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  • Luchana, Baldomero Espartero, conde de (regent of Spain)

    Baldomero Espartero, prince de Vergara, Spanish general and statesman, victor in the First Carlist War, and regent. The son of working-class parents, Espartero entered the army at age 15 and fought with Spanish forces in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and in the rebellious Americas.

  • Luchism (Russian art movement)

    Rayonism, Russian art movement founded by Mikhail F. Larionov, representing one of the first steps toward the development of abstract art in Russia. Larionov exhibited one of the first Rayonist works, Glass, in 1912 and wrote the movement’s manifesto that same year (though it was not published

  • Lucia di Lammermoor (opera by Donizetti)

    Joan Sutherland: …Covent Garden revived Gaetano Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor for her, and in 1961 she made her New York City debut in the same role at the Metropolitan Opera. Her performance in this difficult title role won international recognition.

  • Lucia, Santa (Italian martyr)

    St. Lucy, ; feast day December 13), virgin and martyr who was one of the earliest Christian saints to achieve popularity, having a widespread following before the 5th century. She is the patron saint of the city of Syracuse (Sicily) and of virgins. Because of various traditions associating her name

  • Lucia, Sister (Portuguese nun)

    Lucia dos Santos, Portuguese shepherd girl, later a Carmelite nun, who claimed she saw visions of the Virgin Mary in 1917 at Fátima, Portugal, which subsequently became one of the most famous Marian shrines in the world. The first of six visions came to Lucia on May 13, 1917, while she was tending

  • Lucian (Greek writer)

    Lucian, ancient Greek rhetorician, pamphleteer, and satirist. One is entirely dependent on Lucian’s writings for information about his life, but he says little about himself—and not all that he says is to be taken seriously. Moreover, since the chronology of his works is very obscure, the events of

  • Lucian of Antioch, Saint (theologian and martyr)

    Saint Lucian of Antioch, Christian theologian-martyr who originated a theological tradition at Antioch that was noted for biblical linguistic scholarship and for a rationalist approach to Christian doctrine. In his principal work, Lucian analyzed the Greek text of both the Old and New Testaments,

  • Luciani, Albino (pope)

    John Paul I, pope whose 33-day pontificate in 1978 was the shortest in modern times. He was the first pope to choose a double name and did so in commemoration of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI. He was the first pope in centuries who refused to be crowned, opting instead for

  • Luciani, Sebastiano (Italian painter)

    Sebastiano del Piombo, Italian painter who tried to combine the rich colours of the Venetian school with the monumental form of the Roman school. At first a professional lute player, Sebastiano began his career as a painter later than most of his contemporaries. He was a pupil of Giovanni Bellini

  • Luciano, Charles (American crime boss)

    Lucky Luciano, the most powerful chief of American organized crime in the early 1930s and a major influence even from prison in 1936–45 and after deportation to Italy in 1946. Luciano emigrated with his parents from Sicily to New York City in 1906 and at the age of 10 was already involved in

  • Luciano, Lucky (American crime boss)

    Lucky Luciano, the most powerful chief of American organized crime in the early 1930s and a major influence even from prison in 1936–45 and after deportation to Italy in 1946. Luciano emigrated with his parents from Sicily to New York City in 1906 and at the age of 10 was already involved in

  • Lucianos (Greek writer)

    Lucian, ancient Greek rhetorician, pamphleteer, and satirist. One is entirely dependent on Lucian’s writings for information about his life, but he says little about himself—and not all that he says is to be taken seriously. Moreover, since the chronology of his works is very obscure, the events of

  • Lucianus (Greek writer)

    Lucian, ancient Greek rhetorician, pamphleteer, and satirist. One is entirely dependent on Lucian’s writings for information about his life, but he says little about himself—and not all that he says is to be taken seriously. Moreover, since the chronology of his works is very obscure, the events of

  • Luci?, Hanibal (Croatian author)

