he concluded that adequate protections against bias…

  • Jurema cult (Brazilian cult)

    drug cult: Other psychedelic substances: …the ajuca ceremony of the Jurema cult in eastern Brazil.

  • juren (Chinese civil service)

    China: Later innovations: Those who passed the provincial examinations (juren) could be appointed directly to posts in the lower echelons of the civil service. They were also eligible to compete in triennial metropolitan examinations conducted at the national capital. Those who passed were given degrees often called doctorates (jinshi) and promptly took…

  • Jurgen (novel by Cabell)

    Jurgen, novel by James Branch Cabell, published in 1919. The New York Society for the Prevention of Vice declared Jurgen obscene and banned all displays and sales of the book. Both Jurgen and Cabell achieved considerable notoriety during the two years the book could not be sold legally; when the

  • Jurgen: A Comedy of Justice (novel by Cabell)

    Jurgen, novel by James Branch Cabell, published in 1919. The New York Society for the Prevention of Vice declared Jurgen obscene and banned all displays and sales of the book. Both Jurgen and Cabell achieved considerable notoriety during the two years the book could not be sold legally; when the

  • Jürgens, Curd (German actor)

    Curt Jurgens, German stage and motion-picture actor. He was a journalist who entered the theatre at the urging of an actress whom he was interviewing, and thereafter he worked steadily in the German theatre and in German and English films, making more than 150 of them. International recognition

  • Jurgens, Curt (German actor)

    Curt Jurgens, German stage and motion-picture actor. He was a journalist who entered the theatre at the urging of an actress whom he was interviewing, and thereafter he worked steadily in the German theatre and in German and English films, making more than 150 of them. International recognition

  • Jurgensen, Sonny (American football player)

    Washington Redskins: …of this era were quarterback Sonny Jurgensen and wide receiver Bobby Mitchell, who starred for the Redskins in the 1960s and were inducted together into the Hall of Fame in 1983. In 1971 Washington hired head coach George Allen, who promptly led the team to a postseason appearance in his…

  • Jurin, James (British physician and scientist)

    George Berkeley: His American venture and ensuing years: James Jurin, a Cambridge physician and scientist, John Walton of Dublin, and Colin Maclaurin, a Scottish mathematician, took part. Berkeley answered Jurin in his lively satire A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics (1735) and answered Walton in an appendix to that work and again in…

  • Juris et Judicii Fecialis (treatise by Zouche)

    Richard Zouche: …his treatise on international law, Juris et Judicii Fecialis (1650), the first scientific manual covering the entire field. As custom and contemporary precedents loomed larger in his work than in the work of earlier writers, Zouche is thought by some scholars to have been the first positivist. Though he did…

  • jurisdiction (law)

    Jurisdiction, in law, the authority of a court to hear and determine cases. This authority is constitutionally based. Examples of judicial jurisdiction are: appellate jurisdiction, in which a superior court has power to correct legal errors made in a lower court; concurrent jurisdiction, in which a

  • jurisprudence (law)

    Jurisprudence, Science or philosophy of law. Jurisprudence may be divided into three branches: analytical, sociological, and theoretical. The analytical branch articulates axioms, defines terms, and prescribes the methods that best enable one to view the legal order as an internally consistent,

  • jurisprudentes (Roman law)

    legal education: History: …instruction, and a class of jurisprudentes (nonpriestly legal consultants) emerged. A student, in addition to reading the few law books that were available, might attach himself to a particular jurisprudens and learn the law by attending consultations and by discussing points with his master. Over the ensuing centuries a body…

  • Juristische Methodenlehre, nach der Ausarbeitung des Jakob Grimm (work by Savigny)

    Friedrich Karl von Savigny: Legal philosophy: …1802–03 (published in 1951 as Juristische Methodenlehre, nach der Ausarbeitung des Jakob Grimm; “Legal Methodology as Elaborated by Jakob Grimm”). He held that legal science should be both historical and systematic, meaning that it should endeavour to show the inner coherence of the material handed down in the historical sources…

