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  • jus scriptum (law)

    Roman law: Written and unwritten law: …Romans divided their law into jus scriptum (written law) and jus non scriptum (unwritten law). By “unwritten law” they meant custom; by “written law” they meant not only the laws derived from legislation but, literally, laws based on any written source.

  • jus soli (law)

    citizenship: …of the time of birth: jus soli, whereby citizenship is acquired by birth within the territory of the state, regardless of parental citizenship; and jus sanguinis, whereby a person, wherever born, is a citizen of the state if, at the time of his birth, his parent is one. The United…

  • Jusserand, Jean-Adrien-Antoine-Jules (French scholar)

    Jean- Jules Jusserand, French scholar and diplomat who, as French ambassador to Washington, D.C. (1902–25), helped secure the entry of the United States into World War I. He was a noted Middle English literature scholar. En Amérique jadis et maintenant (1916; With Americans of Past and Present

  • Jusserand, Jean-Jules (French scholar)

    Jean- Jules Jusserand, French scholar and diplomat who, as French ambassador to Washington, D.C. (1902–25), helped secure the entry of the United States into World War I. He was a noted Middle English literature scholar. En Amérique jadis et maintenant (1916; With Americans of Past and Present

  • Jussieu, Adrien-Laurent-Henri de (French botanist)

    Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu: His son, Adrien-Laurent-Henri de Jussieu (1797–1853), is best known for his Embryons Monocotylédones (1844), on which he worked for more than 13 years, and Cours élémentaire de botanique (1842–44), which was translated into many languages.

  • Jussieu, Antoine de (French botanist and physician)

    Antoine de Jussieu, French physician and botanist who wrote many papers on human anatomy, zoology, and botany, including one on the flower and fruit of the coffee shrub. After studying medicine at the University of Montpellier, he travelled through Spain, Portugal, and southern France, making a

  • Jussieu, Antoine-Laurent de (French botanist)

    Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, French botanist who developed the principles that served as the foundation of a natural system of plant classification. Antoine-Laurent was brought in 1770 by his uncle Bernard to the Jardin du Roi, where he became demonstrator in botany. In 1773 his paper, presented to

  • Jussieu, Bernard de (French botanist)

    Bernard de Jussieu, French botanist who founded a method of plant classification based on the anatomical characters of the plant embryo. After studying medicine at Montpellier, he became in 1722 subdemonstrator of plants in the Jardin du Roi, Paris. In 1759 he was invited to develop a botanical

  • Jussieu, Joseph de (French botanist)

    Joseph de Jussieu, French botanist who accompanied the French physicist Charles-Marie de la Condamine’s expedition to Peru to measure an arc of meridian. He remained in South America for 35 years, returning to Paris in 1771. He introduced the common garden heliotrope (Heliotropium peruvianum) into

  • jussion, lettre de (French history)

    Parlement: …to order it in a letter or appear in person before the Parlement in a special session called the lit de justice (literally “bed of justice,” a term originally used to describe the seat occupied by the king in these proceedings), where his presence would suspend any delegation of authority…

  • Just a Gigolo (film by Hemmings [1978])

    Marlene Dietrich: …she appeared in the film Just a Gigolo (1978). The documentary film Marlene, a review of her life and career, which included a voice-over interview of the star by Maximilian Schell, was released in 1986. Her autobiography, Ich bin, Gott sei Dank, Berlinerin (“I Am, Thank God, a Berliner”; Eng.…

  • Just Around the Corner (film by Cummings [1938])

    Irving Cummings: …then made the Depression-era comedy Just Around the Corner (1938), which also starred Bill Robinson. It marked the last collaboration between Cummings and Temple, whose popularity subsequently waned.