    Croatian literature: …struggle against the Ottoman Empire; Hanibal Luci?, author of Robinja (“The Slave Girl”), the first South Slav secular play; Marin Dr?i?, who wrote pastoral dramas and comedies portraying Renaissance Dubrovnik (his comedy Dundo Maroje, first performed about 1551, played throughout western Europe); and poet Petar Hektorovi?. In the 17th and…

  • Lucid, Shannon Wells (American astronaut)

    Shannon Wells Lucid, American astronaut who from 1996 to 2007 held the world record for most time in space by a woman and from 1996 to 2002 held the record for the longest-duration spaceflight by any U.S. astronaut. Lucid was born in China as the daughter of Baptist missionaries and with her family

  • Lucidor (Swedish poet)

    Lars Johansson, Swedish lyric poet, author of some of the most powerful poems of the Baroque period in Swedish literature. Early orphaned, Johansson was reared by an uncle and educated both in Sweden and abroad. He returned to Sweden and became known as a writer of funeral elegies and

  • Lucien Leuwen (work by Stendhal)

    Lucien Leuwen, unfinished novel by Stendhal, published posthumously in 1894. It is perhaps Stendhal’s most autobiographical work. The book follows the career of Lucien, the title character, the son of a banker, from his expulsion from the école Polytechnique because of his idealism, through his

  • Lucifer

    Satan, in the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), the prince of evil spirits and adversary of God. Satan is traditionally understood as an angel (or sometimes a jinnī in Islam) who rebelled against God and was cast out of heaven with other “fallen” angels before the creation of

  • Lucifer (classical mythology)

    Lucifer, (Latin: Lightbearer) in classical mythology, the morning star (i.e., the planet Venus at dawn); personified as a male figure bearing a torch, Lucifer had almost no legend, but in poetry he was often herald of the dawn. In Christian times Lucifer came to be regarded as the name of Satan

  • Lucifer (oratorio by Benoit)

    Peter Benoit: …and Pompeja (1895); the oratorio Lucifer (1866), considered his masterpiece; the children’s oratorio De waereld in (1878; “In the World”); and the Quadrilogie religieuse (1864). In his late compositions he turned away from his previous models, composers Hector Berlioz and Giacomo Meyerbeer, and cultivated a style of studied simplicity. This…

  • Lucifer (play by Vondel)

    Joost van den Vondel: …greatest achievements, the trilogy comprising Lucifer (1654), Adam in ballingschap (1664; Adam in Exile, 1952), and Noah (1667). Lucifer, which is generally regarded as van den Vondel’s masterpiece, treats the same theme as had John Milton: the inexplicable revolt of the angels against God. Meanwhile, van den Vondel’s religious liberalism…

  • Lucifer (bishop of Cagliari)

    Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, Sardinia, who was a fierce opponent of the heresy of Arianism (q.v.). To further his rigorously orthodox views, he founded the Luciferians, a sect that survived in scattered remnants into the early 5th century. Lucifer’s opposition to Arianism was tested during the r

  • Lucifer algorithm (cryptoalgorithm)

    Data Encryption Standard: …Corporation (IBM) submitted the patented Lucifer algorithm that had been devised by one of the company’s researchers, Horst Feistel, a few years earlier. The Lucifer algorithm was evaluated in secret consultations between the NBS and the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). After some modifications to the internal functions and a…

  • Lucifer Calaritanus (bishop of Cagliari)

    Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, Sardinia, who was a fierce opponent of the heresy of Arianism (q.v.). To further his rigorously orthodox views, he founded the Luciferians, a sect that survived in scattered remnants into the early 5th century. Lucifer’s opposition to Arianism was tested during the r

  • Lucifer Rising (film by Anger)

    Kenneth Anger: …in Anger’s next major endeavour, Lucifer Rising, which was released as a rough cut in 1972 and in its final version in 1980. Shot in Egypt, England, and Germany at sites of historical sun worship, it featured singer and actress Marianne Faithful as a demonic Lilith. Both films also included…

