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  • Lü (people)

    Tai: The Lü people live in southern Yunnan and in nearby areas of Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos. Their houses are typically built on piles seven or eight feet high. They are culturally less Sinicized than the Tai of other Chinese provinces and maintain close relations with the…

  • Lü Buwei (Chinese statesman)

    Lü Buwei, Chinese statesman who was minister of the state of Qin, one of the small feudal kingdoms into which China was divided between 770 and 221 bce. Qin, in northwestern China, under Lü’s clever management, engulfed many of its neighbouring states, and by the end of Lü’s ministry China was well

  • Lu Chi (Chinese poet and critic)

    Lu Ji, renowned Chinese literary critic and the first important writer to emerge from the kingdom of Wu (222–280). Grandson of the great Lu Xun, one of the founders of the Wu kingdom, and fourth son of Lu Kang, the Wu commander in chief, Lu Ji remained in obscurity for nine years after the Wu

  • Lu Chiu-Yuan (Chinese philosopher)

    Lu Jiuyuan, Idealist neo-Confucian philosopher of the Southern Song and rival of his contemporary, the great neo-Confucian rationalist Zhu Xi. Lu’s thought was revised and refined three centuries later by the Ming dynasty neo-Confucian Wang Yangming. The name of their school is the Learning of the

  • Lu Dongbin (Chinese religious figure)

    Lu Dongbin, in Chinese religion, one of the Baxian, the Eight Immortals of Daoism, who discoursed in his Stork Peak refuge on the three categories of merit and the five grades of genies (spirits). He is depicted in art as a man of letters carrying a magic sword and a fly switch. One of numerous

  • Lu Erkui (Chinese writer)

    encyclopaedia: China: Lu Erkui’s Ciyuan (1915), with a supplement issued in 1931, was the first really modern Chinese encyclopaedia and set the style for nearly all later works of this nature.

  • Lü Exu (empress of Han dynasty)

    Gaohou, the first woman ruler of China, wife of Gaozu, the first emperor (reigned 206–195 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220). After Gaozu’s death, his and Gaohou’s young son, the emperor Huidi (reigned 195–188 bc), ascended the throne. Gaohou, whose ambition had spurred her husband’s rise to

  • Lu Fangweng (Chinese author)

    Lu You, one of the most important and prolific Chinese writers of the Southern Song dynasty, noted for his collection of nearly 10,000 poems as well as numerous prose pieces. Primarily a poet, Lu gained renown for his simple, direct expression and for his attention to realistic detail, features

  • Lu Hsing (Chinese scholar)

    Luxing: In life, Luxing was a scholar who bore the name Shi Fen. In the 2nd century bc he was a favourite of Emperor Jing and was made a high official at the royal court. His family prospered through imperial generosity. Perhaps because the Chinese have many gods…

  • Lu Hsing (Chinese deity)

    Luxing, in Chinese mythology, one of three stellar gods known collectively as Fulushou. He was honoured as a deity who could make people happy through increased salaries or promotions that brought prosperity (lu). In life, Luxing was a scholar who bore the name Shi Fen. In the 2nd century bc he was

  • Lu Hsiu-ching (Chinese Daoist)

    Lu Hsiu-ching, scholar of Taoism in South China who edited the revealed Ling-pao scriptures that became the basis for the most important ritualistic, or liturgical, traditions in religious Taoism. His efforts to assemble Taoist texts and to unify Taoist rituals show the influence of Buddhism d

  • Lu Hsün (Chinese writer)

    Lu Xun, Chinese writer, commonly considered the greatest in 20th-century Chinese literature, who was also an important critic known for his sharp and unique essays on the historical traditions and modern conditions of China. Born to a family that was traditional, wealthy, and esteemed (his

  • Lu Ji (Chinese poet and critic)

    Lu Ji, renowned Chinese literary critic and the first important writer to emerge from the kingdom of Wu (222–280). Grandson of the great Lu Xun, one of the founders of the Wu kingdom, and fourth son of Lu Kang, the Wu commander in chief, Lu Ji remained in obscurity for nine years after the Wu

  • Lu Jiuyuan (Chinese philosopher)

    Lu Jiuyuan, Idealist neo-Confucian philosopher of the Southern Song and rival of his contemporary, the great neo-Confucian rationalist Zhu Xi. Lu’s thought was revised and refined three centuries later by the Ming dynasty neo-Confucian Wang Yangming. The name of their school is the Learning of the