  • Just Cause, Operation (United States-Panamanian history)

    Panama: Invasion of Panama: Retaliation by the United States was quick and decisive. On December 17, U.S. President George Bush ordered troops to Panama, with the subsequently announced aims of seizing Noriega to face drug charges in the United States, protecting American lives and property, and restoring Panamanian liberties.…

  • just compensation (law)

    Just compensation, Compensation for property taken under eminent domain that places a property owner in the same position as before the property was taken. It is usually the fair market value of the property taken. Attorney’s fees or expenses are usually

  • Just Dance (song by Lady Gaga)

    Lady Gaga: Success: The Fame and The Fame Monster: Her first single, “Just Dance,” became popular in clubs throughout the United States and Europe and eventually landed at number one on the Billboard Pop Songs chart (also called the radio chart). Three other singles off The Fame—“Poker Face,” “LoveGame,” and “Paparazzi”—also reached number one on the radio…

  • just distribution (economics)

    Robert Nozick: The entitlement theory of justice: …justice: they wrongly define a just distribution in terms of the pattern it exhibits at a given time (e.g., an equal distribution or a distribution that is unequal to a certain extent) or in terms of the historical circumstances surrounding its development (e.g., those who worked the hardest have more)…

  • Just Getting Started (film by Shelton [2017])

    Morgan Freeman: …plan a bank heist; and Just Getting Started (2017), in which two rivals at a retirement community team up to save the woman of both their affections from her kidnappers. He later portrayed the toy maker Drosselmeyer in The Nutcracker and the Four Realms (2018), an adaptation of Pyotr Ilyich…

  • Just Go With It (film by Dugan [2011])

    Adam Sandler: …Rock; and the romantic farce Just Go with It (2011), which paired him with Jennifer Aniston. In the broad comedy Jack and Jill (2011), he portrayed both halves of a set of brother-sister twins, and in the raunchy That’s My Boy (2012), he starred as a gregarious boor reconnecting with…

  • Just Imagine (film by Butler [1930])

    David Butler: …Gaynor and Charles Farrell, and Just Imagine (1930), an ambitious futuristic comedy starring comedian El Brendel as a man who awakes after 50 years and finds himself in 1980s New York City. Butler also directed Will Rogers in several movies, including A Connecticut Yankee (1931), an adaptation of Mark Twain’s…

  • just intonation (music)

    Just intonation, in music, system of tuning in which the correct size of all the intervals of the scale is calculated by different additions and subtractions of pure natural thirds and fifths (the intervals that occur between the fourth and fifth, and second and third tones, respectively, of the

  • Just Kids (memoir by Smith)

    Patti Smith: …2010 Smith published the memoir Just Kids, which focused on her relationship with Mapplethorpe. The critically acclaimed work won the National Book Award for nonfiction. Her other memoirs are M Train (2015), about her travels and other experiences, and Year of the Monkey (2019), which includes some of her photographs.…

  • just mean (Hellenistic philosophy)

    Horace: Life: …principles taken from Hellenistic philosophy: metriotes (the just mean) and autarkeia (the wise man’s self-sufficiency). The ideal of the just mean allows Horace, who is philosophically an Epicurean, to reconcile traditional morality with hedonism. Self-sufficiency is the basis for his aspiration for a quiet life, far from political passions and…

  • Just Mean in Belief, The (work by al-Ghazālī)

    al-Ghazālī: …Spanish), al-Iqti?ād fī al-l?tiqād (The Just Mean in Belief ), was probably written before he became a mystic, but there is nothing in the authentic writings to show that he rejected these doctrines, even though he came to hold that theology—the rational, systematic presentation of religious truths—was inferior to…

  • Just So Stories (work by Kipling)

    Just So Stories, collection of children’s animal fables linked by poems by Rudyard Kipling, published in 1902. Most of the stories include far-fetched descriptions of how certain animals developed their peculiar physical characteristics, as in “How the Leopard Got His Spots.” In the stories,

  • Just the Way You Are (song by Joel)

    Billy Joel: …singles (one of which, “Just the Way You Are,” won Grammy Awards for song of the year and record of the year), it sold five million copies, surpassing Simon and Garfunkel’s Bridge over Troubled Water to become Columbia’s best-selling album to date.

