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  • Lucy, St. (Italian martyr)

    St. Lucy, ; feast day December 13), virgin and martyr who was one of the earliest Christian saints to achieve popularity, having a widespread following before the 5th century. She is the patron saint of the city of Syracuse (Sicily) and of virgins. Because of various traditions associating her name

  • Lucybelle Crater series (photographs by Meatyard)

    Ralph Eugene Meatyard: …his life working on the Lucybelle Crater series, photographs taken outdoors of his wife wearing a mask of an old hag and accompanied by one of their friends or relatives wearing an old man mask. All the individuals in the photographs are called Lucybelle Crater (Meatyard wrote captions for each…

  • lud (religious shrine)

    Lud, among the Votyaks and Zyryans, a sacred grove where sacrifices were performed. The lud, surrounded by a high board or log fence, generally consisted of a grove of fir trees, a place for a fire, and tables for the sacrificial meal. People were forbidden to break even a branch from the trees

  • Lüda (China)

    Dalian, city and port, southern Liaoning sheng (province), northeastern China. It consists of the formerly independent cities of Dalian and Lüshun, which were amalgamated (as Lüda) in 1950; in 1981 the name Dalian was restored, and Lüshun became a district of the city. Situated at the southern tip

  • Ludacris (American rapper)

    Ludacris, American rapper who exemplified the Dirty South school of hip-hop, an exuberant profanity-laden musical style popularized by artists in the southern United States. Ludacris’s magnetic, larger-than-life rapping persona propelled him to stardom. Though born in Illinois, Chris Bridges spent

  • Ludd (English rebel)

    Luddite, member of the organized bands of 19th-century English handicraftsmen who rioted for the destruction of the textile machinery that was displacing them. The movement began in the vicinity of Nottingham toward the end of 1811 and in the next year spread to Yorkshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire,

  • Ludd, Harry (American anarchist, political philosopher, trade-union organizer, and educator)

    Murray Bookchin, American anarchist, political philosopher, trade-union organizer, and educator best known for his organizing activities on behalf of labour unions and his vehement critiques of capitalism, globalization, and humanity’s treatment of the environment. Bookchin was the son of Russian

  • Ludden, Allen (American television personality)

    Betty White: The latter was hosted by Allen Ludden. White and Ludden married in 1963 and were together until his death in 1981.

  • luddi (Pakistani folk dance)

    South Asian arts: Folk dance: In the luddi, women click their fingers and clap their hands, moving in a circle by jumps and half-turns and accelerating their rhythm by stamping their feet.

  • Luddite (English rebel)

    Luddite, member of the organized bands of 19th-century English handicraftsmen who rioted for the destruction of the textile machinery that was displacing them. The movement began in the vicinity of Nottingham toward the end of 1811 and in the next year spread to Yorkshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire,

  • Ludendorff, Erich (German general)

    Erich Ludendorff, Prussian general who was mainly responsible for Germany’s military policy and strategy in the latter years of World War I. After the war he became a leader of reactionary political movements, for a while joining the Nazi Party and subsequently taking an independent, idiosyncratic

  • Lüdenscheid (Germany)

    Lüdenscheid, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), west-central Germany. It is situated in the hilly, wooded Sauerland region between the Lenne and Volme rivers, southeast of Essen. A Frankish settlement in the 9th century and chartered in 1278, it became a centre of the iron industry during

  • Lüderitz (Namibia)

    Lüderitz, town on the Atlantic coast of Namibia (formerly South West Africa). The Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias stopped there in 1487 and named the bay Angra Pequena. Long neglected, it became the first German settlement in South West Africa when a Hamburg merchant, Franz Adolf Lüderitz,

  • Lüderitz, Franz Adolf (German merchant)

    German South West Africa: In 1883 Franz Adolf Lüderitz, a merchant from Bremen, Germany, established a trading post in southwest Africa at Angra Pequena, which he renamed Lüderitzbucht. He also acquired the adjacent coastal area, which he named Lüderitzland. These areas were constituted the first German colony under German protection on…

  • Ludford Bridge, battle of (England [1459])

    Wars of the Roses: Competing claims to the throne and the beginning of civil war: …scattered after a skirmish at Ludford Bridge (October 12). York fled to Ireland, and the Lancastrians, in a packed parliament at Coventry (November 1459), obtained a judicial condemnation of their opponents and executed those on whom they could lay hands.