  • Jurjānī, al- (Iranian theologian)

    Al-Jurjānī, leading traditionalist theologian of 15th-century Iran. Jurjānī received a varied education, first in Harāt and then in Egypt. He visited Constantinople in 1374, and, upon his return in 1377, he was given a teaching appointment in Shīrāz. In 1387 Shīrāz fell to Timur, the famous central

  • Jurjānī, ?Abd al-Qāhir al- (Muslim philologist)

    Arabic literature: Emerging poetics: However, with ?Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, a paramount figure of the 11th century in Arabic and world criticism, the comparison of the tropes of the Qur?ānic text with other types of text became a highly sophisticated exploration of the nature of meaning. His Dalā?il al-I?jāz (“Proofs of I?jāz”)…

  • Jurjīs ibn Bukhtīshū? (Persian physician)

    history of medicine: Translators and saints: …where the chief physician was Jurjīs ibn Bukhtīshū?, the first of a dynasty of translators and physicians that lasted for six generations. A later translator of great renown was ?unayn ibn Is?āq, or Johannitus (born 809), whose translations were said to be worth their weight in gold.

  • Jurjumānī (people)

    Marda?te, member of a Christian people of northern Syria, employed as soldiers by Byzantine emperors. The Marda?tes inhabited the Amanus (Gāvur) Mountains, in the modern Turkish province of Hatay, the 7th-century borderland between Byzantine and Muslim territory. In the period 660–680, allied w

  • Jurkin (historical clan)

    Genghis Khan: Rise to power: …treated the nobility of the Jürkin clan in the same way. These princes, supposedly his allies, had profited by his absence on a raid against the Tatars to plunder his property. Temüjin exterminated the clan nobility and took the common people as his own soldiery and servants. When his power…

  • Jurodidae (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Jurodidae 1 species, Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae. Family Micromalthidae Rare; 1 to 2 species; most complex life cycle among coleopterans. Family Ommatidae 2 extant genera (Omma and Tetraphalerus), containing 6

  • Jurōjin (Japanese mythology)

    Jurōjin, in Japanese mythology, one of the Shichi-fuku-jin (“Seven Gods of Luck”), particularly associated with longevity. He is supposed, like Fukurokuju, another of the seven with whom he is often confused, to have once lived on earth as a Chinese Taoist sage. He is often depicted as an old man

  • Jurong (Singapore)

    Jurong, district and industrial complex of southwestern Singapore. Jurong estate, one of the largest industrial sites (9,600 acres [3,900 hectares]) in Southeast Asia, occupies drained swampland near the mouth of the Jurong River. It has heavy and light industries and is served by access roads, a

  • Jurong Bird Park (aviary, Singapore)

    Jurong Bird Park, specialty zoo in Singapore noted for its extensive aviaries. The park, managed by a government-owned company, opened in 1971. It occupies a 20-hectare (48-acre) site on the slopes of Jurong Hill, which is located about 24 km (15 miles) from downtown Singapore. The park’s most

  • Jurong estate (industrial site, Singapore)

    Jurong: Jurong estate, one of the largest industrial sites (9,600 acres [3,900 hectares]) in Southeast Asia, occupies drained swampland near the mouth of the Jurong River. It has heavy and light industries and is served by access roads, a spur railway, and its own harbour.

  • Jurong Hill (hill, Singapore)

    Jurong Bird Park: …site on the slopes of Jurong Hill, which is located about 24 km (15 miles) from downtown Singapore. The park’s most spectacular exhibit is a 2-hectare (5-acre) free-flight aviary, and there are numerous other aviaries in the park. The park houses some 3,000 birds of more than 300 species. It…

  • Juruá River (river, South America)

    Juruá River, river that rises in the highlands east of the Ucayali River in east-central Peru. It flows northward through Acre state, Brazil. Entering Amazonas state, Brazil, it meanders eastward and then east-northeastward, emptying into the stretch of the Amazon River known as the Solim?es River,