  • just war (international law)

    Just war, notion that the resort to armed force (jus ad bellum) is justified under certain conditions; also, the notion that the use of such force (jus in bello) should be limited in certain ways. Just war is a Western concept and should be distinguished from the Islamic concept of jihad (Arabic:

  • Just, League of the (European organization)

    Karl Marx: Brussels period: …1847 a secret society, the League of the Just, composed mainly of emigrant German handicraftsmen, met in London and decided to formulate a political program. They sent a representative to Marx to ask him to join the league; Marx overcame his doubts and, with Engels, joined the organization, which thereupon…

  • Just, Marcel (psychologist)

    human intelligence: Cognitive theories: The psychologists Marcel Just and Patricia Carpenter, for example, showed that complicated intelligence-test items, such as figural matrix problems involving reasoning with geometric shapes, could be solved by a sophisticated computer program at a level of accuracy comparable to that of human test takers. It is in…

  • just-in-time manufacturing (business)

    Just-in-time manufacturing (JIT), Production-control system, developed by Toyota Motor Corp. and imported to the West, that has revolutionized manufacturing methods in some industries. By relying on daily deliveries of most supplies, it eliminates waste due to overproduction and lowers warehousing

  • justacorps (clothing)

    dress: Europe, 1500–1800: …a knee-length coat called a justaucorps, an idea deriving from the Persian caftan. It had no collar and was worn open in front. The short sleeves ended in cuffs. By 1680 the sleeves were longer, and under the coat was worn a slightly shorter waistcoat together with close-fitting knee-breeches. At…

  • Juste de Gand (Netherlandish painter)

    Justus of Ghent, Netherlandish painter who has been identified with Joos van Wassenhove, a master of the painters’ guild at Antwerp in 1460 and at Ghent in 1464. In Justus’s earliest known painting, the Crucifixion triptych (c. 1465), the attenuated, angular figures and the barren landscape

  • Juster, Norton (American author)

    children's literature: Contemporary times: …The Phantom Tollbooth (1961) by Norton Juster, a fantasy about a boy “who didn’t know what to do with himself.” Not entirely unjustly, it has been compared to Alice. The second received less attention but is more remarkable: The Mouse and His Child (1969), by Russell Hoban, who had been…

  • justice (social concept)

    Justice, In philosophy, the concept of a proper proportion between a person’s deserts (what is merited) and the good and bad things that befall or are allotted to him or her. Aristotle’s discussion of the virtue of justice has been the starting point for almost all Western accounts. For him, the

  • Justice (play by Galsworthy)

    English literature: The Edwardians: …capital and labour, and in Justice (1910) he lent his support to reform of the penal system, while Harley Granville-Barker, whose revolutionary approach to stage direction did much to change theatrical production in the period, dissected in The Voysey Inheritance (performed 1905, published 1909) and Waste (performed 1907, published 1909)…

  • justice (law)

    Judge, public official vested with the authority to hear, determine, and preside over legal matters brought in a court of law. In jury cases, the judge presides over the selection of the panel and instructs it concerning pertinent law. The judge also may rule on motions made before or during a

  • Justice and Development Party (political party, Turkey)

    Justice and Development Party, political party that came to power in Turkey in the general elections of 2002. In spite of the party’s nonconfessional mandate, the AKP draws significant support from nonsecular Turks and has faced objections from some segments of Turkish society that it harbours an

  • Justice and Development Party (political party, Morocco)

    Morocco: The reign of Mu?ammad VI: The Justice and Development Party (Parti de la Justice et du Développement; PJD), a moderate Islamist party that had campaigned on economic reform and against corruption, won 107 out of 395 seats in parliamentary elections held in November 2011. In accordance with the new constitution, Mu?ammad…

  • Justice and Divine Vengeance Pursuing Crime (painting by Prud’hon)