  • Ludfordian Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Ludfordian Stage, second of two stages of the Ludlow Series, made up of all rocks deposited during the Ludfordian Age (425.6 million to 423 million years ago) of the Silurian Period. In 1980 the International Commission on Stratigraphy established the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP)

  • Ludhiana (India)

    Ludhiana, city, central Punjab state, northwestern India. The city stands on the former bank of the Sutlej River, 8 miles (13 km) south of its present course and about 170 miles (270 km) northwest of Delhi. The city was founded in 1480 by members of Delhi’s ruling Lodī dynasty, from which its name

  • ludi publici (ancient Roman games)

    Ludi publici, (Latin: “public games”), ancient Roman spectacles, primarily consisting of chariot races and various kinds of theatrical performances, usually held at regular intervals in honour of some god; they are distinct from the gladiatorial contests (associated with funeral rites). A special

  • Ludi Saeculares (ancient Roman games)

    Secular Games, celebrations held in ancient Rome to mark the commencement of a new saeculum, or generation. The games originated with the Etruscans, who, at the end of a mean period of 100 years (as representing the longest human life in a generation), presented the underworld deities with an

  • ludi scaenici (ancient Roman drama)

    Ludi scaenici, (Latin: “stage games”), in ancient Rome, theatrical performances associated with the celebration of public games (ludi publici), in which Greek dramatic forms were first used by the Romans. Although originally performed at the Ludi Romani (for which Livius Andronicus wrote the first

  • Ludic language

    Uralic languages: Smaller Baltic-Finnic groups: …Baltic-Finnic group, composed of the Ludic dialects, is found between Veps and Karelian and is generally considered a blend of the two major groups rather than a separate language; the dialects are more closely akin to Karelian. The Ingrians and the Votes live on the southern Gulf of Finland in…

  • Ludichris (American rapper)

    Ludacris, American rapper who exemplified the Dirty South school of hip-hop, an exuberant profanity-laden musical style popularized by artists in the southern United States. Ludacris’s magnetic, larger-than-life rapping persona propelled him to stardom. Though born in Illinois, Chris Bridges spent

  • Ludigo, Saint Adolphus Mukasa (Ugandan saint)

    Martyrs of Uganda: Mugagga, Mukasa Kiriwawanvu, Adolphus Mukasa Ludigo, Gyavira, and Kizito. The soldiers and officials Bruno Serunkuma, James Buzabaliawo, and Luke Banabakintu were martyred with them.

  • Luding-Rothenburger, Christa (East German speed skater and cyclist)

    Christa Luding-Rothenburger, East German speed skater and cyclist who earned the distinction of being the first and only person to win Summer and Winter Olympic medals in the same year (1988). At the Winter Games in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, she won the gold medal in the 1,000-metre speed-skating

  • Ludington (Michigan, United States)

    Ludington, city, seat (1874) of Mason county, western Michigan, U.S. It is on Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Pere Marquette River, about 60 miles (100 km) north of Muskegon. Settled in the 1840s, it was originally named Marquette for Jacques Marquette, the Jesuit explorer who died there in 1675

  • Ludington Building (building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    William Le Baron Jenney: …aspect of the design; the Ludington Building (1891); the Fair Store (1891–92; later remodelled as the Loop store of Montgomery Ward); and the second Leiter Building (1889–90), which became Sears, Roebuck and Co.’s Loop store.

  • Ludington, Sybil (American Revolutionary War heroine)

    Sybil Ludington, American Revolutionary War heroine, remembered for her valiant role in defense against British attack. Ludington was the daughter of Henry Ludington, a New York militia officer and later an aide to Gen. George Washington. According to accounts generally attributed to the Ludington

  • Ludisia discolor (plant)

    jewel orchid: sikkimensis, Dossinia marmorata, Ludisia discolor, and Macodes petola are found in Southeast Asia and the Pacific and feature spikes of small white flowers. These species have wide green or brownish green leaves with red or gold veins borne near the base of the plant.