  • luciferase (enzyme)

    bioluminescence: Biochemical events of light emission: …molecule luciferin and the enzyme luciferase, which are specific for different organisms. The present custom is to use generic names according to origin—e.g., firefly luciferin and luciferase, Vargula luciferin and luciferase. The luciferin-luciferase reaction is actually an enzyme-substrate reaction in which luciferin, the substrate, is oxidized by molecular oxygen, the…

  • Luciferi-Fani (Spain)

    Sanlúcar de Barrameda, port city, Cádiz provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southwestern Spain. It lies on the south bank of the Guadalquivir River estuary, north of Cádiz city. Barrameda derives from an Arabic word signifying “sandy gateway” and

  • luciferin (biochemistry)

    Luciferin, in biochemistry, any of several organic compounds whose oxidation in the presence of the enzyme luciferase produces light. Luciferins vary in chemical structure; the luciferin of luminescent bacteria, for example, is completely different from that of fireflies. For each type luciferin,

  • Lucilia (insect)

    dipteran: Eggs: The greenbottle fly (Lucilia sericata) has laid nearly 2,000 eggs in captivity. However, the total is probably fewer than 1,000 in the natural state when time and energy are lost looking for suitable places to lay. Egg-laying sites, chosen instinctively by the females, are related closely…

  • Lucilinburhuc (national capital, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg, city, capital of Luxembourg, located in the south-central part of the country. Luxembourg city is situated on a sandstone plateau into which the Alzette River and its tributary, the Petrusse, have cut deep winding ravines. Within a loop of the Alzette, a rocky promontory called the Bock

  • Lucilius, Gaius (Roman writer)

    Gaius Lucilius, effectively the inventor of poetical satire, who gave to the existing formless Latin satura (meaning “a mixed dish”) the distinctive character of critical comment that the word satire still implies. Lucilius was a Roman citizen of good family and education, a friend of learned

  • Lucille (song by Rodgers)

    Kenny Rogers: …hit with the ballad “Lucille,” which won him a Grammy Award for best male country vocal performance (1977). “Lucille” was named song of the year and single of the year by the Academy of Country Music and single of the year by the Country Music Association and also made…

  • Lucin Cutoff (rail line, Utah, United States)

    Lucin Cutoff, portion of a Southern Pacific rail line built across the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in 1902–04, replacing a much longer part of the original transcontinental railroad that traced around the northern end of the lake. The cutoff bypassed steep grades, including those near Promontory

  • Lucinda Brayford (work by Boyd)

    Australian literature: Literature from 1940 to 1970: These novels—particularly Lucinda Brayford (1946) and the Langton quartet, beginning with The Cardboard Crown (1952)—were chronicles too of the decline of the genteel and aristocratic tradition. Christina Stead, who also had begun writing before the war, did not win recognition until the 1960s, with the reissue of…

  • Lucinoidea (mollusk superfamily)

    bivalve: Evolution and paleontology: Representatives of the superfamily Lucinoidea are very different from all other bivalves, with an exhalant siphon only and an anterior inhalant stream. Some of these deposit feeders also possess, like the subclass Cryptodonta, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the ctenidia and are thought to have ancient origins, represented by the fossil…

  • Lúcio Flávio (film by Babenco)

    Hector Babenco: His first success, Lúcio Flávio (1978), a controversial portrayal of a real-life bank robber, was enormously popular in Brazil, and it helped revive that country’s flagging film industry. Babenco gained international acclaim with Pixote (1981), a film reminiscent of the work of Luis Bu?uel. It chronicles the harrowing,…

  • Lucio Silla (opera by Mozart)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: The Italian tours: Lucio Silla (“Lucius Sulla”), the new opera, was given on December 26, 1772, and after a difficult premiere (it began three hours late and lasted six) it proved even more successful than Mitridate, with 26 performances. This is the earliest indication of the dramatic composer…