    Pierre-Paul Prud'hon: …honour with an allegorical work, Justice and Divine Vengeance Pursuing Crime (1808). The elegance, fancy, and grace of his work, reminiscent of the pre-Revolutionary era, prompted David to compare him unfavourably with the Rococo master Fran?ois Boucher. Because of his imperfect understanding of the aging of pigment, Prud’hon’s paintings have…

  • Justice and Equality Movement (Sudanese rebel group)

    Janjaweed: …most prominent rebel groups, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA), mounted a joint raid on the Sudanese air base at Al-Fāshir in April 2003, destroying aircraft and capturing dozens of prisoners. The Al-Fāshir raid was a psychological blow to the government in Khartoum, and…

  • Justice and Liberty (Italian political organization)

    Italy: Anti-Fascist movements: Apart from the Communists, only Justice and Liberty, an alliance of republicans, democrats, and reformist Socialists founded by Carlo Rosselli and others in 1929, managed to build up a clandestine organization in Italy and a strong organization abroad, above all in France and Switzerland. Most prominent anti-Fascists were in prison,…

  • Justice et du Développement, Parti de la (political party, Morocco)

    Morocco: The reign of Mu?ammad VI: The Justice and Development Party (Parti de la Justice et du Développement; PJD), a moderate Islamist party that had campaigned on economic reform and against corruption, won 107 out of 395 seats in parliamentary elections held in November 2011. In accordance with the new constitution, Mu?ammad…

  • Justice League (film by Snyder [2017])

    Ben Affleck: Roles of the 2010s: …Dawn of Justice (2016) and Justice League (2017). In 2016 Affleck also portrayed a math savant who works as a bookkeeper for gangsters and drug cartels in the thriller The Accountant. Movies from 2019 included Triple Frontier, a thriller in which a team of former Special Forces operatives face a…

  • Justice League of America (comic-book superhero team)

    Zatara and Zatanna: …various guest appearances with the Justice League, Zatanna finally joined the team in 1978. Zatanna wore costumes that more closely fit the superhero mold before resuming her iconic top hat and tails. Zatara sacrificed his life to save Zatanna in Swamp Thing no. 50 (July 1986), although his ghost made…

  • Justice Movement (political party, Pakistan)

    Imran Khan: Entry into politics: …founded his own political party, Tehreek-e-Insaf (Justice Movement), in 1996. In national elections held the following year, the newly formed party won less than 1 percent of the vote and failed to win any seats in the National Assembly, but it fared slightly better in the 2002 elections, winning a…

  • justice of the peace (law)

    Justice of the peace, in Anglo-American legal systems, a local magistrate empowered chiefly to administer criminal or civil justice in minor cases. A justice of the peace may, in some jurisdictions, also administer oaths and perform marriages. In England and Wales a magistrate is appointed on

  • Justice Party (political party, Denmark)

    Denmark: Postwar politics: …for a short period, the Justice Party (Retsforbundet; a party based on the ideas of the economist Henry George), and always with a Social Democrat as prime minister. The major results were new tax laws, particularly the institution of a general value-added consumer tax as well as a new type…

  • Justice Party (political party, Turkey)

    Bülent Ecevit: …to Süleyman Demirel of the Justice Party. After further crises in 1977, during which Ecevit briefly formed a government (June 21–July 3), he was again prime minister in January 1978. Acute economic and social difficulties, however, led to the fall of his government in October 1979.

  • Justice Society of America (comic-book superhero team)

    Black Canary: …as a member of the Justice Society of America in All Star Comics.