  • Juruá, Rio (river, South America)

    Juruá River, river that rises in the highlands east of the Ucayali River in east-central Peru. It flows northward through Acre state, Brazil. Entering Amazonas state, Brazil, it meanders eastward and then east-northeastward, emptying into the stretch of the Amazon River known as the Solim?es River,

  • Juruena River (river, Brazil)

    Juruena River, river, west-central Brazil, rising in the Serra dos Parecis and descending northward from the Mato Grosso Plateau for 770 miles (1,240 km), receiving the Arinos River and joining the Teles Pires, or S?o Manuel, to form the Tapajós River, a major affluent of the Amazon. A h

  • jury

    Jury, historic legal institution in which a group of laypersons participate in deciding cases brought to trial. Its exact characteristics and powers depend on the laws and practices of the countries, provinces, or states in which it is found, and there is considerable variation. Basically, however,

  • jury challenge (law)

    Voir dire, in law, process of questioning by which members of a jury are selected from a large panel, or venire, of prospective jurors. The veniremen are questioned by the judge or by the attorneys for the respective parties. The voir dire attempts to detect bias or preconceived notions of guilt or

  • jury nullification (law)

    jury: The controversy over the jury: …(which is sometimes known as jury nullification), and hence will administer justice unevenly. They also allege that juries produce a government by individuals and not by the rule of law, against which Anglo-American political tradition is so steadfastly set. Supporters of the jury system offer this very flexibility as its…

  • jury selection (law)

    grand jury: Although the jury works closely with the prosecutor, it is not formally under his control.

  • jury trial (law)

    personal-liberty laws: …which did not provide for trial by jury, Indiana (1824) and Connecticut (1828) enacted laws making jury trials for escaped slaves possible upon appeal. In 1840 Vermont and New York granted fugitives the right of jury trial and provided them with attorneys. After 1842, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled…

  • jus ad bellum (law)

    just war: …resort to armed force (jus ad bellum) is justified under certain conditions; also, the notion that the use of such force (jus in bello) should be limited in certain ways. Just war is a Western concept and should be distinguished from the Islamic concept of jihad (Arabic: “striving”), or…

  • jus canonicum (religion)

    Canon law, body of laws made within certain Christian churches (Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, independent churches of Eastern Christianity, and the Anglican Communion) by lawful ecclesiastical authority for the government both of the whole church and parts thereof and of the behaviour and

  • jus civile (Roman law)

    Roman law: Development of the jus civile and jus gentium: …the republic (753–31 bce), the jus civile (civil law) developed. Based on custom or legislation, it applied exclusively to Roman citizens. By the middle of the 3rd century bce, however, another type of law, jus gentium (law of nations), was developed by the Romans to be applied both to themselves…

  • jus cogens (Roman law)

    international law: Hierarchies of sources and norms: Jus cogens (Latin: “compelling law”) rules are peremptory norms that cannot be deviated from by states; they possess a higher status than jus dispositivum (Latin: “law subject to the dispensation of the parties”), or normal international rules, and can be altered only by subsequent norms…

  • jus commune (law history)

    civil law: The historical rise of civil law: …thus emerged was called the jus commune. In actual practice it varied from place to place, but it was nevertheless a unit that was held together by a common tradition and a common stock of learning. Although the law of the Corpus Juris Civilis (especially its main part, the Digest—the…

  • jus dispositivum (Roman law)

    international law: Hierarchies of sources and norms: …possess a higher status than jus dispositivum (Latin: “law subject to the dispensation of the parties”), or normal international rules, and can be altered only by subsequent norms of the same status. Rules in the former category include the prohibitions against genocide, slavery, and piracy and the outlawing of aggression.…

  • jus divinum (Roman law)

    pontifex: …with the administration of the jus divinum (i.e., that part of the civil law that regulated the relations of the community with the deities recognized by the state), together with a general superintendence of the worship of gens and family. Whether the literal meaning of the name indicates any special…