  • Lucioperca lucioperca (fish)

    pike perch: The European pike perch, or zander (Stizostedion, or Lucioperca, lucioperca; see photograph), is found in lakes and rivers of eastern, central, and (where introduced) western Europe. It is greenish or grayish, usually with darker markings, and generally attains a length of 50–66 cm (20–26 inches) and a weight of 3…

  • Lucite (chemical compound)

    Lucite, trademark name of polymethyl methacrylate, a synthetic organic compound of high molecular weight made by combination of many simple molecules of the ester methyl methacrylate (monomer) into long chains (polymer); this process (polymerization) may be effected by light or heat, although

  • Lucius (fictional character)

    Titus Andronicus: …Saturninus, at which Titus’s son Lucius responds by delivering Saturninus a fatal blow. Aaron the Moor is to be executed as well for his villainies. The blood-filled stage is presided over finally by Lucius and Titus’s brother, Marcus, as the sole survivors of Titus’s much-wronged family.

  • Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus (Roman emperor)

    Commodus, Roman emperor from 177 to 192 (sole emperor after 180). His brutal misrule precipitated civil strife that ended 84 years of stability and prosperity within the empire. In 177 Lucius was made coruler and heir to his father, the emperor Marcus Aurelius (reigned 161–180). Lucius joined

  • Lucius Aurelius Verus (Roman emperor)

    Lucius Verus, Roman emperor jointly (161–169) with Marcus Aurelius. Though he enjoyed equal constitutional status and powers, he did not have equal authority, nor did he seem capable of bearing his share of the responsibilities. Lucius was the son of a senator, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, whom the

  • Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (Christian apologist)

    Lactantius, Christian apologist and one of the most reprinted of the Latin Church Fathers, whose Divinae institutiones (“Divine Precepts”), a classically styled philosophical refutation of early-4th-century anti-Christian tracts, was the first systematic Latin account of the Christian attitude

  • Lucius Caelius Firmianus Lactantius (Christian apologist)

    Lactantius, Christian apologist and one of the most reprinted of the Latin Church Fathers, whose Divinae institutiones (“Divine Precepts”), a classically styled philosophical refutation of early-4th-century anti-Christian tracts, was the first systematic Latin account of the Christian attitude

  • Lucius Ceionius Aelius Aurelius Commodus (Roman emperor)

    Lucius Verus, Roman emperor jointly (161–169) with Marcus Aurelius. Though he enjoyed equal constitutional status and powers, he did not have equal authority, nor did he seem capable of bearing his share of the responsibilities. Lucius was the son of a senator, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, whom the

  • Lucius Ceionius Commodus (Roman emperor)

    Lucius Verus, Roman emperor jointly (161–169) with Marcus Aurelius. Though he enjoyed equal constitutional status and powers, he did not have equal authority, nor did he seem capable of bearing his share of the responsibilities. Lucius was the son of a senator, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, whom the

  • Lucius Cornelius Balbus Major (Roman consul)

    Lucius Cornelius Balbus, wealthy naturalized Roman, important in Roman politics in the last years of the republic. In 72 bc Pompey the Great conferred Roman citizenship on Balbus and his family for his services against the rebel Quintus Sertorius in Spain. Balbus became friends with several

  • Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (Roman emperor)

    Nero, the fifth Roman emperor (54–68 ce), stepson and heir of the emperor Claudius. He became infamous for his personal debaucheries and extravagances and, on doubtful evidence, for his burning of Rome and persecutions of Christians. Nero’s father, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, died about 40 ce, and

  • Lucius I, Saint (pope)

    Saint Lucius I, ; feast day March 4), pope from June 253 to March 254. He succeeded St. Cornelius on June 25, 253. He was exiled to Civitavecchia, Italy, by the Roman emperor Gallus but later was allowed to return to Rome by Gallus’ successor, Valerian. According to Bishop St. Cyprian of Carthage,

  • Lucius II (pope)

    Lucius II, pope from 1144 to 1145. He was made cardinal by Pope Callixtus II in 1123 and papal chancellor by Pope Innocent II, whom he aided against the antipope Anacletus II. He was elected to succeed Celestine II on March 12, 1144. When King Roger II of Sicily invaded papal lands and forced