  • Lu Mountains (mountains, China)

    Lu Mountains, famous mountain area in northern Jiangxi province, southeastern China. Situated to the south of Jiujiang and west of Xingzi, it looks north over the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) valley and east over Lake Poyang. It forms the eastern extremity of the Mufu Mountains. Its highest peak,

  • Lü Peilin (Chinese Buddhist philosopher)

    Taixu, Chinese Buddhist monk and philosopher who sought to revitalize modern Buddhism throughout the world. Taixu received his early training in Buddhism in the Tiandong Monastery near Ningbo. In 1912 he helped organize the Association for the Advancement of Buddhism with headquarters in Nanjing.

  • lü pipes (musical instrument)

    Lü pipes, (Chinese lü: “law”), ancient Chinese musical instruments constructed for tuning purposes. To establish pitches, 12 bamboo pipes, closed at one end, were cut into graduated lengths. When blown across their open ends, they produced the 12 lü, or fundamental pitches, of the octave. These

  • Lü Pu-wei (Chinese statesman)

    Lü Buwei, Chinese statesman who was minister of the state of Qin, one of the small feudal kingdoms into which China was divided between 770 and 221 bce. Qin, in northwestern China, under Lü’s clever management, engulfed many of its neighbouring states, and by the end of Lü’s ministry China was well

  • Lu Rongting (Chinese military leader)

    Sun Yat-sen: Later struggles: …he lost the support of Lu Rongting, the military overlord of Guangdong.

  • Lu Shan (mountains, China)

    Lu Mountains, famous mountain area in northern Jiangxi province, southeastern China. Situated to the south of Jiujiang and west of Xingzi, it looks north over the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) valley and east over Lake Poyang. It forms the eastern extremity of the Mufu Mountains. Its highest peak,

  • Lu Shiheng (Chinese poet and critic)

    Lu Ji, renowned Chinese literary critic and the first important writer to emerge from the kingdom of Wu (222–280). Grandson of the great Lu Xun, one of the founders of the Wu kingdom, and fourth son of Lu Kang, the Wu commander in chief, Lu Ji remained in obscurity for nine years after the Wu

  • Lü Tung-pin (Chinese religious figure)

    Lu Dongbin, in Chinese religion, one of the Baxian, the Eight Immortals of Daoism, who discoursed in his Stork Peak refuge on the three categories of merit and the five grades of genies (spirits). He is depicted in art as a man of letters carrying a magic sword and a fly switch. One of numerous

  • Lu Wuguan (Chinese author)

    Lu You, one of the most important and prolific Chinese writers of the Southern Song dynasty, noted for his collection of nearly 10,000 poems as well as numerous prose pieces. Primarily a poet, Lu gained renown for his simple, direct expression and for his attention to realistic detail, features

  • Lu Xiangshan (Chinese philosopher)

    Lu Jiuyuan, Idealist neo-Confucian philosopher of the Southern Song and rival of his contemporary, the great neo-Confucian rationalist Zhu Xi. Lu’s thought was revised and refined three centuries later by the Ming dynasty neo-Confucian Wang Yangming. The name of their school is the Learning of the

  • Lu Xiujing (Chinese Daoist)

    Lu Hsiu-ching, scholar of Taoism in South China who edited the revealed Ling-pao scriptures that became the basis for the most important ritualistic, or liturgical, traditions in religious Taoism. His efforts to assemble Taoist texts and to unify Taoist rituals show the influence of Buddhism d

  • Lu Xun (Chinese writer)

    Lu Xun, Chinese writer, commonly considered the greatest in 20th-century Chinese literature, who was also an important critic known for his sharp and unique essays on the historical traditions and modern conditions of China. Born to a family that was traditional, wealthy, and esteemed (his

  • Lu Yan (Chinese religious figure)

    Lu Dongbin, in Chinese religion, one of the Baxian, the Eight Immortals of Daoism, who discoursed in his Stork Peak refuge on the three categories of merit and the five grades of genies (spirits). He is depicted in art as a man of letters carrying a magic sword and a fly switch. One of numerous

  • Lu Yanshao (Chinese painter)

    Lu Yanshao, Chinese landscape painter whose vigorous style received critical acclaim in the late 20th century. As a child, Lu showed an interest in Chinese painting, calligraphy, and seal carving. In 1927 he began to study under Wang Tongyu, a former scholar-official of the imperial court in the