  • justice, court of (law)

    Court, a person or body of persons having judicial authority to hear and resolve disputes in civil, criminal, ecclesiastical, or military cases. The word court, which originally meant simply an enclosed place, also denotes the chamber, hall, building, or other place where judicial proceedings are

  • Justice, Court of

    Court of Justice of the European Union ((CJEU)), the judicial branch of the European Union (EU). Its basic mission is to ensure the observance and uniform application and interpretation of EU law within EU member states and institutions. Its headquarters are in Luxembourg. The CJEU originated in

  • Justice, Donald (American poet and editor)

    Donald Justice, American poet and editor best known for finely crafted verse that frequently illuminates the pain of loss and the desolation of an unlived life. Educated at the University of Miami (B.A., 1945), the University of North Carolina (M.A., 1947), and the University of Iowa in Iowa City

  • Justice, Donald Rodney (American poet and editor)

    Donald Justice, American poet and editor best known for finely crafted verse that frequently illuminates the pain of loss and the desolation of an unlived life. Educated at the University of Miami (B.A., 1945), the University of North Carolina (M.A., 1947), and the University of Iowa in Iowa City

  • Justice, La (newspaper by Clemenceau)

    Georges Clemenceau: Early political career: …1880 he started his newspaper, La Justice, which became the principal organ of the Radicals in Paris; from that time onward, throughout the presidency (1879–87) of Jules Grévy, he rapidly built up his reputation as a political critic of republicans and radicals as well as of conservatives and as a…

  • justice, obstruction of (crime)

    Robert Mueller: Later work and Russia investigation: Concerning obstruction of justice, Barr quoted Mueller, who stated that “while this report does not conclude that the President committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him.” Barr went on to say that, in the absence of a legal conclusion from Mueller, he and Deputy…

  • justice, officer of (legal office)

    legal profession: Public-directed practice: …the office of the “prosecutor general,” or “officer of justice”; a similar service existed in most of the socialist countries of eastern Europe.

  • Justice, Ordinances of (Italy [1293])

    Vieri dei Cerchi: …compromise position toward the democratic Ordinances of Justice passed in 1293, leaning toward their acceptance, while Donati wanted them repealed. Creating a schism in the Guelf party, they became heads of parties that took their names from factions in neighbouring Pistoia, where Florence was enforcing a five-year truce, the Cerchi…

  • Justice, Palace of (courts, Paris, France)

    Western architecture: France: Louis Duc’s Palace of Justice, Paris (1857–68), articulated with a powerful Doric order, is a major expression of Beaux-Arts ideals, but it is Charles Garnier’s Paris Opéra House (1862–75) that is widely regarded as the climax of 19th-century French classicism. The ingenious planning and spatial complexity of…

  • Justice, Temple of (building, Monrovia, Liberia)

    Monrovia: …the City Hall, and the Temple of Justice. Many of these and other buildings, however, were severely damaged or destroyed during the fierce multisided civil war beginning in 1990.

  • Justice, U.S. Department of (United States government)

    U.S. Department of Justice, executive division of the U.S. federal government responsible for law enforcement. Headed by the U.S. attorney general, it investigates and prosecutes cases under federal antitrust, civil-rights, criminal, tax, and environmental laws. It controls the Federal Bureau of

  • Justicia (plant genus)

    Acanthaceae: The largest genera include Justicia (600 species; now comprising former segregate genera such as Jacobinia and Beloperone), Reullia (355), Stobilanthes (350), Barleria (300), Aphelandra (170), Staurogyne (140), Dicliptera

  • justicia (Spanish legal official)

    Spain: Aragon and Catalonia: …under the jurisdiction of a justicia who held his office for life and was therefore independent of the king’s pleasure. It was this highest judge who crowned the kneeling king and made him swear to observe the fueros, the laws and privileges, of the kingdom. Although it is now known…

  • Justicia brandegeana (plant)

    Shrimp plant, (Justicia brandegeeana), popular border and greenhouse ornamental of the family Acanthaceae, native to warm regions of the Americas and to the West Indies. Grown for its unusual flower clusters, the shrimp plant will bloom continuously in frost-free areas and is highly attractive to

  • Justicialist Nationalist Movement (Argentine history)