  • Lucius III (pope)

    Lucius III, pope from 1181 to 1185. A Cistercian monk whom Pope Innocent II had made cardinal in 1141, Lucius was bishop of Ostia (consecrated 1159) and papal counsellor when elected on Sept. 1, 1181, to succeed Alexander III. As pope, Lucius was forced to leave Rome because the Romans had earlier

  • Lucius Junius Brutus (work by Lee)

    Nathaniel Lee: Lucius Junius Brutus (1680) was prohibited for antimonarchical sentiments. Lee collaborated with John Dryden in Oedipus (1678) and The Duke of Guise (1682). Beginning in 1684, he was confined to Bedlam for five years..

  • Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax (Roman emperor)

    Septimius Severus, Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He founded a personal dynasty and converted the government into a military monarchy. His reign marks a critical stage in the development of the absolute despotism that characterized the later Roman Empire. The son of an equestrian from the Roman

  • Lucius Sergius Catilina (Roman politician)

    Catiline, in the late Roman Republic, an aristocrat who turned demagogue and made an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the republic while Cicero was a consul (63). Catiline served under Pompey’s father in the Social War of 89 and acquired an unsavoury reputation as a zealous participant in S

  • ?uck (Ukraine)

    Lutsk, city, northwestern Ukraine, on a defensive site at a bend in the Styr River. It was a tribal settlement, perhaps of the Luchanians, as early as the 10th century. The first known record of the settlement dates to 1085. Lutsk later became a part of the principality of Galicia-Volhynia and

  • Luck (television drama [2011–2012])

    Dustin Hoffman: …gambler on the HBO series Luck (2011–12), a drama set in the world of professional horse racing. He returned to the big screen as a restaurant owner in Chef (2014) and then appeared in the television adaptation Roald Dahl’s Esio Trot (2015), based on a children’s book about a bachelor…

  • luck egalitarianism (political theory)

    equal opportunity: Luck egalitarianism: The ideal of equal opportunity does not necessarily lead to equality of outcome, since its aim is consistent with allowing people’s life prospects to be influenced by their values and choices. From that standpoint, the underlying motivation of the ideal of equal opportunity,…

  • Luck of Barry Lyndon: A Romance of the Last Century, The (historical novel by Thackeray)

    Barry Lyndon, historical novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, first published in Fraser’s Magazine in 1844 as The Luck of Barry Lyndon: A Romance of the Last Century. The book was published in two volumes in 1852–53, and it was revised (“with admissions”) as The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq. in

  • Luck of Ginger Coffey, The (novel by Moore)

    The Luck of Ginger Coffey, novel by Brian Moore, published in 1960. The story concerns an Irish-born Canadian immigrant whose self-deluded irresponsible behaviour nearly breaks up his

  • Luck of Ginger Coffey, The (film by Kershner [1964])

    Irvin Kershner: From B-24s to Laura Mars: …set during World War II; The Luck of Ginger Coffey (1964) was a low-budget drama featuring real-life married couple Robert Shaw and Mary Ure as husband and wife; and A Fine Madness (1966) featured Sean Connery as an irreverent poet whose outbursts of violence earn him a lobotomy. In 1967…

  • Luck of Roaring Camp, The (short story by Harte)

    The Luck of Roaring Camp, short story by Bret Harte, published in 1868 in the Overland Monthly, which Harte edited. “The Luck” is a baby boy born to Cherokee Sal, a fallen woman who dies in childbirth at Roaring Camp, a California gold rush settlement. The men of the camp decide to raise the child

  • Luck of the Draw (album by Raitt)

    Bonnie Raitt: …later in 1990 and then Luck of the Draw (1991) and Longing in Their Hearts (1994), both of which received Grammy Awards. Raitt’s other recordings included the double-disc live set Road Tested (1995) and the studio albums Fundamental (1998), Souls Alike (2005), Grammy-winning Slipstream (2012), and Dig in Deep (2016).…