  • Lüdke, Bruno (German serial killer)

    Bruno Lüdke, German serial killer who may have murdered more than 80 people. Although he is commonly regarded as continental Europe’s deadliest serial killer, some criminologists have questioned the scale of his activity, maintaining that many of his confessions were coerced by police. Lüdke was a

  • Ludlovian Series (geology and stratigraphy)

    Ludlow Series, the third of four main divisions (in ascending order) making up the Silurian System; it represents all those rocks on a global basis deposited during the Ludlow Epoch (427.4 million to 423 million years ago). The name is derived from the type district, located immediately west of the

  • Ludlovian Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Ludlow Series, the third of four main divisions (in ascending order) making up the Silurian System; it represents all those rocks on a global basis deposited during the Ludlow Epoch (427.4 million to 423 million years ago). The name is derived from the type district, located immediately west of the

  • Ludlow (typesetting machine)

    printing: Semimechanized composition: The Ludlow is considered a combination machine; though it automatically casts slugs, it is related to hand composition by the way the matrices are assembled. The matrices are bronze blocks bearing the letter or sign engraved in intaglio on their lower side and with two shoulders…

  • Ludlow (England, United Kingdom)

    Ludlow, town (parish), administrative and historic county of Shropshire, western England, on the River Teme. A castle, occupying a commanding position, was begun probably in 1085 by Roger de Lacy; it fell into ruin in the 18th century. The planned town was laid out in 12th-century grid fashion

  • Ludlow (Massachusetts, United States)

    Ludlow, town (township), Hampden county, south-central Massachusetts, U.S. It is located on the Chicopee River, just northeast of Springfield. Settled about 1751, it was known as Stony Hill until 1774, when it was renamed (probably for Ludlow, England) and incorporated, becoming set off from

  • Ludlow Massacre (United States history [1914])

    Ludlow Massacre, attack on striking coal miners and their families by the Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel and Iron Company guards at Ludlow, Colorado, on April 20, 1914, resulting in the deaths of 25 people, including 11 children. About 10,000 miners under the direction of the United Mine

  • Ludlow Series (geology and stratigraphy)

    Ludlow Series, the third of four main divisions (in ascending order) making up the Silurian System; it represents all those rocks on a global basis deposited during the Ludlow Epoch (427.4 million to 423 million years ago). The name is derived from the type district, located immediately west of the

  • Ludlow Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Ludlow Series, the third of four main divisions (in ascending order) making up the Silurian System; it represents all those rocks on a global basis deposited during the Ludlow Epoch (427.4 million to 423 million years ago). The name is derived from the type district, located immediately west of the

  • Ludlow, Edmund (English soldier and politician)

    Edmund Ludlow, radical republican who fought for Parliament against the Royalists in the English Civil Wars and later became one of the chief opponents of Oliver Cromwell’s Protectorate regime. His memoirs provide valuable information on republican opposition to Cromwell and on the factional

  • Ludlow, John Malcolm (British activist)

    Christian Socialism: …Denison Maurice, novelist Charles Kingsley, John Malcolm Ludlow, and others, who founded a movement that took shape in England immediately after the failure of the Chartist agitation of 1848. Their general purpose was to vindicate for “the Kingdom of Christ” its “true authority over the realms of industry and trade,”…

  • Ludlow, Washington I. (American printer)

    printing: Typecasting compositors (1880s): In 1911 the American Washington I. Ludlow perfected a typecasting machine for the large display type that bears his name. The matrices are assembled by hand in a composing stick, which is then inserted above the opening of a mold; the matrices are also distributed by hand.

  • Ludlul bel nemeqi (Mesopotamian literature)

    Ludlul bel nemeqi, in ancient Mesopotamian religious literature, a philosophical composition concerned with a man who, seemingly forsaken by the gods, speculates on the changeability of men and fate. The composition, also called the “Poem of the Righteous Sufferer” or the “Babylonian Job,” has been

  • Ludlum, Robert (American writer)

    Robert Ludlum, U.S. author of spy thrillers. He worked in the theatre as an actor and a successful producer and acted for television before turning to writing. Among his best-sellers were The Scarlatti Inheritance (1971), The Osterman Weekend (1972; film, 1983), The Matarese Circle (1979), and The

  • Ludmila, Saint (Slavic saint)

    St. Ludmila, ; feast day September 16), Slavic martyr and patron of Bohemia, where she pioneered in establishing Christianity. She was a grandmother of St. Wenceslas, the future prince of Bohemia. Ludmila married Borivoj, the first Czech prince to adopt Christianity. After their baptism by

  • Ludo (work by Detrez)