  • Lu Yen-shao (Chinese painter)

    Lu Yanshao, Chinese landscape painter whose vigorous style received critical acclaim in the late 20th century. As a child, Lu showed an interest in Chinese painting, calligraphy, and seal carving. In 1927 he began to study under Wang Tongyu, a former scholar-official of the imperial court in the

  • Lu You (Chinese author)

    Lu You, one of the most important and prolific Chinese writers of the Southern Song dynasty, noted for his collection of nearly 10,000 poems as well as numerous prose pieces. Primarily a poet, Lu gained renown for his simple, direct expression and for his attention to realistic detail, features

  • Lu Yu (Chinese author)

    Lu You, one of the most important and prolific Chinese writers of the Southern Song dynasty, noted for his collection of nearly 10,000 poems as well as numerous prose pieces. Primarily a poet, Lu gained renown for his simple, direct expression and for his attention to realistic detail, features

  • Lü Zhengcao (Chinese general)

    Lü Zhengcao, (Lü Zhengyan), Chinese general (born Jan. 4, 1905, Haicheng, Shengjing [now Liaoning province], China—died Oct. 13, 2009, China), was a hero of the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) and was one of the 57 first generals designated in 1955 by the People’s Republic of China. Though he was

  • Lü Zhengyan (Chinese general)

    Lü Zhengcao, (Lü Zhengyan), Chinese general (born Jan. 4, 1905, Haicheng, Shengjing [now Liaoning province], China—died Oct. 13, 2009, China), was a hero of the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) and was one of the 57 first generals designated in 1955 by the People’s Republic of China. Though he was

  • Lü Zhi (empress of Han dynasty)

    Gaohou, the first woman ruler of China, wife of Gaozu, the first emperor (reigned 206–195 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220). After Gaozu’s death, his and Gaohou’s young son, the emperor Huidi (reigned 195–188 bc), ascended the throne. Gaohou, whose ambition had spurred her husband’s rise to

  • Lu Ziqian (Chinese author)

    Zhu Xi: Life: …Zhu Xi and his friend Lu Ziqian (1137–81) compiled passages from the works of the four to form their famous anthology, Jinsi Lu (“Reflections on Things at Hand”). Zhu Xi’s philosophical ideas also found expression during this period in his enormously influential commentaries on the Lunyu (known in English as…

  • Lu’an (China)

    Changzhi, city in southeastern Shanxi sheng (province), China. It is situated in the Lu’an plain—a basin surrounded by the western highlands of the Taihang Mountains, watered by the upper streams of the Zhuozhang River. It is a communication centre; to the northeast a route and a railway via

  • Lu’an plain (basin, China)

    Changzhi: It is situated in the Lu’an plain—a basin surrounded by the western highlands of the Taihang Mountains, watered by the upper streams of the Zhuozhang River. It is a communication centre; to the northeast a route and a railway via Licheng, in Shanxi, cross the Taihang range to Handan, Hebei,…

  • lü, 12 (music)

    lü pipes: …open ends, they produced the 12 lü, or fundamental pitches, of the octave. These pipes should not be confused with the panpipe, or paixiao.

  • Lu-chiang (Taiwan)

    Lu-kang, town and port in Chang-hua (Zhanghua) county, western coastal Taiwan. It is situated on the Taiwan Strait west of the city of Chang-hua, with which its fortunes have been closely linked. Lu-kang was formerly one of the chief ports of Taiwan, and it absorbed many immigrants from the Chinese

  • Lu-chou (Sichuan province, China)

    Luzhou, city, southern Sichuan sheng (province), China. Luzhou is a river port at the junction of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and the Tuo River. Its communications were further improved during World War II, when a highway was built south across the mountains to Kunming in Yunnan province to

  • Lu-kang (Taiwan)

    Lu-kang, town and port in Chang-hua (Zhanghua) county, western coastal Taiwan. It is situated on the Taiwan Strait west of the city of Chang-hua, with which its fortunes have been closely linked. Lu-kang was formerly one of the chief ports of Taiwan, and it absorbed many immigrants from the Chinese

  • Lü-liang Shan (mountains, China)

    Lüliang Mountains, range in Shanxi province, China. The name Lüliang Mountains generally refers to the whole system of ranges in the west and southwest of Shanxi, separating the north-south section of the Huang He (Yellow River) to the west from the valley of its tributary, the Fen River to the