  • Luck of the Irish, The (film by Koster [1948])

    Henry Koster: Films of the 1940s: …the studio was the fantasy The Luck of the Irish (1948), in which a reporter (Tyrone Power) encounters a leprechaun (Cecil Kellaway). The sentimental comedy Come to the Stable (1949), adapted from a Clare Boothe Luce story, cast Young and Celeste Holm as transplanted French nuns trying to raise money…

  • Luck, Andrew (American football player)

    Indianapolis Colts: …NFL draft (spent on quarterback Andrew Luck), and the team released Manning during the off-season to avoid paying him a sizable contract bonus and to begin rebuilding around a younger core of players. Luck then led the Colts to a surprising 11–5 season that culminated in a first-round playoff loss…

  • Luck, Seven Gods of (Japanese deities)

    Shichi-fuku-jin, (Japanese: “Seven Gods of Luck”), group of seven popular Japanese deities, all of whom are associated with good fortune and happiness. The seven are drawn from various sources but have been grouped together from at least the 16th century. They are Bishamon, Daikoku, Ebisu,

  • Luckman, Sid (American football player)

    Sid Luckman, quarterback in American professional gridiron football who, during his 12 seasons (1939–50) in the National Football League (NFL), directed with exceptional success the revolutionary T formation offense of the Chicago Bears. The forward-passing feats of Luckman and of his greatest

  • Luckman, Sidney (American football player)

    Sid Luckman, quarterback in American professional gridiron football who, during his 12 seasons (1939–50) in the National Football League (NFL), directed with exceptional success the revolutionary T formation offense of the Chicago Bears. The forward-passing feats of Luckman and of his greatest

  • Luckmann, Thomas (American sociologist)

    sacred: Critical problems: For example, Thomas Luckmann, a German-American sociologist, described the sacred in modern society as that “strata of significance to which everyday life is ultimately referred”; and this definition includes such themes as “the autonomous individual” and “the mobility ethos.”

  • Lucknow (India)

    Lucknow, city, capital of Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is located roughly in the centre of the state on the Gomati River, about 45 miles (72 km) northeast of Kanpur. Lucknow became important in 1528, when it was captured by Bābur, the first Mughal ruler of India. Under Akbar, his

  • Lucknow Pact (India [1916])

    Lucknow Pact, (December 1916), agreement made by the Indian National Congress headed by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah; it was adopted by the Congress at its Lucknow session on December 29 and by the league on Dec. 31, 1916. The meeting

  • Lucknow, Siege of (British-Indian history [1857])

    Siege of Lucknow, (25 May–27 November 1857), sustained assault and eventual relief of the British "Residency" (British governmental headquarters) in India’s northern city of Lucknow, part of 1857–58 Indian Mutiny against British rule. The relief of Lucknow consisted of two attempts by the British

  • lucky (game of chance)

    Bingo, game of chance using cards on which there is a grid of numbers, a row of which constitute a win when they have been chosen at random. Bingo is one of the most popular forms of low-priced gambling in the world. To play bingo, which is a form of lottery, each player purchases one or more c

  • lucky bamboo (plant)

    Dracaena: Lucky bamboo (Dracaena braunii) and corn plant (D. fragrans), with yellow leaf edges or white stripes, are common houseplants. Dragon trees, notably D. draco from the Canary Islands, can grow more than 18 metres (60 feet) tall and 6 metres (20 feet) wide. The trunk…

  • Lucky Bruce: A Literary Memoir (memoir by Friedman)

    Bruce Jay Friedman: Lucky Bruce: A Literary Memoir was published in 2011.