    Conrad Detrez: Ludo (1974) is a fictional account of his World War II childhood, and Les Plumes du coq (1975; “The Plumes of the Rooster”) treats the 1951 abdication of the Belgian king Leopold III. Detrez’s most celebrated novel is L’Herbe à br?ler (1978; A Weed for…

  • Ludo (game)

    Pachisi, board game, sometimes called the national game of India. Four players in opposing partnerships of two attempt to move pieces around a cross-shaped track. Moves are determined by throws of cowrie shells or dice. Each player has four pieces, which begin at the centre space, move down the

  • Ludolf (duke of Swabia)

    Liudolf, duke of Swabia and son of the Holy Roman emperor Otto I, against whom he led a revolt. Liudolf, Otto’s son by his marriage to the English princess Eadgyth, was made duke of Swabia by his father in 950. In 952, feeling his inheritance rights threatened by Otto’s second marriage (to A

  • Ludovica Albertoni (work by Bernini)

    Western sculpture: Early and High Baroque: …the figure of the expiring Ludovica Albertoni in the Altieri Chapel, S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome (c. 1674). The former is generally considered the masterpiece of Baroque religious sculpture and shows how Bernini could organize the arts of architecture, painting, and sculpture in an overwhelming assault on the senses that…

  • Ludovico I (ruler of Mantua)

    Gonzaga Dynasty: …with the 14th century, when Luigi I (also called Ludovico; 1267–1360), after fierce struggles, supplanted his brother-in-law Rinaldo (nicknamed Passerino) Bonacolsi as lord of Mantua in August 1328, with the title of captain general and afterward of vicar-general of the empire, adding the designation of count of Mirandola and Concordia.…

  • Ludovico, Camillo Fillipo (Italian general)

    Borghese Family: In the 19th century, Camillo Fillipo Ludovico (1775–1832) played an important role in Franco-Italian relations. Having married Napoleon’s sister Marie Pauline (1803), he reached the rank of general in the army and was named governor of Piedmont (1807). After Napoleon’s abdication, he concluded a surrender with the victorious Austrians…

  • Ludovisi Throne (sculpture)

    Western sculpture: Early Classical (c. 500–450 bc): …relief carvings of the so-called Ludovisi Throne. Moreover, for the first time individual artists—and their contributions to technical and stylistic development—can in some cases be positively identified through Roman copies and written descriptions of their works.

  • Ludovisi, Alessandro (pope)

    Gregory XV, pope from 1621 to 1623. Of noble birth, he was educated at the University of Bologna, where he earned a doctorate in law. He was appointed archbishop of Bologna in 1612 and cardinal in 1616 by Pope Paul V. He succeeded Paul as pope on Feb. 9, 1621. Gregory’s pontificate achieved two

  • ludruk (drama)

    Southeast Asian arts: Ketoprak and ludruk: Two other types of popular theatre, ketoprak and ludruk, were performed in Java by 150 to 200 professional troupes. Ketoprak, created by a Surakarta court official in 1914, evolved into a spoken drama of Javanese and Islamic history in which the clown figure is…

  • Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum (ancient Roman game)

    backgammon: …ancient Romans played a game, Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum (“Twelve-lined Game”), which was identical, or nearly so, to modern backgammon. The game is still most generally played in the eastern Mediterranean countries.

  • Ludus septem sapientum (work by Ausonius)

    Decimus Magnus Ausonius: …urbium (“Order of Noble Cities”); Ludus septem sapientum (“Play of the Seven Sages”), a forerunner of the morality play; and many epigrams, including adaptations from the Greek Anthology. His sentimental fondness for old ties is seen in Parentalia, a series of poems on deceased relatives, and Professores Burdigalenses, on the…

  • Ludvík II (king of Hungary and Bohemia)

    Louis II, king of Hungary and of Bohemia from 1516, who was the last of the Jagie??o line to rule those countries and the last king to rule all of Hungary before the Turks conquered a large portion of it. The only son of Vladislas II of Hungary and Bohemia, Louis was sickly as a child but

  • Ludwig August, Knight von Benedek (Austrian field marshal)

    Ludwig August, Ritter von Benedek, Austrian field marshal whose defeat at the Battle of K?niggr?tz (Battle of Sadowa) on July 3, 1866, was decisive in the emergence of Prussia as the predominant German power and the creation of a Prussian-dominated German Empire. Benedek entered the Austrian Army