  • Lu-shan Conference (Chinese history)

    China: New directions in national policy, 1958–61: The Lushan Conference resulted in several major decisions: Peng Dehuai was replaced as defense minister by Lin Biao (who would later be marked for succession to Mao’s position of CCP chairman), the Great Leap Forward was scaled back, and a political campaign was launched to identify…

  • lü-shih (Chinese poetic form)

    Lüshi, a form of Chinese poetry that flourished in the Tang dynasty (618–907). It consists of eight lines of five or seven syllables, each line set down in accordance with strict tonal patterns. Exposition (qi) was called for in the first two lines; the development of the theme (cheng), in parallel

  • Lü-shun (former city, Dalian, China)

    Lüshun, former city and naval port, southern Liaoning sheng (province), northeastern China. In 1950 it was amalgamated with nearby Dalian to form the city of Lüda. In 1981, when Lüda was renamed Dalian, it became a district (under the name Lüshunkou) of the newly named

  • Lü-tsung (Buddhism)

    Ritsu, (Japanese: “Regulation”, ) school of Buddhist moral discipline primarily concerned with vinaya, or the rules of monastic and religious practice. The school was founded in China in the 7th century by the monk Tao-hsüan on the basis of Theravāda texts that emphasized the letter of the law, as

  • Lu-Wang school (Chinese philosophy)

    Lu Jiuyuan: …Learning of the Heart-and-Mind (xinxue), often called the Lu-Wang school, after its two great proponents. It was opposed to the other great (and dominant) school, the Learning of Principle (lixue), often called the Cheng-Zhu school after its leading philosophers, Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi.

  • Lua (people)

    Thailand: Mon-Khmer: The Lua, for instance, speak Lawa, an Austroasiatic language, possibly of the Mon-Khmer subfamily. According to some historians, these people inhabited the delta plain until they were driven into the hills by the invading Tai speakers.

  • luakini heiau (ancient Hawaiian religious site)

    Hawaii: …the site of the first luakini heiau (a ceremonial structure used for worship and for human sacrifice). There too, centuries later, Kamehameha I, who is considered one of the greatest Hawaiian kings, came to power and established a dynasty. Captain James Cook visited in 1778, and he died on the…

  • Lualaba River (river, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Lualaba River, headstream of the Congo River. Its 1,100-mile (1,800-kilometre) course lies entirely within Congo (Kinshasa), central Africa. It rises on the Katanga (Shaba) plateau at about 4,600 feet (1,400 m), near Musofi, Congo. Its upper course descends to the Manika Plateau and is marked by

  • Luan He (river, China)

    Luan River, river in Hebei province, northern China. The Luan rises in northern Hebei and flows northward into the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region through steep gorges; in its headstream it is called the Shandian River. It passes north of the ancient Mongol capital of Shangdu (Kaiping), for which

  • Luan Ho (river, China)

    Luan River, river in Hebei province, northern China. The Luan rises in northern Hebei and flows northward into the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region through steep gorges; in its headstream it is called the Shandian River. It passes north of the ancient Mongol capital of Shangdu (Kaiping), for which

  • Luan River (river, China)

    Luan River, river in Hebei province, northern China. The Luan rises in northern Hebei and flows northward into the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region through steep gorges; in its headstream it is called the Shandian River. It passes north of the ancient Mongol capital of Shangdu (Kaiping), for which

  • Luanda (national capital, Angola)

    Luanda, city, capital of Angola. Located on the Atlantic coast of northern Angola, it is the country’s largest city and one of its busiest seaports. Founded in 1576 by Paulo Dias de Novais and initially settled by the Portuguese, Luanda became the administrative centre of the Portuguese colony of

  • Luanda Railway (railway, Angola)

    Angola: Railways: The Luanda Railway, which was nationalized in 1918, depended on coffee and cotton for its traffic. The Namibe Railway, which has been owned by the state from the outset, depended on the shipment of iron ore. Both railways have functioned only episodically since independence, owing to…

  • Luandrew, Albert (American musician)

    Sunnyland Slim, (ALBERT LUANDREW), U.S. blues musician (born Sept. 5, 1907, Vance, Miss.—died March 17, 1995, Chicago, Ill.), introduced his own powerful brand of Mississippi Delta-blues piano and helped build post-World War II Chicago into a major centre for the performance and recording of c

  • Luang Lake (lagoon, Gulf of Thailand)