  • Lucky Guy (play by Ephron)

    Nora Ephron: Lucky Guy, which centres on the gritty life of New York Daily News columnist Mike McAlary, premiered on Broadway a year after Ephron’s death. That play, along with many of her newspaper columns, blog posts, speeches, and other works, was published in the collection The…

  • Lucky Jim (novel by Amis)

    Lucky Jim, best-selling novel by Kingsley Amis, published in 1954. The novel features the antihero Jim Dixon, a junior faculty member at a provincial university who despises the pretensions of academic life. Dixon epitomizes a newly important social group risen from lower-middle-class and

  • Lucky Lady (film by Donen [1975])

    Stanley Donen: Later films: …to the United States for Lucky Lady (1975), a big-budget romantic adventure set during Prohibition with Burt Reynolds, Gene Hackman, and Liza Minnelli as scheming rumrunners. It failed dramatically at the box office. In Movie Movie (1978) Donen and a cast that included George C. Scott, Eli Wallach, and Art…

  • Lucky Life Interrupted: A Memoir of Hope, A (memoir by Brokaw [2015])

    Tom Brokaw: …the American Heartland (2002) and A Lucky Life Interrupted: A Memoir of Hope (2015) documented, respectively, his childhood and his battle with cancer.

  • Lucky Louie (American television series)

    Louis C.K.: created, cowrote, and starred in Lucky Louie, a television series on the HBO cable channel that recalled working-class sitcoms of the past, such as The Honeymooners and All in the Family. Lucky Louie met with mixed reviews from critics and lasted just one season before being cancelled.

  • Lucky One, The (novel by Sparks)

    Nicholas Sparks: …Last Song (2009; film 2010), The Lucky One (2008; film 2012), The Best of Me (2011; film 2014), and The Longest Ride (2013; film 2015). In 2015 he released the novel See Me, about a pair of lovers with troubled pasts. Later works included Two by Two (2016) and Every…

  • Lucky Ones, The (film by Burger [2008])

    Tim Robbins: …Fire (2006), the war comedy The Lucky Ones (2008), the superhero movie Green Lantern (2011), the romance mystery Marjorie Prime (2017), and the legal thriller Dark Waters (2019). His television credits from this period included the HBO series The Brink (2015), a comedy in which he starred as the U.S.…

  • Lucky Per (work by Pontoppidan)

    Henrik Pontoppidan: …work, the novel Lykke-Per (1898–1904; Lucky Per, originally published in eight volumes), in which the chief character bears some resemblance to Pontoppidan himself. He is a clergyman’s son who rebels against the puritanical atmosphere of his home and seeks his fortune in the capital as an engineer. The novel’s theme…

  • Lucky Strike (cigarette)

    American Tobacco Company: …its most popular cigarette brand, Lucky Strike, and in 1939 it introduced one of the first king-size cigarettes, Pall Mall (an old name reapplied to a new cigarette). The sales of these two brands made American Tobacco the most successful cigarette manufacturer of the 1940s. The company failed to establish…

  • Lucomo (king of Rome [616-578 bc])

    Tarquin, traditionally the fifth king of Rome, accepted by some scholars as a historical figure and usually said to have reigned from 616 to 578. His father was a Greek who went to live in Tarquinii, in Etruria, from which Lucumo moved to Rome on the advice of his wife, the prophet Tanaquil.

  • Lu?on (bishopric, France)

    Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu: Heritage, youth, and early career: …benefice of the bishopric of Lu?on near La Rochelle, which had been granted by Henry III to the Richelieus under the Concordat of 1516. Unrest of the cathedral chapter threatened a revocation of the grant, and it became necessary for a member of the family to be consecrated bishop as…

  • Lucretia (ancient Roman heroine)

    Lucretia, legendary heroine of ancient Rome. According to tradition, she was the beautiful and virtuous wife of the nobleman Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus. Her tragedy began when she was raped by Sextus Tarquinius, son of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the tyrannical Etruscan king of Rome. After

  • Lucretius (Latin poet and philosopher)

    Lucretius, Latin poet and philosopher known for his single, long poem, De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things). The poem is the fullest extant statement of the physical theory of the Greek philosopher Epicurus. It also alludes to his ethical and logical doctrines. Apart from Lucretius’s poem

  • Lucrezia del Fede (wife of Andrea del Sarto)