    Peronist, in Argentine politics, a supporter of Juan Perón, a member of the Justicialist Party (Partido Justicialista; PJ), or an adherent of the populist and nationalistic policies that Perón espoused. Peronism has played an important part in Argentina’s history since the mid-1940s. The Peronist

  • Justicialist Party (political party, Argentina)

    Peronist: …Justicialist Nationalist Movement (later the Justicialist Party), the Peronists swept back into power in 1973 when the military permitted the first general elections in 10 years. Perón returned from exile and became president. However, deep dissension between right-wing and left-wing Peronists erupted into terrorism and violence after Perón’s death in…

  • justiciar (medieval law)

    Justiciar, early English judicial official of the king who, unlike all other officers of the central administration, was not a member of the king’s official household. The justiciarship originated in the king’s need for a responsible subordinate who could take a wide view of the affairs of the

  • Justificacion of Queen Elizabeth in Relacion to the Affair of Mary Queen of Scottes, A (work by Puttenham)

    George Puttenham: …public affairs is shown by A Justificacion of Queen Elizabeth in Relacion to the Affair of Mary Queen of Scottes, undertaken at the queen’s request and anonymously circulated, but attributed to Puttenham in two of eight extant copies of the manuscript.

  • justification (Christianity)

    Justification, in Christian theology, either (1) the act by which God moves a willing person from the state of sin (injustice) to the state of grace (justice); (2) the change in a person’s condition moving from a state of sin to a state of righteousness; or (3) especially in Protestantism, the act

  • justification (printing)

    printing: The invention of typography—Gutenberg (1450?): …held in the hand; (3) justifying the line; that is to say, spacing the letters in each line out to a uniform length by using little blank pieces of lead between words; and (4), after printing, distributing the type, letter by letter, back in the compartments of the typecase.

  • justification (philosophy)

    philosophy of science: Logics of discovery and justification: An ideal theory of scientific method would consist of instructions that could lead an investigator from ignorance to knowledge. Descartes and Bacon sometimes wrote as if they could offer so ideal a theory, but after the mid-20th century the orthodox view was that this…

  • Justification by Faith Alone (work by Edwards)

    Jonathan Edwards: Pastorate at Northampton: …series of sermons on “Justification by Faith Alone” in November 1734. The result was a great revival in Northampton and along the Connecticut River Valley in the winter and spring of 1734–35, during which period more than 300 of Edwards’s people made professions of faith. His subsequent report, A…

  • Justification of God, The (work by Forsyth)

    Peter Taylor Forsyth: …and the arts, and in The Justification of God (1916), he considered the relation of Christian faith to the questions of his day.

  • Justified (album by Timberlake)

    Justin Timberlake: …pop vocal album) solo debut, Justified (2002), most notably “Cry Me a River” (best male pop vocal performance). In 2003 Timberlake was a guest performer on the Black Eyed Peas’ hit “Where Is the Love?” During the halftime performance of the 2004 Super Bowl, Timberlake was involved in a notorious…

  • Justify (racehorse)

    Bob Baffert: …another Triple Crown winner when Justify won the Kentucky Derby (by 2 1/2 lengths), the Preakness Stakes (by 1/2 length), and the Belmont Stakes (by 1 3/4 lengths); the first two races were run in rain and mud. Baffert became just the second trainer (after Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons) to win…

  • Justin (Gnostic teacher)

    gnosticism: Diversity of gnostic myths: Another 2nd-century figure, Justin (not to be confused with the more famous Justin Martyr), taught that there were three original entities, a transcendent being called the Good, a male intermediate figure named Elohim (the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible, or Old Testament), and an earth-mother figure…

  • Justin (Roman historian)

    Justin, Roman historian who was the author of Epitome, an abridgment of the Historiae Philippicae et totius mundi origines et terrae situs (Philippic Histories) by Pompeius Trogus, whose work is lost. Most of the abridgement is not so much a summary as passages quoted from Trogus, connected by

  • Justin I (Byzantine emperor)