  • Jus Feciale Sive de Consensu et Dissensu Protestantium (work by Pufendorf)

    Samuel, baron von Pufendorf: Career in Sweden: A posthumous work, Jus Feciale Sive de Consensu et Dissensu Protestantium (“Law of Diplomacy, or Agreement and Disagreement of Protestants”), was published in 1695 and expounded more of his ideas on ecclesiastical law, arguing in favour of the formation of a united Protestant church from the Reformed and…

  • Jus Flavianum (work by Flavius)

    Gnaeus Flavius: …work later known as the Jus Flavianum. From this work the Roman people for the first time could learn the legis actiones, or verbal formulas required to maintain legal proceedings, and the dies fasti, or specified days on which proceedings could be instituted.

  • Jus gentium (work by Wolff)

    Emmerich de Vattel: …he acknowledged, a popularization of Jus gentium (1749; “The Law of Nations”), by the German philosopher Christian Wolff. Vattel, however, rejected Wolff’s conception of a regulatory world state, substituting national rights and duties proceeding from his own view of the law of nature.

  • jus gentium (Roman law)

    Jus gentium, (Latin: “law of nations”), in legal theory, that law which natural reason establishes for all men, as distinguished from jus civile, or the civil law peculiar to one state or people. Roman lawyers and magistrates originally devised jus gentium as a system of equity applying to cases

  • jus gentium privatum (law)

    jus gentium: …there is a distinction between jus gentium privatum, which denotes private international law, otherwise known as conflict of laws, and jus gentium publicum, which denotes the system of rules governing the intercourse of nations.

  • jus gentium publicum (law)

    jus gentium: …as conflict of laws, and jus gentium publicum, which denotes the system of rules governing the intercourse of nations.

  • jus in bello (law)

    just war: …debate often has centred on jus in bello issues—especially the question of whether the use of nuclear weapons is ever just. The Hague Convention (1899 and 1907) and the Geneva Conventions attempted to regulate conflict and the treatment of prisoners of war and civilians by imposing international standards. Three principles…

  • jus Latii (Roman law)

    Jus Latii, (Latin: “right of Latium”) in the Roman Republic and the Empire, certain rights and privileges, amounting to qualified citizenship, of a person who was not a Roman citizen. The rights were originally held only by the Latins, or inhabitants of Latium (the region around Rome), but they

  • jus naturale

    Natural law, in philosophy, a system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law. There have been several disagreements over the meaning of natural law and its relation to positive law. Aristotle (384–322 bce)

  • jus non scriptum (law)

    Roman law: Written and unwritten law: …jus scriptum (written law) and jus non scriptum (unwritten law). By “unwritten law” they meant custom; by “written law” they meant not only the laws derived from legislation but, literally, laws based on any written source.

  • jus primae noctis (feudal law)

    Droit du seigneur, (French: “right of the lord”), a feudal right said to have existed in medieval Europe giving the lord to whom it belonged the right to sleep the first night with the bride of any one of his vassals. The custom is paralleled in various primitive societies, but the evidence of its

  • Jus Regium (work by Mackenzie)

    Sir George Mackenzie: In Jus Regium (1684) and other works, he advocated doctrines of royal prerogative and the support of hereditary monarchy; yet he criticized intolerance and inhumanity. Mackenzie’s Vindication of the Government of Scotland During the Reign of Charles II (1691) is a valuable primary source for that…

  • jus resistendi (Hungarian law)

    Golden Bull of 1222: …the right to resist ( jus resistendi) without being subject to punishment for treason. After 1222 all Hungarian kings had to swear to uphold the Golden Bull.

  • jus sanguinis (law)

    citizenship: …regardless of parental citizenship; and jus sanguinis, whereby a person, wherever born, is a citizen of the state if, at the time of his birth, his parent is one. The United States and the countries of the British Commonwealth adopt the jus soli as their basic principle; they also recognize…

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