    Andrea del Sarto: …1517 or 1518 Sarto married Lucrezia del Fede, a widow whom he had, according to her testimony, used as a model for several years; she brought him property and a useful dowry. In 1518 he was summoned by the king of France, Francis I, to Fontainebleau, where he was preceded…

  • Lucubratio Ebria (work by Butler)

    Samuel Butler: …the Machines” (1863) and “Lucubratio Ebria” (1865)—were later worked up in Erewhon. Both show him already grappling with the central problem of his later thought: the relationship between mechanism and life. In the former he tries out the consequences of regarding machines as living organisms competing with man in…

  • Lucullus, Lucius Licinius (Roman general)

    Lucius Licinius Lucullus, Roman general who fought Mithradates VI Eupator of Pontus from 74 to 66 bc. He served in the Social War (91–87) under Lucius Cornelius Sulla. As quaestor in 88, he was the only one of Sulla’s officers to take part in his march on Rome. He was Sulla’s proquaestor in the

  • Lucumí language (language)

    Cuba: Languages: …the Santería religion also speak Lucumí, a “secret” Yoruboid language of the Niger-Congo family.

  • Lucus Augusti (Spain)

    Lugo, city, capital of Lugo provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Galicia, northwestern Spain. It lies on the Mi?o River, southeast of A Coru?a. Lugo originated as the Roman Lucus Augusti, and its Roman walls, which were added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List in

  • Lucy (film by Besson [2014])

    Morgan Freeman: … and a psychology professor in Lucy. Freeman’s later films included the comedies Ted 2 (2015); Going in Style (2017), a remake of the 1979 film about retirees who plan a bank heist; and Just Getting Started (2017), in which two rivals at a retirement community team up to save the…

  • Lucy (novel by Kincaid)

    Jamaica Kincaid: Annie John (1984) and Lucy (1990) were novels but were autobiographical in nature, as were most of Kincaid’s subsequent works, with an emphasis on mother-daughter relationships. A Small Place (1988), a three-part essay, continued her depiction of Antigua and her rage at its despoliation. Kincaid’s treatment of the themes…

  • Lucy (chimpanzee)

    animal learning: Language learning: A chimpanzee called Lucy was accustomed to instructing her trainer, Roger Fouts, by gesturing “Roger tickle Lucy.” One day, instead of complying with this request, Fouts signed back “No, Lucy tickle Roger.” Although at first nonplussed, after several similar exchanges Lucy eventually did as asked. A simple instance…

  • Lucy (fossil hominin)

    Lucy, nickname for a remarkably complete (40 percent intact) hominin skeleton found by Donald Johanson at Hadar, Eth., on Nov. 24, 1974, and dated to 3.2 million years ago. The specimen is usually classified as Australopithecus afarensis and suggests—by having long arms, short legs, an apelike

  • Lucy in the Sky (film by Hawley [2019])

    Ellen Burstyn: …most of her projects, including Lucy in the Sky (2019), received mixed reviews.

  • Lucy van Pelt (comic strip character)

    Peanuts: …most emphatically, with a “Drat!” Lucy van Pelt, his frequent tormentor and the big sister to his blanket-toting friend Linus, offered psychiatric advice and presented a steely exterior, but she could not resist observing that “happiness is a warm puppy.” Snoopy, Charlie Brown’s beagle, made pithy observations and spent his…

  • Lucy, Richard de (English justiciar)

    Richard de Lucy, chief justiciar (judiciary officer) of England under King Henry II (reigned 1154–89). He was involved in the king’s struggle against the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, and he virtually controlled the country during Henry’s protracted absences resulting from family

  • Lucy, Sir Thomas (English squire)

    Sir Thomas Lucy, English squire whom William Shakespeare may possibly have caricatured as Justice Shallow in Henry IV, Part 2 and The Merry Wives of Windsor. At 16 Lucy married an heiress, Joyce Acton, daughter of Thomas Acton of Sutton, Worcestershire, and rebuilt Charlecote, the family house,

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