    Luang Lake, coastal lake or lagoon (thale), southern Thailand, on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. The lake, 50 miles (80 km) long and up to 15 miles (24 km) wide, is dotted with islands. It is a fertile fishing ground and is connected to the Gulf of Thailand at Songkhla town on its southern

  • Luang Prabang (Laos)

    Louangphrabang, town, northern Laos. A port on the Mekong River, Louangphrabang lies 130 miles (210 km) north-northwest of Vientiane, the national capital. From 1353 Louangphrabang, then called Muong Swa, was the capital of the kingdom of Lan Xang. Around 1563 the royal court was removed to

  • Luang Prabang, kingdom of (historical state, Laos)

    Siribunyasan: …the Burmese attacked his rival Luang Prabang, Vientiane troops assisted the Burmese.

  • Luang Pradist Manudharm (Thai political leader)

    Pridi Phanomyong, Thai political leader who was one of the instigators of the June 1932 constitutional revolution and was made prime minister in 1946. After studies at the Royal Law School, Pridi won a government scholarship to study law in France; he earned a doctorate in law from Paris in 1927.

  • Luangwa National Park (park, Zambia)

    Luangwa National Park, park located in northeastern Zambia, southern Africa. Divided into two separate parks, one north and one south, the Luangwa National Park covers an area of 6,000 square miles (15,540 square km) and lies at an elevation varying from about 1,600 to 3,600 feet (500 to 1,100

  • Luangwa River (river, East Africa)

    Luangwa River, river rising on the Malawi–Zambia border, southern Africa. From its source near Isoka, Zambia, it flows 500 miles (800 km) south-southwest, skirting the Muchinga Mountains to join the Zambezi River between Luangwa (formerly Feira), Zambia, and Zumbo, Mozambique. The river valley is

  • Luanshya (Zambia)

    Luanshya, municipality, north-central Zambia, south-central Africa. Known as “the garden town of the copper belt,” Luanshya is the service centre for the adjacent Roan Antelope mine. The terminus of a rail branch from Ndola (21 miles [34 km] northeast), Luanshya is also connected by road to other

  • Luapula River (river, Zambia)

    Luapula River, river in south-central Africa, rising in the Bangweulu Swamps (one of the world’s largest wetlands) lying east of Lake Bangweulu in eastern Zambia. For most of its 350-mile (560-kilometre) course the river forms part of the boundary between Zambia and Congo (Kinshasa). The Luapula

  • Luarca (town, Spain)

    Luarca, town, northwestern Asturias provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain. It lies on the Bay of Biscay at the mouth of the Negro River. Fishing, fish processing, and metalworking are the main occupations. Iron is mined in the vicinity. Local beaches

  • luau (banquet)

    Luau, a modern Hawaiian banquet. Luau originally denoted only the leaves of the taro plant, which are eaten as a vegetable; it came to refer to the dishes prepared with the leaves and then to the feasts at which the dishes were eaten. The term designates the modern, informal feast, as distinct

  • luba (Oromo social class)

    Ethiopia: Challenge, revival, and decline (16th–19th century): The warrior classes (luba) raided and rustled in order to prove themselves, and in the 16th century they began to undertake long-distance expeditions, availing themselves of the collapse of the frontier defenses of both the Christian and Muslim states. By 1600 the Oromo had spread so widely in…

  • Luba (people)

    Luba, a Bantu-speaking cluster of peoples who inhabit a wide area extending throughout much of south-central Democratic Republic of the Congo. They numbered about 5,594,000 in the late 20th century. The name Luba applies to a variety of peoples who, though of different origins, speak closely

  • Luba (Equatorial Guinea)

    Equatorial Guinea: Settlement patterns: …importance on the island is Luba, on the southwest coast; it is linked with the capital by a paved road that runs through a series of Bubi settlements. Basilé, on the slopes of Santa Isabel Peak, provides a cool refuge for heat-weary residents of the capital.