    Justin I, Byzantine emperor (from 518) who was a champion of Christian orthodoxy; he was the uncle and predecessor of the great emperor Justinian. Born of Illyrian peasant stock, Justin was a swineherd in his youth. At about the age of 20 he went to Constantinople, where he entered the palace guard

  • Justin II (Byzantine emperor)

    Justin II, Byzantine emperor (from 565) whose attempts to maintain the integrity of the Byzantine Empire against the encroachments of the Avars, Persians, and Lombards were frustrated by disastrous military reverses. A nephew and close adviser of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, Justin II became

  • Justin Martyr, Saint (Christian apologist)

    St. Justin Martyr, ; feast day June 1), one of the most important of the Greek philosopher-Apologists in the early Christian church. His writings represent one of the first positive encounters of Christian revelation with Greek philosophy and laid the basis for a theology of history. A pagan reared

  • Justin Morgan (horse)

    Morgan: …by a horse known as Justin Morgan, after his owner. Though the horse died in 1821, his individual stamp still persists. He stood approximately 14 hands (56 inches, or 142 cm) high and was a compact, active, and virile horse whose pedigree was probably a blend of Thoroughbred and Arabian,…

  • Justine (novel by Durrell)

    The Alexandria Quartet: …sensuous tetralogy, which consists of Justine (1957), Balthazar (1958), Mountolive (1958), and Clea (1960), is set in Alexandria, Egypt, during the 1940s. Three of the books are written in the first person, Mountolive in the third. The first three volumes describe, from different viewpoints, a series of events in Alexandria…

  • Justine (novel by Sade)

    Justine, erotic novel by the Marquis de Sade, originally published in French as Justine, ou les malheurs de la vertu. He wrote an early version of the work, entitled Les Infortunes de la vertu, while imprisoned in the Bastille in 1787 and completed the novel in 1791 while free. Featuring

  • Justine, ou les malheurs de la vertu (novel by Sade)

    Justine, erotic novel by the Marquis de Sade, originally published in French as Justine, ou les malheurs de la vertu. He wrote an early version of the work, entitled Les Infortunes de la vertu, while imprisoned in the Bastille in 1787 and completed the novel in 1791 while free. Featuring

  • Justine; or, The Misfortunes of Virtue (novel by Sade)

    Justine, erotic novel by the Marquis de Sade, originally published in French as Justine, ou les malheurs de la vertu. He wrote an early version of the work, entitled Les Infortunes de la vertu, while imprisoned in the Bastille in 1787 and completed the novel in 1791 while free. Featuring

  • Justinian (Romanian Orthodox patriarch)

    Justinian, patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church (1948–77) who helped his church become one of the strongest in Eastern Europe. After completing his studies at the Theological Faculty at Bucharest, Justinian was ordained in 1923 and worked in a parish until he was appointed to the staff of the

  • Justinian I (Byzantine emperor)

    Justinian I, Byzantine emperor (527–565), noted for his administrative reorganization of the imperial government and for his sponsorship of a codification of laws known as the Code of Justinian (Codex Justinianus; 534). Justinian was a Latin-speaking Illyrian and was born of peasant stock.

  • Justinian II (Byzantine emperor)

    Justinian II, last Byzantine emperor of the Heraclian dynasty. Although possessed of a despotic temperament and capable of acts of cruelty, Justinian was in many ways an able ruler, who recovered for the empire areas of Macedonia that had previously been conquered by Slavic tribesmen. On the death

  • Justinian Plague (pandemic [circa 6th century ce])

    plague: History: …historian Procopius and others, the outbreak began in Egypt and moved along maritime trade routes, striking Constantinople in 542. There it killed residents by the tens of thousands, the dead falling so quickly that authorities had trouble disposing of them. Judging by descriptions of the symptoms and mode of transmission…

  • Justinian, Code of (law)