  • Ludwig Canal (canal, Germany)

    canals and inland waterways: Europe: …in central Europe, but the Ludwig Canal, forming part of the Rhine-Main-Danube route, was opened in 1840. At the same time, steps were taken to improve river navigation generally, to provide speedier transport, and to enable a greater volume of freight to be carried. The Danube was regulated for 144…

  • Ludwig das Kind (king of the East Franks)

    Louis IV, East Frankish king, the last of the East Frankish Carolingians. During his reign the country was ravaged by frequent Magyar raids, and local magnates (the ancestors of the later ducal dynasties) brought Bavaria, Franconia, Swabia, and Saxony under their sway. The only son of the East

  • Ludwig der Bayer (Holy Roman emperor)

    Louis IV, duke of Upper Bavaria (from 1294) and of united Bavaria (1340–47), German king (from 1314), and Holy Roman emperor (1328–47), first of the Wittelsbach line of German emperors. His reign was marked by incessant diplomatic and military struggles to defend the right of the empire to elect an

  • Ludwig der Deutsche (king of the East Franks)

    Louis II, king of the East Franks, who ruled lands from which the German state later evolved. The third son of the Carolingian emperor Louis I the Pious, Louis the German was assigned Bavaria at the partition of the empire in 817. Entrusted with the government of Bavaria in 825, he began his rule

  • Ludwig der Fromme (Holy Roman emperor)

    Louis I, Carolingian ruler of the Franks who succeeded his father, Charlemagne, as emperor in 814 and whose 26-year reign (the longest of any medieval emperor until Henry IV [1056–1106]) was a central and controversial stage in the Carolingian experiment to fashion a new European society. Commonly

  • Ludwig der Jüngere (king of the East Franks)

    Louis III, king of part of the East Frankish realm who, by acquiring western Lotharingia (Lorraine) from the West Franks, helped to establish German influence in that area. A son of Louis II the German, king of the East Franks, Louis the Younger invaded Aquitaine on his father’s orders in 854. For

  • Ludwig I (king of Bavaria)

    Main-Danube Canal: In 1837, under Ludwig I of Bavaria, work began on a canal between Bamberg and Kelheim, following much the same route as the modern canal. The Ludwig Canal remained in use until World War II, but it was never able to compete with the railways. In 1921 the…

  • Ludwig II (king of Bavaria)

    Louis II, eccentric king of Bavaria from 1864 to 1886 and an admirer and patron of the composer Richard Wagner. He brought his territories into the newly founded German Empire (1871) but concerned himself only intermittently with affairs of state, preferring a life of increasingly morbid seclusion

  • Ludwig II (emperor of Franks)

    Louis II, Frankish emperor (850–875) who, as ruler of Italy, was instrumental in checking the Arab invasion of the peninsula. The eldest son of the Frankish emperor Lothar I, who ruled the “middle realm” of what had once been Charlemagne’s empire, Louis took over the administration of Italy on his

  • Ludwig Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred (king of Bavaria)

    Louis III, last king of Bavaria, from 1913 to 1918, when the revolution of November 7–8 brought the rule of the Wittelsbach dynasty to an end. In 1868 he married Maria Theresa, daughter of the archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este. In December 1912, on the death of his father, the regent Luitpold,

  • Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (university, Munich, Germany)

    University of Munich, autonomous coeducational institution of higher learning supported by the state of Bavaria in Germany. It was founded in 1472 at Ingolstadt by the duke of Bavaria, who modeled it after the University of Vienna. During the Protestant Reformation, Johann Eck made the university a

  • Ludwig Wilhelm I (margrave of Baden)

    Baden: Louis William I, margrave of Baden-Baden from 1677 to 1707, was a distinguished commander in the imperial army in wars against the Turks and against the French; he built the palace of Rastatt. Charles III William, margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1709 to 1738, founded Karlsruhe…

  • Ludwig, Carl F. W. (German physiologist)

    Carl F.W. Ludwig, a founder of the physicochemical school of physiology in Germany. A professor of physiology at the universities of Marburg (1846–49), Zürich (1849–55), Vienna (1855–65), and Leipzig (1865–95), Ludwig is best known for his study of the cardiovascular system. He invented (1847) a

  • Ludwig, Daniel Keith (American entrepreneur)

    Daniel Keith Ludwig, American entrepreneur who parlayed a $5,000 loan on his father’s signature into a global shipping and real estate empire. Ludwig left school after the eighth grade and worked for a marine engine company before going into business for himself at the age of 19. He converted an