  • Luba Empire (historical empire, Africa)

    Luba-Lunda states, a complex of states that flourished in Central Africa (in the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo) from the late 15th to the late 19th century. The Luba state was situated east of the Kasai River around the headwaters of the Lualaba River, and the Lunda state east of the

  • Luba literature

    Luba: Luba literature, including epic cycles, is well developed. The renowned Luba genesis story articulates a distinction between two types of Luba emperors whose forms of government were shaped by their own moral character and private behaviour: Nkongolo Mwamba, the red king, and Ilunga Mbidi Kiluwe,…

  • Luba-Bambo (people)

    Luba: …the Luba-Shankaji of Katanga, the Luba-Bambo of Kasai, and the Luba-Hemba of northern Katanga and southern Kivu. All are historically, linguistically, and culturally linked with other Congo peoples. The Shankaji branch is also connected with the early founders of the Lunda empire.

  • Luba-Hemba (people)

    Luba: …Luba-Bambo of Kasai, and the Luba-Hemba of northern Katanga and southern Kivu. All are historically, linguistically, and culturally linked with other Congo peoples. The Shankaji branch is also connected with the early founders of the Lunda empire.

  • Luba-Lunda states (historical empire, Africa)

    Luba-Lunda states, a complex of states that flourished in Central Africa (in the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo) from the late 15th to the late 19th century. The Luba state was situated east of the Kasai River around the headwaters of the Lualaba River, and the Lunda state east of the

  • Luba-Shankaji (people)

    Luba: …subdivisions may be recognized: the Luba-Shankaji of Katanga, the Luba-Bambo of Kasai, and the Luba-Hemba of northern Katanga and southern Kivu. All are historically, linguistically, and culturally linked with other Congo peoples. The Shankaji branch is also connected with the early founders of the Lunda empire.

  • Lubaantun (ancient city, Central America)

    Maya Mountains: …leaving great centres, such as Lubaantun on the mountains’ southeastern periphery, deserted behind them.

  • Lubale (people)

    Luvale, Bantu-speaking people of northwestern Zambia and southeastern Angola. In terms of history, language, material culture, and religion, the Luvale are closely related to the Lunda and Ndembu to the northeast, who extend northward into southern Congo (Kinshasa). They are also culturally similar

  • Lubalin, Herb (American graphic designer)

    graphic design: Postwar graphic design in the United States: American Herb Lubalin is notable among the designers who embraced the new flexibility phototype made possible for designers. Type could be set in any size, the spaces between letters and lines could be compressed, and letters could be expanded, condensed, touched, overlapped, or slanted. Lubalin’s ability…

  • Lubanga Dyilo, Thomas (Congolese militia leader)

    International Criminal Court: …charges should be brought against Thomas Lubanga, who was accused of recruiting child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Lubanga’s trial, the first conducted by the ICC, began in January 2009, and in March 2012 the court found him guilty and later imposed a 14-year prison sentence. In…

  • Lubango (Angola)

    Lubango, city, southwestern Angola, about 100 miles (160 km) east of Namibe (formerly Mo?amedes), to which it is linked by rail. The city was originally established in 1885 as a settlement for colonists from the Madeira Islands. It lies at an elevation of 5,774 feet (1,760 metres) in a valley of

  • Lubbe, Marinus van der (Dutch arsonist)

    Reichstag fire: …supposed arsonist was a Dutchman, Marinus van der Lubbe, whom some have claimed was brought to the scene of the crime by Nazi agents. Others have contended that there was no proof of Nazi complicity in the crime, but that Hitler merely capitalized on van der Lubbe’s independent act. The…

  • lubber grasshopper (insect)

    short-horned grasshopper: In North America the eastern lubber grasshopper (Romalea microptera) is 5–7 cm long and has large red wings bordered in black. The western lubber grasshopper (Brachystola magna), also called the buffalo grasshopper because of its size, has much smaller, pinkish wings. The slender grasshopper (Leptysma marginicollis), found in the southern…

  • lubber’s line

    navigation: The liquid magnetic compass: …with the aid of the lubber’s line, which is oriented toward the forward part of the compass to indicate the direction of the ship’s centre line.

  • Lubbertszoon, Meyndert (Dutch painter)

    Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter, one of the most important Baroque landscapists of the Dutch school. He lived all his life in Amsterdam, adopting the surname of Hobbema as a young man. He was a friend and pupil of Jacob van Ruisdael. The two made sketching tours together and often painted the same

  • Lubbock (Texas, United States)

    Lubbock, city, seat (1891) of Lubbock county, northwestern Texas, U.S., lying some 120 miles (190 km) south of Amarillo. It is the commercial hub of the South Plains. Formed in 1890 from Old Lubbock and Monterey and named for Colonel Tom S. Lubbock, a signer of the Texas Declaration of