    Code of Justinian, collections of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I from 529 to 565 ce. Strictly speaking, the works did not constitute a new legal code. Rather, Justinian’s committees of jurists provided basically two reference

  • Justinianopolis (ancient Cappadocian city, Turkey)

    K?r?ehir: It may have been Justinianopolis (Mocissus), which, under the 6th-century Byzantine emperor Justinian I, was a major town in the ancient district of Cappadocia. From the 14th to the 18th century, K?r?ehir was the stronghold of the influential Ahi brotherhood, a religious fraternity developed by the 14th-century leader Ahi…

  • Justinianopolis (ancient city, Tunisia)

    Hadrumetum, ancient Phoenician colony some 100 miles (160 km) south of Carthage, on the east coast of the Al-Hammāmāt Gulf in what is now Tunisia. Hadrumetum was one of the most important communities within the Carthaginian territory in northern Africa because of its location on the sea at the edge

  • Justinianopolis (Turkey)

    Anazarbus, former city of the ancient province of Cilicia in Anatolia that was important in the Roman and Byzantine periods. It was located in what is now south-central Turkey. The original native settlement was refounded by the Romans in 19 bc, following a visit by Augustus. It rivaled Tarsus, the

  • Justinianopolis (Greece)

    Kastoría, town and dímos (municipality), West Macedonia (Modern Greek: Dytikí Makedonía) periféreia (region), northern Greece. The town stands on a promontory reaching out from the western shore of Lake Kastorías. The lake is formed in a deep hollow that is surrounded by limestone mountains. The

  • Justinianus, Flavius (Byzantine emperor)

    Justinian I, Byzantine emperor (527–565), noted for his administrative reorganization of the imperial government and for his sponsorship of a codification of laws known as the Code of Justinian (Codex Justinianus; 534). Justinian was a Latin-speaking Illyrian and was born of peasant stock.

  • Justinopolis (Turkey)

    Anazarbus, former city of the ancient province of Cilicia in Anatolia that was important in the Roman and Byzantine periods. It was located in what is now south-central Turkey. The original native settlement was refounded by the Romans in 19 bc, following a visit by Augustus. It rivaled Tarsus, the

  • Justinus, Marcus Junianus (Roman historian)

    Justin, Roman historian who was the author of Epitome, an abridgment of the Historiae Philippicae et totius mundi origines et terrae situs (Philippic Histories) by Pompeius Trogus, whose work is lost. Most of the abridgement is not so much a summary as passages quoted from Trogus, connected by

  • justitiekansler (Swedish government official)

    Sweden: Justice: The chancellor of justice (justitiekansler) is a government appointee who supervises courts and administrative organs with particular concern for safeguarding the state’s interests.

  • Justness of Taxation, The (work by Lindahl)

    Erik Robert Lindahl: …Die Gerechtigkeit der Besteuerung (1919; “The Justness of Taxation”). That principle holds that each person’s share of taxes paid for government-provided goods and services should equal the share of benefits each person receives. Lindahl argued that not only would such a payment scale be just and fair, but it would…

  • Justo, Agustín Pedro (president of Argentina)

    Agustín Pedro Justo, army officer and president (1932–38) of Argentina. After studying at military academies, he spent the years from 1903 until 1930 teaching military science, mathematics, and civil engineering at civilian and military colleges in or near Buenos Aires. He rose to the rank of

  • Justowriter (device)

    printing: Cold type: In the Justowriter, the keyboard on which the uncoded, unjustified proofing copy is typed simultaneously perforates a paper tape with the code for the letters, as well as, for each line, the code for the amount of space between the words as indicated by a calculator. The…

  • Justus (album by the Monkees)

    the Monkees: …sporadic TV ventures, and a 1996 reunion album, with predictably negligible if also irrelevant artistic results. A series of tour dates in 2011 commemorated the 45th anniversary of the group’s inception. Following Jones’s death in 2012, the surviving Monkees (including Nesmith) went on tour, and they celebrated their 50th anniversary…

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