  • Ludwig, Emil (German writer)

    Emil Ludwig, German writer internationally known for his many popular biographies. Ludwig was trained in law but at 25 began writing plays and poems. After serving as foreign correspondent for a German newspaper during World War I, he wrote a novel (Diana, originally published as two works,

  • Ludwig, Jack (Canadian author)

    Jack Ludwig, Canadian writer who produced three novels but was perhaps best known for his short stories and his articulate sports journalism. Ludwig grew up in Canada and was educated at the University of Manitoba (B.A., 1944) and the University of California, Los Angeles (Ph.D., 1953). He later

  • Ludwig, Jack Barry (Canadian author)

    Jack Ludwig, Canadian writer who produced three novels but was perhaps best known for his short stories and his articulate sports journalism. Ludwig grew up in Canada and was educated at the University of Manitoba (B.A., 1944) and the University of California, Los Angeles (Ph.D., 1953). He later

  • Ludwig, Mary (American patriot)

    Molly Pitcher, heroine of the Battle of Monmouth Court House during the American Revolution. According to legend, at the Battle of Monmouth (June 28, 1778), Mary Hays, wife of artilleryman William Hays, carried water to cool both the cannon and the soldiers in her husband’s battery—hence the

  • Ludwig, Otto (German writer)

    Otto Ludwig, German novelist, playwright, and critic, remembered for his realistic stories, which contributed to the development of the Novelle. He coined the expression poetischer Realismus (“poetic Realism”), later used to describe the writing of many of his contemporaries. Although expected to

  • Ludwig, Peter (German art collector)

    Peter Ludwig, German chocolatier and art collector who amassed one of the world’s largest private art collections and helped found a number of art museums, to which he donated or lent pieces from his collection (b. July 9, 1925--d. July 22,

  • Ludwig, William (American screenwriter)
  • Ludwig-Maximilians Universit?t München (university, Munich, Germany)

    University of Munich, autonomous coeducational institution of higher learning supported by the state of Bavaria in Germany. It was founded in 1472 at Ingolstadt by the duke of Bavaria, who modeled it after the University of Vienna. During the Protestant Reformation, Johann Eck made the university a

  • Ludwigia (plant genus)

    Onagraceae: …is another large day-blooming genus, Ludwigia, 75 species of water and marsh plants, mostly of eastern North America, ranging from annual herbs to large shrubs. Some other genera of the family are Boisduvalia; Circaea, enchanter’s nightshade, with hooked bristles on the fruits; Gaura, with small nutlike, indehiscent fruits; Gayophytum, thread-stemmed…

  • ludwigite (mineral)

    borate mineral: …with metamorphosed environments are boracite, ludwigite, sussexite, and kotoite.

  • Ludwigs Canal (canal, Germany)

    canals and inland waterways: Europe: …in central Europe, but the Ludwig Canal, forming part of the Rhine-Main-Danube route, was opened in 1840. At the same time, steps were taken to improve river navigation generally, to provide speedier transport, and to enable a greater volume of freight to be carried. The Danube was regulated for 144…

  • Ludwigsburg (Germany)

    Ludwigsburg, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies along the Neckar River just north of Stuttgart. Ludwigsburg (its name meaning “Ludwig’s Castle”) was founded by Duke Eberhard Ludwig of Württemberg around his palace (1704–33), the largest Baroque palace in Germany,

  • Ludwigsburg Palace (palace, Ludwigsburg, Germany)

    Ludwigsburg: Set in a scenic park, Ludwigsburg Palace contains a portrait gallery of the rulers of Württemberg and also their burial vault, a state art gallery and archives, the palace and regional museums, and a theatre. Concerts and an annual garden show are held in the palace and park. Also notable…

  • Ludwigsburg ware (earthenware)

    Ludwigsburg ware, faience and porcelain earthenwares made at Ludwigsburg, Württemberg (Germany), between 1736 and 1824. One of the best surviving examples of Ludwigsburg faience is a jar decorated with cold gilding and overglaze colours, now in the National Museum of Ceramics, Sèvres, France. The

  • Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    Ludwigshafen, city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. Ludwigshafen is a port on the west (left) bank of the Rhine River. Founded in 1606 as a bridgehead (Rheinschanze) opposite Mannheim, it was renamed for King Louis (Ludwig) I of Bavaria in 1843 and was chartered in 1859.

  • Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    Ludwigshafen, city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. Ludwigshafen is a port on the west (left) bank of the Rhine River. Founded in 1606 as a bridgehead (Rheinschanze) opposite Mannheim, it was renamed for King Louis (Ludwig) I of Bavaria in 1843 and was chartered in 1859.

  • Ludwik Gumplowicz (Austrian scholar)

    Ludwig Gumplowicz, sociologist and legal philosopher who was known for his disbelief in the permanence of social progress and for his theory that the state originates through inevitable conflict rather than through cooperation or divine inspiration. The son of Jewish parents, Gumplowicz studied at

  • Ludwik Wielki (king of Hungary)

    Louis I, king of Hungary from 1342 and of Poland (as Louis) from 1370, who, during much of his long reign, was involved in wars with Venice and Naples. Louis was crowned king of Hungary in succession to his father, Charles I, on July 21, 1342. In 1346 he was defeated by the Venetians at Zara (now

  • Luedtke, Kurt (American author and screenwriter)
  • Lueger, Karl (Austrian politician)

    Karl Lueger, politician, cofounder and leader of the Austrian Christian Social Party, and mayor of Vienna who transformed the Austrian capital into a modern city. Lueger, from a working-class family, studied law at the University of Vienna. Elected to the capital’s municipal council as a liberal in

  • Lueluz (Brazil)

    Conselheiro Lafaiete, city, southeastern Minas Gerais estado (state), southern Brazil. It lies in the Brazilian Highlands at 3,054 feet (931 metres) above sea level. Formerly known as Lueluz, the settlement was made the seat of a municipality in 1790 and given city status in 1886. Agriculture

  • Luena (people)

    Luvale, Bantu-speaking people of northwestern Zambia and southeastern Angola. In terms of history, language, material culture, and religion, the Luvale are closely related to the Lunda and Ndembu to the northeast, who extend northward into southern Congo (Kinshasa). They are also culturally similar

  • Luening, Otto (American composer)

    Otto Luening, American composer, conductor, composition teacher, and flutist noted for his innovative experiments in composition employing the tape recorder. Luening’s father moved their family from Milwaukee to Munich in 1912 and to Zürich in 1917. Luening studied at conservatories in Munich and

  • Luening, Otto Clarence (American composer)

    Otto Luening, American composer, conductor, composition teacher, and flutist noted for his innovative experiments in composition employing the tape recorder. Luening’s father moved their family from Milwaukee to Munich in 1912 and to Zürich in 1917. Luening studied at conservatories in Munich and

  • luffa (plant)

    Loofah, (genus Luffa), genus of seven species of annual climbing vines of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), native to the Old World tropics. Two species (Luffa acutangula and L. aegyptiaca) are commonly cultivated for their fruits, which are edible when young and have a fibrous spongelike interior

  • Luffa (plant)

    Loofah, (genus Luffa), genus of seven species of annual climbing vines of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), native to the Old World tropics. Two species (Luffa acutangula and L. aegyptiaca) are commonly cultivated for their fruits, which are edible when young and have a fibrous spongelike interior

  • Luffa acutangula (plant)

    loofah: Two species (Luffa acutangula and L. aegyptiaca) are commonly cultivated for their fruits, which are edible when young and have a fibrous spongelike interior that is used domestically for bathing and for washing dishes. The spongy fruit also has a number of applications as an industrial filter.

  • Luffa aegyptiaca (plant)

    loofah: Two species (Luffa acutangula and L. aegyptiaca) are commonly cultivated for their fruits, which are edible when young and have a fibrous spongelike interior that is used domestically for bathing and for washing dishes. The spongy fruit also has a number of applications as an industrial filter.

  • Luffar-Petter (film by Petschler [1922])

    Greta Garbo: …small part in Luffar-Petter (1922; Peter the Tramp). From 1922 to 1924 she studied at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, and in 1924 she played a major role in G?sta Berlings Saga (The Saga of G?sta Berling). The film’s director, Mauritz Stiller, gave her the name Garbo, and in…

  • Lufira River (river, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Lufira River, tributary of the Lualaba River, which is itself a headstream of the Congo River, in Congo (Kinshasa). The Lufira rises in the Katanga (Shaba) plateau south of Likasi, Congo, and flows 300 miles (500 km) northeast and north-northwest across the Bia Mountains to join the Lualaba

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