  • Lubbock, John, 1st Baron Avebury (British banker, politician, and naturalist)

    John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, banker, influential Liberal-Unionist politician, and naturalist who successfully promoted about a dozen measures of some importance in Parliament but was perhaps best known for his books on archaeology and entomology. He became a partner in his father’s bank at 22,

  • Lubbock, Sir John (British banker, politician, and naturalist)

    John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, banker, influential Liberal-Unionist politician, and naturalist who successfully promoted about a dozen measures of some importance in Parliament but was perhaps best known for his books on archaeology and entomology. He became a partner in his father’s bank at 22,

  • Lubec (Maine, United States)

    Lubec, town, Washington county, eastern Maine, U.S. It lies along the Atlantic coast just south of Eastport. The town includes the communities of Lubec, North Lubec, South Lubec, and West Lubec. Settled about 1780, it was part of Eastport until separately incorporated in 1811. It was named for

  • Lübeck (Germany)

    Lübeck, city and major seaport, Schleswig-Holstein Land (state), northern Germany. It is located on the Trave and Wakenitz rivers, about 9 miles (14 km) from the Baltic Sea. In the Middle Ages it was one of the main commercial centres of northern Europe and the chief city of the Hanseatic League

  • Lübeck, laws of

    Hanseatic League: Merging of the associations: …towns having the “law of Lübeck” had agreed on common legislation for the defense of merchants and their goods. Strong in their control of the Baltic trade, Lübeck, Danzig, Riga, and their satellites forced their way into the west. They entered areas where Rhineland merchants had formerly been dominant, secured…

  • Lübeck, Peace of (Europe [1629])

    Thirty Years' War: Christian’s defeat and the Peace of Lübeck in 1629 finished Denmark as a European power, but Sweden’s Gustav II Adolf, having ended a four-year war with Poland, invaded Germany and won many German princes to his anti-Roman Catholic, anti-imperial cause.

  • Lubecki, Ksawery Drucki (Polish statesman)

    Ksawery Drucki Lubecki, Polish statesman who restored the finances of the remnant of Poland that was constituted as the “Congress Kingdom” under the tsar of Russia after the Napoleonic Wars. A member of a princely family descended from the ancient Russian ruling house of Rurik, Lubecki began his

  • Lubelska Uplands (region, Poland)

    Poland: The Little Poland Uplands: …Vistula, beyond which lie the Lublin (Lubelska) Uplands. In the south occur patches of loess on which fertile brown- and black-earth soils have developed.

  • Lubelska, Wy?yna (region, Poland)

    Poland: The Little Poland Uplands: …Vistula, beyond which lie the Lublin (Lubelska) Uplands. In the south occur patches of loess on which fertile brown- and black-earth soils have developed.

  • Lubelskie (province, Poland)

    Lubelskie, województwo (province), eastern Poland. It is bordered by the provinces of Mazowieckie to the northwest, Podlaskie to the north, Podkarpackie to the south, and ?wi?tokrzyskie to the west as well as by the countries of Belarus and Ukraine to the east. It was created in 1999 when Poland’s

  • Lüber, Thomas (Swiss physician and theologian)

    Thomas Erastus, Swiss physician and religious controversialist whose name is preserved in Erastianism, a doctrine of church-state relationship that he himself never taught. A student of philosophy and medicine for nine years, Erastus was invited in 1557 by the elector Otto Heinrich of the

  • Lubezki, Emmanuel (Mexican cinematographer)
  • Lubiana (national capital, Slovenia)

    Ljubljana, capital city and economic, political, and cultural centre of Slovenia, located on the Ljubljanica River. The city lies in central Slovenia in a natural depression surrounded by high peaks of the Julian Alps. A walled Roman encampment was built there in the mid-1st century bce by Roman

  • Lubianiker, Pinchas (Israeli politician)

    Pinhas Lavon, Israeli politician who held a number of government posts and was accused in 1954 of involvement in a plot to discredit Egypt by secretly attacking U.S. facilities in that country. Although he was cleared of all charges, the “Lavon Affair,” as it came to be known, effectively ended his

  • Lubianiker, Pinhas (Israeli politician)

    Pinhas Lavon, Israeli politician who held a number of government posts and was accused in 1954 of involvement in a plot to discredit Egypt by secretly attacking U.S. facilities in that country. Although he was cleared of all charges, the “Lavon Affair,” as it came to be known, effectively ended his

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